- Turkish people
- For other uses of Turkish, see Turkish (disambiguation), and for the broader concept of Turkic-speaking ethnic groups, see Turkic peoples.
Total population 70 million
(see also Turkish population & Turkish diaspora)
Regions with significant populations Languages Religion Related ethnic groups
Turkic peoples · Anatolian peoples
Footnotes a This includes between 300,000 to 400,000 Turkish Cypriots living in the UK.
b Government immigration figures on the number of Turks in the US estimates a total of 190,000 persons; however, these statistics are not fully reliable because a considerable number of Turks were born in the Balkans and USSR.
c A further 10,000-30,000 people from Bulgaria live in the Netherlands. The majority are Bulgarian Turks and are the fastest-growing group of immigrants in the Netherlands.
d This includes Turkish settlers. A further 2,000 Turkish Cypriots currently reside in the southern part of the island.
e This figure only includes Turkish citizens. Therefore, this also includes ethnic minorities from Turkey; however, it does not include ethnic Turks who have either been born and/or have become naturalised citizens. Furthermore, these figures do not include ethnic Turkish minorities from Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania or any other traditional area of Turkish settlement because they are registered as citizens from the country they have immigrated from rather than their ethnic Turkish identity.
f A further 40,000-60,000 Turkish Cypriots live in Australia.
g This figure only includes Turks of Western Thrace. A further 5,000 live in the Rhodes and Kos. In addition to this, 8,297 immigrants live in Greece.
h These figures only includes Meskhetian Turks.
i A further 30,000 Turks from Bulgaria live in Sweden.Part of a series of articles on
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History Culture Languages Religion
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" (Turkish: singular: Türk, plural: Türkler), are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Iraq, Kosovo, Macedonia, Romania and Syria. In addition, due to migration, a large Turkish community has been established in Western Europe (particularly in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium and Liechtenstein), as well as in Australia, the Middle East, North America and the former Soviet Union.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Genetics
- 4 Geographic distribution
- 5 Culture
- 6 Language and Literature
- 7 Religion
- 8 Footnotes
- 9 References and notes
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Further reading
The name Turk (Old Turkic: Türük or Kök Türük or Türük, Chinese: 突厥, Pinyin: Tūjué, Wade-Giles: T'u-chüeh, Middle Chinese (Guangyun): [dʰuət-ki̯wɐt]) was first applied to a clan of tribal chieftains (known as Ashina) who overthrew the ruling Rouran Khaganate, and founded the nomadic Göktürk Khaganate ("Celestial Turks") These nomads roamed in the Altai Mountains in northern Mongolia and on the steppes of Central Asia.
The name Türk spread as a political designation during the period of Göktürk imperial hegemony to their subject Turkic and non-Turkic peoples. Subsequently, it was adopted as a generic ethnonym designating most if not all of the Turkish-speaking tribes in Central Asia by the Muslim peoples with whom they came into contact. The imperial era also provided a legacy of political and social organisation (with deep roots in pre-Türk Inner Asia) that in its Türk form became the common inheritance of the Turkic groupings of Central Asia.
The homeland of the Turkic peoples is assumed to have been somewhere in the vicinity of Altai in Central Asia.  The first nomadic empire founded in present day Mongolia was Xiongnu, sometimes identified as a candidate for the locus of proto-Turkic. The Turkic languages spread from its homeland over much of Central Asia and the Eurasian steppe during the Turkic migrations of the 6th to 11th centuries.
The Turkic migration reached the territory of what is now Turkey, by the 11th century. The Turkomen, Oghuz Turks who had been converted to Islam, were the main component of Turkic migration into Anatolia. The process was accelerated after the Battle of Manzikert victory of Seljuk Turks against the Byzantines; Anatolia would be called Turchia in the West as early as the 12th century.  The Mongols invaded Transoxiana, Iran, Azerbaijan and Anatolia; this caused Turkomens to move further to Western Anatolia. In the case of the migrations, the Turkic peoples assimilated some of the Indo-European peoples encountered; Tocharian as well as the numerous Iranian speakers across the Asiatic steppe were switched to the Turkic language, and ultimately Greek, the majority language of Anatolia, declined in favour of Turkish. 
The Seljuks (Turkish Selçuklular; Persian: سلجوقيان Ṣaljūqīyān; Arabic سلجوق Saljūq, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a Turkish tribe from Central Asia. In 1037, they entered Persia and established their first powerful state, called by historians the Empire of the Great Seljuks. They captured Baghdad in 1055 and a relatively small contingent of warriors (around 5,000 by some estimates) moved into eastern Anatolia. In 1071, the Seljuks engaged the armies of the Byzantine Empire at Manzikert (Malazgirt), north of Lake Van. The Byzantines experienced minor casualties despite the fact that Emperor Romanus IV Diogenes was captured. With no potent Byzantine force to stop them, the Seljuks took control of most of Eastern and Central Anatolia. They established their capital at Konya and ruled what would be known as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. The success of the Seljuk Turks stimulated a response from Latin Europe in the form of the First Crusade. A counteroffensive launched in 1097 by the Byzantines with the aid of the Crusaders dealt the Seljuks a decisive defeat. Konya fell to the Crusaders, and after a few years of campaigning, Byzantine rule was restored in the western third of Anatolia. Although a Turkish revival in the 1140s nullified much of the Christian gains, greater damage was done to Byzantine security by dynastic strife in Constantinople in which the largely French contingents of the Fourth Crusade and their Venetian allies intervened. In 1204, these Crusaders conquered Constantinople and installed Count Baldwin of Flanders in the Byzantine capital as emperor of the so-called Latin Empire of Constantinople, dismembering the old realm into tributary states where West European feudal institutions were transplanted intact. Independent Greek kingdoms were established at Nicaea (present-day Iznik), Trebizond (present-day Trabzon), and Epirus from remnant Byzantine provinces. Turks allied with Greeks in Anatolia against the Latins, and Greeks with Turks against the Mongols. In 1261, Michael Palaeologus of Nicaea drove the Latins from Constantinople and restored the Byzantine Empire. Seljuk Rum survived in the late 13th century as a vassal state of the Mongol Empire, who had already subjugated the Abbasid Caliphate at Baghdad. Mongol influence in the region had disappeared by the 1330s, leaving behind gazi emirates competing for supremacy. From the chaotic conditions that prevailed throughout the Middle East, however, a new power was to emerge in Anatolia, the Ottoman Turks.
Ilkhanate rule and Beyliks era
Anatolian Beyliks (Turkish: Anadolu Beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: Tevâif-i mülûk) were small Turkish principalities governed by Beys, which were founded across Anatolia at the end of the 11th century. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum collapsed after Mongol invasion and Anatolia was administered by Mongol military governors after Mongol conquest. However, Anatolia was separated into several small regions under the domination of different beyliks (principalities) from the 14th century to the beginning of the 16th century. Eventually, the Ottoman principality which was established in Eskişehir, Bilecik and Bursa areas, subjugated other principalities and restored political unity over a large part of Anatolia.
The Ottoman Empire (Old Ottoman Turkish: دولت عالیه عثمانیه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish: Osmanlı Devleti or Osmanlı İmparatorluğu) was known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey by its contemporaries. (See the other names of the Ottoman State.) Starting as a small tribe whose territory bordered on the Byzantine frontier, the Ottoman Turks built an empire that was at the height of its power in the 16th century. The empire spanned three continents, controlling much of Southeastern Europe, the Middle East and North Africa.
As the power of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum weakened in the late 13th century, warrior chieftains claimed the lands of Northwestern Anatolia, along the Byzantine Empire's borders. Ertuğrul gazi ruled the lands around Söğüt, a town between Bursa and Eskisehir. Upon his death in 1281, his son, Osman, from whom the Ottoman dynasty and the Empire took its name, expanded the territory to 16,000 square kilometers. Osman I, who was given the nickname "Kara" (Turkish for black) for his courage, extended the frontiers of Ottoman settlement towards the edge of the Byzantine Empire. He shaped the early political development of the state and moved the Ottoman capital to Bursa. By 1452, the Ottoman Empire controlled almost all of the former Byzantine lands except Constantinople. On May 29, 1453, Mehmed the Conqueror captured Constantinople after a 53-day siege and proclaimed that the city was now the new capital of his Ottoman Empire. Sultan Mehmed's first duty was to rejuvenate the city economically, creating the Grand Bazaar and inviting the fleeing Orthodox and Catholic inhabitants to return. Captured prisoners were freed to settle in the city whilst provincial governors in Rumelia and Anatolia were ordered to send four thousand families to settle in the city, whether Muslim, Christian or Jew, to form a unique cosmopolitan society.
During the growth of the Ottoman Empire (also known as the Pax Ottomana), Selim I extended Ottoman sovereignty southward, conquering Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. He also gained recognition as guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; he accepted pious the title of The Servant of The Two Holy Shrines. Suleiman I was known in the West as "Suleiman the Magnificent" and in the East, as "the Lawgiver" (in Turkish Kanuni; Arabic: القانونى, al‐Qānūnī), for his complete restructuring of the Ottoman legal system. The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent is known as the "Ottoman golden age".
After reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire entered the stagnation phase. Nevertheless in the 17th century, the Ottoman Empire retained its power and its growth was continued. After the failed 1683 attempt to capture Vienna, the Ottoman Empire lost some of the Western provinces. To stop decline, reformist Sultans such as Mahmud II modernized the Empire. However, the reforms were unable to prevent ultimate defeat in the World War I, after which the Ottoman Empire came to an end.
The Republic of Turkey
The Republic of Turkey was born from the disastrous World War I defeat of the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman war hero, Mustafa Kemal Pasha (who was later given the surname Atatürk by the Turkish Parliament with the Surname Law of 1934), sailed from Istanbul to Samsun in May 1919 to start the Turkish liberation movement; he organized an effective fighting force in Anatolia, and rallied the people to the nationalist cause. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres. By 1923 the nationalist government had driven out the invading armies; replaced the Treaty of Sèvres with the Treaty of Lausanne and abolished the Ottoman State; promulgated a republican constitution; and established Turkey's new capital in Ankara. Atatürk implemented series of political, legal, cultural, social and economic reforms that were designed to modernize the new Republic of Turkey into a democratic and secular nation-state and increase the role of woman in society.
It is difficult to understand the complex cultural and demographic dynamics of the Turkic speaking groups that have shaped the Anatolian landscape for the last millennium. During the Bronze Age the population of Anatolia expanded, reaching an estimated level of 12 million during the late Byzantine Empire period. Such a large pre-existing Anatolian population would have reduced the impact by the subsequent arrival of Turkic speaking groups from Seljuk Persia, whose ethno-linguistic roots could be traced back to the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea basin in Central Asia. The Seljuk Turks were the main Turkic people who moved into Anatolia, starting from the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. Around 1 million Turkic migrants settled in Anatolia during the 12th and 13th centuries.
The question of to what extent a gene flow from Central Asia, via Persia, to Anatolia has contributed to the current gene pool of the Turkish people, and the role of the 11th century invasion by Seljuk Turks, has been the subject of several studies. One research concludes that aboriginal Anatolian groups may have given rise to the present-day Turkish population. DNA analysis research studies suggest that the Anatolians do not significantly differ from other Mediterraneans, indicating that while the Seljuk Turks carried out a permanent territorial conquest with strong cultural, linguistic and religious significance, it is barely genetically detectable. According to another study, 30% of the Turkish genetic pool can be attributed to Central Asian effects.
Turks primarily live in Turkey; however, when the borders of the Ottoman Empire became smaller after World War I and the new Turkish Republic was founded, many Turks chose to stay outside of Turkey's borders. Since then, some of them have migrated to Turkey but there are still significant minorities of Turks living in different countries such as in Northern Cyprus (Turkish Cypriots), Greece, Bulgaria, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia, the Dobruja region of Romania, and Iraq.
Turks in Turkey
Turks in Europe
The post-World War II migration of Turks to Europe began with ‘guest workers’ who arrived under the terms of a Labour Export Agreement with Germany in October 1961, followed by a similar agreement with the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria in 1964; France in 1965 and Sweden in 1967. As one Turkish observer noted, ‘it has now been over 40 years and a Turk who went to Europe at the age of 25 has nearly reached the age of 70. His children have reached the age of 45 and their children have reached the age of 20’.
Despite the United Kingdom not being part of the Labour Export Agreement, it is still a major hub for Turkish emigrants, and with a population of half a million Turks (an estimated 100,000 Turkish nationals and 130,000 nationals of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus currently live in the UK. These figures, however, do not include the much larger numbers of Turkish speakers who have been born or have obtained British nationality), it is home to Europe's third largest Turkish community. High immigration has resulted in the Turkish language being the seventh most commonly spoken language in the United Kingdom.
Due to the high rate of Turks in Europe, the Turkish language is also now home to one of the largest group of pupils after German-speakers, and the largest non-European language spoken in the European Union. Turkish in Germany is often used not only by members of its own community but also by people with a non-Turkish background. Especially in urban areas, it functions as a peer group vernacular for children and adolescents.
Turks in the Americas
The US Census reported in 2006 that approximately 170,000 Americans identify as having at least partial Turkish ancestry, while the Encyclopedia of Cleveland History states that there is an estimated 500,000 Turks living in the United States; the largest Turkish communities are found in Paterson, New York City (i.e. Brooklyn and Staten Island), Long Island, Cleveland, Chicago, Houston, Miami, Washington D.C. (mostly in Northern Virginia), Boston (esp. the suburb of Watertown), Philadelphia, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Since the 1970s, the number of Turkish immigrants has risen to more than 4,000 per year. There is also a growing Turkish population in Canada, Turkish immigrants have settled mainly in Montreal and Toronto, although there are small Turkish communities in Calgary, Edmonton, London, Ottawa, and Vancouver. The population of Turkish Canadians in Metropolitan Toronto may be as large as 5,000.
Turkish immigrants can be found in smaller numbers in Latin America, limited to Chile (about 1,000), Brazil (estimated at 5,000) and Mexico (fewer than 2,000). They are not to be confused with heavily numerous Christian Arab immigrants called "Turcos", an inaccurate name for Lebanese and Syrian refugees, due to the nickname came from their "Turkish" nationality passports on arrival, who fled World War I. in the Ottoman Empire in the 1910s and 1920s. Both ethnic Turk and smaller "Turco" Arab communities can be found in South America, Central America and the Caribbean.
Turkish people have a very diverse culture that is a blend of various elements of the Oğuz Turkic and Anatolian, Ottoman, and Western culture and traditions since the start of Westernization of the Ottoman Empire. Turkish culture is mixed with those of the peoples inhabiting the areas of their migration from Central Asia to West.
Turkish architecture reached its peak during the Ottoman period. Ottoman architecture, influenced by Seljuk, Byzantine and Islamic architecture, came to develop a style all of its own. Overall, Ottoman architecture has been described as a synthesis of the architectural traditions of the Mediterranean and the Middle East.
During the zenith of the Sultanate of Rum, Seljuk architects undertook extensive public works projects. Using the abundant Anatolian stone and clay, they built mosques, medreses, and türbes. To safeguard their profitable trade in silks, spices and to provide rest for merchants, the Seljuk’s built over 100 kervansarays along Anatolian highways, each spaced a day’s ride away from the next. These rest stops featured mosques, storage rooms, stables, coffeehouses, hamams, private rooms and dormitories. The most impressive of its kind is the Sultan Han outside Kayseri. Seljuk buildings were characterised by their elaborate stone carvings. In addition to carvings, the Seljuk’s enhanced their mosques with glazed earthenware (faience) which was used to cover walls and minarets with the best examples at Konya in the Karatay Medrese.
The first Ottoman capital, Bursa, is a museum of 14th and 15th century Ottoman architecture. With the capital of Istanbul in 1453, Ottoman architects were challenged to exceed the vaults and pendentives of the Hagia Sophia's dome. Ottoman architecture reached its peak under the unprecedented benefaction of Suleiman the Magnificent. During his rule alone, over 80 major mosques and hundreds of other buildings were constructed. Divan Yolu, Istanbul’s processional avenue, boasts a collection of these structural wonders. The master architect, Mimar Sinan served Suleyman and his sons as Chief Court Architect from 1538–1588, during which time he created a unified style for all Istanbul and for much of the empire.
Many Ottoman mosques stand at the centre of a ‘külliye’ (complex) designed to serve all of a community’s needs. Some külliyes in Istanbul are the Fatih külliye (1463–70), the Bayezid Mosque (after 1491), the Selim Mosque (1522), the Şehzade külliye (1548), and the Süleyman külliye (after 1550).
Arts and calligraphy
The roots of traditional music in Turkey span centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks colonized Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences. Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1930s drive for Westernization.
Traditional music in Turkey falls into two main genres; classical art music and folk music. Turkish classical music is characterized by an Ottoman elite culture and influenced lyrically by neighbouring regions and Ottoman provinces. Earlier forms are sometimes termed as saray music in Turkish, meaning royal court music, indicating the source of the genre comes from Ottoman royalty as patronage and composer. Neo-classical or postmodern versions of this traditional genre are termed as art music or sanat musikisi, though often it is unofficially termed as alla turca. In addition, from the saray or royal courts came the Ottoman military band, Mehter takımı in Turkish, considered to be the oldest type of military marching band in the world. It was also the forefather of modern Western percussion bands and has been described as the father of Western military music.
Turkish folk music is the music of Turkish-speaking rural communities of Anatolia, the Balkans, and Middle East. While Turkish folk music contains definitive traces of the Central Asian Turkic cultures, it has also strongly influenced and been influenced by many other indigenous cultures. Religious music in Turkey is sometimes grouped with folk music due to the tradition of the wandering minstrel or aşık (pronounced ashuk), but its influences on Sufism due to the spritiual Mevlevi sect arguably grants it special status. It has been suggested the distinction between the two major genres comes during the Tanzîmat period of Ottoman era, when Turkish classical music was the music played in the Ottoman palaces and folk music was played in the villages.
Language and Literature
In the time of Kök Türks, the first khanate which uses the word Turk in state name, khan Bilge Khan, his brother Kül Tegin and his prime minister Tonyukuk, immortalized their accomplishments with inscriptions in the Old Turkic script written using the Orkhon script, the oldest known Turkish writings. With the Turkic expansion during Early Middle Ages (c. 6th–11th centuries), peoples speaking Turkic languages spread across Central Asia, covering a vast geographical region stretching from Siberia to Europe and the Mediterranean. The Seljuqs of the Oghuz Turks, in particular, brought their language, Oghuz Turkic—the direct ancestor of today's Turkish language—into Anatolia during the 11th century. Also during the 11th century, an early linguist of the Turkic languages, Mahmud al-Kashgari from the Kara-Khanid Khanate, published the first comprehensive Turkic language dictionary and map of the geographical distribution of Turkic speakers in the Compendium of the Turkic Dialects (Arabic: Dīwānu'l-Luġat at-Turk). In 1277 Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey declared Turkish as the sole official language of the Karamanids in Anatolia.
After the foundation of the Republic of Turkey and the script reform, the Turkish Language Association (TDK) was established in 1932 under the patronage of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the aim of conducting research on Turkish. One of the tasks of the newly-established association was to initiate a language reform to replace loanwords of Arabic and Persian origin with Turkish equivalents. By banning the usage of imported words in the press, the association succeeded in removing several hundred foreign words from the language. While most of the words introduced to the language by the TDK were newly derived from Turkic roots, it also opted for reviving Old Turkish words which had not been used for centuries.
Istanbul Turkish is established as the official standard language of Turkey. Turkish is the official language of Turkey and is one of the official languages of Cyprus. It also has official (but not primary) status in the Prizren District of Kosovo and several municipalities of Republic of Macedonia, depending on the concentration of Turkish-speaking local population.
The literature of the Turkish Republic emerged largely from the pre-independence National Literature movement, with its roots simultaneously in the Turkish folk tradition and in the Western notion of progress. One important change to Turkish literature was enacted in 1928, when Mustafa Kemal initiated the creation and dissemination of a modified version of the Latin alphabet to replace the Arabic alphabet based Ottoman script. Over time, this change, together with changes in Turkey's system of education, would lead to more widespread literacy in the country. Turkish literature is known for such notable writers as Orhan Pamuk, Yaşar Kemal, Orhan Veli, and Sait Faik.
Secularism in Turkey was introduced with the Turkish Constitution of 1924, and later Atatürk's Reforms set the administrative and political requirements to create a modern, secular state aligned with the Kemalist ideology. Thirteen years after its introduction, laïcité (February 5, 1937) was explicitly stated as a property of the State in the second article of the Turkish constitution. Therefore the current Turkish constitution neither recognizes an official religion nor promotes any while majority of citizens subscribe to Islam.
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- ^ Karpat, Kemal H. (2004), "The Turks in America", Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays, BRILL, p. 627, ISBN 9004133224
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- ^ Hatay, Mete (2007), Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking?, International Peace Research Institute, p. 40, ISBN 978-82-7288-244-9, http://www.prio.no/upload/Is%20the%20Turkish%20Cypriot%20Population%20Shrinking.pdf
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- ^ Laczko, Frank; Stacher, Irene; Klekowski von Koppenfels, Amanda (2002), New challenges for Migration Policy in Central and Eastern Europe, Cambridge University Press, p. 187, ISBN 906704153X
- ^ a b Kultegin's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments
- ^ a b Bilge Kagan's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Khöshöö Tsaidam Monuments
- ^ Tonyukuk's Memorial Complex, TÜRIK BITIG Bain Tsokto Monument
- ^ Peoples of Western Asia By Marshall Cavendish Corporation – "An Introduction to the History of the Turkish Peoples, p. 121–122
- ^ Deny; Jean Deny, Louis Bazin, Hans Robert Roemer, György Hazai , Wolfgang-Ekkehard Scharlipp (2000). History of the Turkish Peoples in the Pre-Islamic Period. Schwarz. p. 108. ISBN 9783879972838. http://books.google.com/?id=86g2AAAAIAAJ&q=Taspar+Khan&dq=Taspar+Khan.
- ^ Ambros/Andrews/Balim/Golden/Gökalp/Karamustafa, Turks, in Encyclopaedia of Islam, online ed., ret. 2009
- ^ Mallory, J. P., In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth., (London: Thames & Hudson, 1991), pp. 152.
- ^ Wink 2002: 60-61
- ^ Hucker 1975: 136
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- ^ Concise Britannica Online Seljuq Dynasty article
- ^ The History of the Seljuq Turks: From the Jami Al-Tawarikh (LINK)
- ^ Riley-Smith, Jonathan. The Oxford History of the Crusades New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0192853643.
- ^ Gürpınar, Doğan (2004) (PDF). THE SELJUKS OF RUM IN TURKISH REPUBLICAN NATIONALIST HISTORIOGRAPH. Sabancı University. Archived from the original on 2008-06-26. http://web.archive.org/web/20080626010314/http://digital.sabanciuniv.edu/tezler/tezler/ssbf/master/gurpinard/ana.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
- ^ Inalcik. Emergence of Ottoman State
- ^ Fleet, Kate (1999) (PDF). European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State. Cambridge University Press. http://assets.cambridge.org/97805216/42217/sample/9780521642217wsc00.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-11.
- ^ (Turkish) Sultan Osman I, Turkish Ministry of Culture website.
- ^ D. Nicolle, Constantinople 1453: The end of Byzantium, 32
- ^ Holt, Lambton & Lewis 1977, pp. 307
- ^ Yavuz Sultan Selim Government Retrieved on 2007-09-16
- ^ The Classical Age, 1453–1600 Retrieved on 2007-09-16
- ^ Merriman.
- ^ a b BBC – Religions – Islam: Ottoman Empire (1301–1922)>
- ^ Suraiya, Faroqhi (2006). The Cambridge History of Turkey: The later Ottoman Empire, 1603-1839. Cambridge University Press. pp. 18. ISBN 0521620953. http://books.google.com/books?id=g9UfRAnZzU4C&pg=PA18&dq=ottoman+empire+stagnation#v=onepage&q=ottoman%20empire%20stagnation&f=false.
- ^ Anscombe, Frederick (2010). "Islam and the Age of Ottoman Reform*". Past and Present 208-1: 159–189. http://past.oxfordjournals.org/content/208/1/159.extract.
- ^ Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk. Overlook. ISBN 1-5856-7011-1.
- ^ Ahmad, The Making of Modern Turkey, 50
- ^ Gokcumen O and Schurr T. Genler, Göçler ve Anadolu. Atlas Magazine. 2008
- ^ Hum Genet (2004) 114 : 127–148 Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia, (Cengiz Cinnioglu at all.), pg. 135
- ^ Late Medieval Balkan and Asia Minor Population.Josiah C. Russell.Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient, Vol. 3, No. 3 (Oct., 1960), pp. 265–274
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, Oguz Article
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica. Seljuq Article
- ^ Peter B. Golden. An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East, 1992, S. 224-225.
- ^ (2001) HLA alleles and haplotypes in the Turkish population: relatedness to Kurds, Armenians and other Mediterraneans Tissue Antigens 57 (4), 308–317
- ^ "DNA diversity and population admixture in Anatolia", conducted by Giulietta Di Benedetto, Ayşe Ergüven, Michele Stenico, Loredana Castrfi, Giorgio Bertorelle, Inci Togan, Guido Barbujani
- ^ Country Studies: Turkey-Turks
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- ^ Embassy of the Republic of Turkey in London
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- ^ Twigg, Stephen (2002) (PDF). LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY AND NEW MINORITIES IN EUROPE. Language Policy Division. http://www.coe.int/T/DG4/Linguistic/Source/GogolinEN.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- ^ US Census. "2006 American Community Survey, Total Ancestry Reported". http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=D&-ds_name=D&-_lang=en&-mt_name=ACS_2006_EST_G2000_B04003. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
- ^ Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. "Immigration and Ethnicity: Turks". http://ech.case.edu/ech-cgi/article.pl?id=TIC. Retrieved 2008-07-09.
- ^ Turkish Americans
- ^ Kaya, İbrahim (2003). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-8532-3898-7. http://books.google.com/?id=0Iy7pJBRgjYC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=Turkish+culture.
- ^ Royal Academy of Arts (2005). "Turks – A Journey of a Thousand Years: 600–1600". Royal Academy of Arts. http://www.turks.org.uk/index.php?pid=8. Retrieved 2006-12-12.
- ^ Necipoğlu, Gülru (1995). Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 12. Leiden : E.J. Brill. p. 60. ISBN 9789004103146. OCLC 33228759. http://books.google.com/?id=RtbeBrAHhxgC&pg=PA60&lpg=PA60&dq=Ottoman+Architecture. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- ^ Grabar, Oleg (1985). Muqarnas: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. Volume 3. Leiden : E.J. Brill,. ISBN 9004076115. http://books.google.com/?id=Xu_L_FJRvUIC&pg=PA92&lpg=PA92&dq=Ottoman+Architecture. Retrieved 2008-07-07.
- ^ Davis, Ben (2002). Let's Go Turkey. Macmillan. ISBN 9780312305970.
- ^ Levine, Lynn (2006). Frommer's Turkey. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 9780471785569.
- ^ http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/295642/Islamic-arts/13859/Ottoman-art?anchor=ref316989
- ^ Stokes, Martin (2000). Sounds of Anatolia. Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0. , pp 396–410.
- ^ "Traditional Music in Turkey". Medieval.org. http://www.medieval.org/music/world/turkish.html. Retrieved May 20, 2004. The Ottoman Empire included substantial territory which had been under Byzantine or Arabic control, and the substratum of traditional music in Turkey was conditioned by that history.
- ^ "Suleyman the Magnificent". HyperHistory Biographies. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/bios/b1suleyman.htm. Retrieved April 3, 2006. During his rule as sultan, the Ottoman Empire reached its peak in power and prosperity. Suleyman the Magnificent filled his palace with music and poetry and came to write many compositions of his own.
- ^ "Ottoman Military Music". MilitaryMusic.com. Archived from the original on February 22, 2003. http://web.archive.org/web/20030222130546/http://www.militarymusic.com/200302.htm#anchor5. Retrieved February 11, 2003.
- ^ "Introduction to Sufi Music and Ritual in Turkey". Middle East Studies Association of North America. http://www.alevibektasi.org/xsufi_music.htm. Retrieved December 18, 1995. The tradition of regional variations in the character of folk music prevails all around Anatolia and Thrace even today. The troubadour or minstrel (singer-poets) known as aşık contributed anonymously to this genre for ages.
- ^ "The Ottoman Music". Tanrıkorur, Cinuçen (Abridged and translated by Dr. Savaş Ş. Barkçin). http://www.turkmusikisi.com/osmanli_musikisi/the_ottoman_music.htm. Retrieved June 26, 2000.
- ^ Linguistic Lineage for Turkish
- ^ Katzner
- ^ Scharlipp, Wolfgang (2000). An Introduction to the Old Turkish Runic Inscriptions. Verlag auf dem Ruffel., Engelschoff. ISBN 393384700X.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard, The emergence of modern Turkey, (Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1968)
- ^ Findley
- ^ Soucek
- ^ See Lewis (2002) for a thorough treatment of the Turkish language reform.
- ^ http://www.swarthmore.edu/SocSci/Linguistics/Theses09/smoya1%20LingThesis%20final%20pdf.pdf
- ^ Palin, Michael (2007). Kosovo. The Globe Pequot Press. p. 32. ISBN 1841621994.
- ^ Lester 1997; Wolf-Gazo 1996
- ^ Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-4153-4831-5. http://books.google.com/?id=t5G_zw9exMQC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=Religion+in+Turkey.
- Abrahams, Fred (1996). A threat to "stability": human rights violations in Macedonia. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1564321703 .
- Aydıngün, Ayşegül; Harding, Çiğdem Balım; Hoover, Matthew; Kuznetsov, Igor; Swerdlow, Steve (2006). Meskhetian Turks: An Introduction to their History, Culture, and Resettelment Experiences. http://www.cal.org/: Center for Applied Linguistics. http://www.cal.org/CO/pdffiles/mturks.pdf
- Berlin-Institut (2009). Zur Lage der Integration in Deutschland. http://www.berlin-institut.org: Berlin-Institu für Bevölkerung und Entwicklung. http://www.berlin-institut.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Zuwanderung/Integration_RZ_online.pdf
- Council of Europe (2006). Documents: working papers, 2005 ordinary session (second part), 25–29 April 2005, Vol. 3: Documents 10407, 10449-10533. Council of Europe. ISBN 9287157545 .
- Duvier, Janine (2009). Immigration and Integration in Germany and England. http://www.lse.ac.uk/: London School of Economics. http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/MSU/papers/Duvier-Janine-LMRG.pdf
- Ergener, Rashid; Ergener, Resit (2002). About Turkey: Geography, Economy, Politics, Religion, and Culture. Pilgrims Process. ISBN 0971060967 .
- Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: demographic, sociolinguistic, and educational perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1853595098 .
- Federation of Turkish Associations in the UK (2008). BRIEF HISTORY OF THE FEDERATION OF TURKISH ASSOCIATIONS IN UK. http://www.turkishfederationuk.com/: Federation of Turkish Associations in the UK. http://www.turkishfederationuk.com/en/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=26
- Hatay, Mete (2007). Is the Turkish Cypriot Population Shrinking?. http://www.prio.no/: International Peace Research Institute. ISBN 978-82-7288-244-9. http://www.prio.no/upload/Is%20the%20Turkish%20Cypriot%20Population%20Shrinking.pdf
- Haviland, William A.; Prins, Harald E. L.; Walrath, Dana; McBride, Bunny (2010), Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Cengage Learning, ISBN 0495810843 .
- Human Rights Watch (1993). Open Wounds: Human Rights Abuses in Kosovo. Human Rights Watch. ISBN 1564321312 .
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- Hüssein, Serkan (2007). Yesterday & Today: Turkish Cypriots of Australia. Serkan Hussein. ISBN 0646477838 .
- Karpat, Kemal H. (2002). Studies on Ottoman social and political history: selected articles and essays. BRILL. ISBN 9004121013 .
- Karpat, Kemal H. (2004). Studies on Turkish Politics and Society: Selected Articles and Essays. BRILL. ISBN 9004133224 .
- Kaya, Ayhan; Kentel, Ferhat (2007). Belgian-Turks A Bridge or a Breach between Turkey and the European Union?. http://www.kbs-frb.be/: King Baudouin Foundation. ISBN 978-90-5130-587-6. http://www.kbs-frb.be/uploadedFiles/KBS-FRB/05)_Pictures,_documents_and_external_sites/09)_Publications/%20KBS%E2%80%A2Belgian-Turks%20GB_All%20in(1).pdf
- Kibaroğlu, Mustafa; Kibaroğlu, Ayșegül; Halman, Talât Sait (2009). Global security watch Turkey: A reference handbook. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0313345600 .
- King Baudouin Foundation (2008). Turkish communities and the EU. http://www.kbs-frb.be/: King Baudouin Foundation. http://www.kbs-frb.be/uploadedFiles/KBS-FRB/18)_Website_static_Content/Enews/International_newsletter_7_(May_2008).pdf
- Knowlton, MaryLee (2005). Macedonia. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN 0761418547 .
- Kötter, I; Vonthein, R; Günaydin, I; Müller, C; Kanz, L; Zierhut, M; Stübiger, N (2003), "Behçet's Disease in Patients of German and Turkish Origin- A Comparative Study", in Zouboulis, Christos (ed.), Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Volume 528, Springer, ISBN 0306477572 .
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- Migdal, Joel S. (2004). Boundaries and belonging: states and societies in the struggle to shape identities and local practices. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521835666 .
- ORSAM (2010). The forgotten Turks : Turkmens of Lebanon. http://www.orsam.org.tr/en: Center for Middle-Eastern Strategic Studies. http://www.orsam.org.tr/en/enUploads/Article/Files/2010110_sayi11_eng_web.pdf
- Oustinova-Stjepanovic, Galina (2008). Religion and Politics of Sufi Turks in Macedonia A pre-field proposal. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/: University College London. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/mariecuriesocanth/research_files/Poster_Oustinova.pdf
- Özkaya, Abdi Noyan (2007). "Suriye Kürtleri: Siyasi Etkisizlik ve Suriye Devleti’nin Politikaları". Review of International Law and Politics 2 (8). http://www.usak.org.tr/dosyalar/dergi/IdZgitj2V2vbuyxGGkzJnS8yvQqpT5.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-10
- Park, Bill (2005). Turkey's policy towards northern Iraq: problems and perspectives. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0415382971 .
- Phinnemore, David (2006). The EU and Romania: accession and beyond. The Federal Trust for Education & Research. ISBN 1903403782 .
- TRNC PRIME MINISTRY STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION (2006). TRNC GENERAL POPULATION AND HOUSING UNIT CENSUS. http://www.pekem.org/: TRNC PRIME MINISTRY STATE PLANNING ORGANIZATION. http://nufussayimi.devplan.org/Census%202006.pdf
- Vachudová, Milada Anna (2005). Europe undivided: democracy, leverage, and integration after communism. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199241198 .
- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (2008). İnsan Haklarını İnceleme Komisyonu'num Hollanda Ziyareti (16-21 Haziran 2008). http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/: Grand National Assembly of Turkey. http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/komisyon/insanhaklari/belge/kr_23hollanda.pdf
- Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi (2009). İnsan Haklarını İnceleme Komisyonu: Fransa Raporu. http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/: Grand National Assembly of Turkey. http://www.tbmm.gov.tr/komisyon/insanhaklari/belge/fransa_raporu.pdf
- Warrander, Gail; Knaus, Verena (2008). Bradt Travel Guide Kosovo. Springer. ISBN 0306477572 .
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- Zouboulis, Christos (2003). Adamantiades-Behçet's Disease. Springer. ISBN 0306477572 .
- A Guide to Ottoman Bulgaria" by Dimana Trankova, Anthony Georgieff and Professor Hristo Matanov; published by Vagabond Media, Sofia, 2011 []
- Turkish people
- Garnett, Lucy M. J. (2004). The Turkish People: Their Social Life, Religious Beliefs and Institutions and Domestic Life. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417947063.
- Mango, Andrew (2004). The Turks Today. Overlook. ISBN 1585676152.
- McCarthy, Justin & McCarthy Carolyn (2003). "Who Are The Turks?" (PDF). The American Forum For Global Education. http://www.ataturk.com/public_files/WhoAreTheTurksebook.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-11.
- Atillasoy, Yüksel (2002). Atatürk: First President and Founder of the Turkish Republic. Woodside House, Woodside, NY. ISBN 978-0971235342.
- Barber, Noel (1988). Lords of the Golden Horn: From Suleiman the Magnificent to Kemal Ataturk. Arrow, London. ISBN 978-0099539506.
- Findley, Carter Vaughn (2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0195177266.
- Kinross, Patrick (1977). The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire. Morrow. ISBN 0688030939.
- Mango, Andrew (2000). Ataturk: The Biography of the Founder of Modern Turkey. Overlook. ISBN 1585670111.
- Merriman, Roger Bigelow (1944). Suleiman the Magnificent, 1520–1566. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 1406772720. OCLC 784228.
- Shaw, Stanford Jay; Kural Shaw, Ezel (1977). History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521291631.
- Çarkoǧlu, Ali (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0415348315. http://books.google.com/?id=t5G_zw9exMQC&pg=PP1&lpg=PP1&dq=Religion+in+Turkey.
- Extra, Guus; Gorter, Durk (2001). The other languages of Europe: Demographic, Sociolinguistic and Educational Perspectives. Multilingual Matters. ISBN 1853595098. http://books.google.com/?id=hvmy_skUPNYC&pg=RA1-PA422&lpg=RA1-PA422&dq=%22ethnic+groups+in+turkey%22.
- Turkish Statistical Institute (2000). "2000 Census, population by provinces and districts" (XLS). Turkish Statistical Institute. http://www.die.gov.tr/nufus_sayimi/2000tablo5.xls. Retrieved 2006-12-11.
- Findley, Carter V. (2004). The Turks in World History. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-517726-6.
- Katzner, Kenneth (2002). Languages of the World, Third Edition. Routledge, an imprint of Taylor & Francis Books Ltd.. ISBN 978-0415250047.
- Lewis, Geoffrey (2001). Turkish Grammar. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-870036-9.
- Lewis, Geoffrey (2002). The Turkish Language Reform: A Catastrophic Success. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925669-1.
- Nişanyan, Sevan (2007). Sözlerin Soyağacı: Çağdaş Türkçenin Etimoloji Sözlüğü (Etymological Dictionary of Contemporary Turkish). Adam Yayınları, Revised and Enlarged 3rd Edition. ISBN 975-418-868-4. (Turkish)
- Özsoy, A. Sumru; Taylan, Eser E. (eds.) (2000). Türkçe’nin ağızları çalıştayı bildirileri (Workshop on the dialects of Turkish). Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Yayınevi. ISBN 9755181407. (Turkish)
- Soucek, Svat (2000). A History of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521651691.
- Arts & Culture
- Andrews, Walter G. Ottoman Lyric Poetry: An Anthology. ISBN 0-2....
- Aslanapa, Oktay (1971). Turkish art and architecture. London: Faber. ISBN 0571087817.
- Bartok, Bela & Suchoff, Benjamin (1976). Turkish Folk Music from Asia Minor (The New York Bartok Archive Studies in Musicology, No. 7). Princeton Univ Pr. ISBN 0-691-09120-X.
- Goodwin, Godfrey (2003). A History of Ottoman Architecture. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500274290.
- Kaya, İbrahim (2003). Social Theory and Later Modernities: The Turkish Experience. Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0853238987. http://books.google.com/?id=0Iy7pJBRgjYC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=Turkish+culture.
- Stokes, Martin (2000). Sounds of Anatolia. Penguin Books. ISBN 1-85828-636-0.
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