- Sugar Ray Robinson
Sugar Ray Robinson Statistics Real name Walker Smith Jr. Nickname(s) Sugar Rated at Lightweight
Height 5 ft 11 in (1.80 m) Reach 72 in (184 cm) 1⁄2 Nationality American Born May 3, 1921
Died April 12, 1989(aged 67)
Culver City, California
Stance Orthodox Boxing record Total fights 200 Wins 173 Wins by KO 108 Losses 19 Draws 6 No contests 2
Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr., May 3, 1921 – April 12, 1989) was a professional boxer. Frequently cited as the greatest boxer of all time, Robinson's performances in the welterweight and middleweight divisions prompted sportswriters to create "pound for pound" rankings, where they compared fighters regardless of weight. He was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990. Robinson was 85–0 as an amateur with 69 of those victories coming by way of knockout, 40 in the first round. He turned professional in 1940 at the age of 19 and by 1951 had a professional record of 128–1–2 with 84 knockouts. Robinson held the world welterweight title from 1946 to 1951, and won the world middleweight title in the latter year. He retired in 1952, only to come back two and a half years later and regain the middleweight title in 1955. He then became the first boxer in history to win a divisional world championship five times, a feat he accomplished by defeating Carmen Basilio in 1958 to regain the middleweight championship. Robinson was named "fighter of the year" twice: first for his performances in 1942, then nine years and over 90 fights later, for his efforts in 1951. He defeated other Hall of Fame fighters such as Jake LaMotta, Carmen Basilio, Gene Fullmer, Carl 'Bobo' Olson, Henry Armstrong, Rocky Graziano and Kid Gavilan. Robinson engaged in 200 pro bouts, and his professional career lasted nearly 26 years.
Robinson was a fluid boxer who possessed power in both hands and a fast jab. In 1951 TIME said "Robinson's repertoire, thrown with equal speed and power by either hand, includes every standard punch from a bolo to a hook—and a few he makes up on the spur of the moment." Robinson stated that once a fighter gained a certain amount of skill, his boxing technique became reflexive.
Robinson was named the greatest fighter of the 20th century by the Associated Press, and the greatest boxer in history by ESPN.com in 2007. The Ring magazine rated him the best "pound for pound" boxer of all-time in 1997, and its "Fighter of the Decade" for the 1950s. Muhammad Ali, who repeatedly called himself "The Greatest" throughout his career, ranked Robinson as the greatest boxer of all time. Other Hall of Fame boxers such as Joe Louis and Sugar Ray Leonard said the same.
Renowned for his flamboyant lifestyle outside the ring, Robinson is credited with being the originator of the modern sports "entourage". After his boxing career ended, Robinson attempted a career as an entertainer, but struggled, and lived in poverty until his death in 1989. In 2006, he was featured on a commemorative stamp by the United States Postal Service.
Robinson was born Walker Smith Jr. in either Ailey, Georgia (according to his birth certificate) or Detroit, Michigan (according to his autobiography), to Walker Smith Sr. and Leila Hurst. Robinson was the youngest of three children; his older sister Marie was born in 1917 and his older sister Evelyn was born in 1919. His father was a cotton, peanut, and corn farmer in Georgia, who moved the family to Detroit where he initially found work as a construction worker. According to Robinson, Smith Sr. later worked two jobs to support his family—cement mixer and sewer worker. "He had to get up at six in the morning and he'd get home close to midnight. Six days a week. The only day I really saw him was Sunday...I always wanted to be with him more."
His parents separated and he moved with his mother to the New York City neighborhood of Harlem at the age of twelve. Robinson originally aspired to be a doctor, but after dropping out of De Witt Clinton High school in ninth grade he switched his goal to boxing. When he was 14, he attempted to enter his first boxing tournament but was told he needed to first obtain an AAU membership card. However, he could not procure one until he was sixteen years old. He received his name when he circumvented the AAU's age restriction by borrowing a card from his friend Ray Robinson. Subsequently told that his style was "sweet as sugar" by future manager George Gainford, Smith Jr. became known as "Sugar" Ray Robinson.
Robinson idolized Henry Armstrong and Joe Louis as a youth, and actually lived on the same block as Louis in Detroit when Robinson was 11 and Louis was 17. Outside of the ring, Robinson got into trouble frequently as a youth, and was involved with a violent street gang. He married at 16. The couple, who had one son, Ronnie, divorced when Robinson was 19. He finished his amateur career with an 85–0 record with 69 knockouts—40 coming in the first round. He won the Golden Gloves featherweight championship in 1939, and the organization's lightweight championship in 1940.
Robinson made his professional debut on October 4, 1940, winning via second-round knockout over Joe Echevarria. Robinson fought five more times in 1940, winning each time, with four wins coming by way of knockout. In 1941, he defeated world champion Sammy Angott, future champion Marty Servo and former champion Fritzie Zivic. The Robinson-Angott fight was held above the lightweight limit, since Angott did not want to risk losing his lightweight title. Robinson defeated Zivic in front of 20,551 at Madison Square Garden—one of the largest crowds in the arena to that date. Robinson won the first five rounds according to The New York Times Joseph C. Nichols, before Zivic came back to land several punches to Robinson's head in the sixth and seventh rounds. Robinson controlled the next two rounds, and had Zivic wobbly in the ninth. After a close tenth round, Robinson was announced as the winner on all three scorecards.
In 1942, Robinson knocked out Zivic in the tenth round in a January rematch. The knockout loss was only the second of Zivic's career in more than 150 fights. Robinson knocked him down in the ninth and tenth rounds before the referee stopped the fight. Zivic and his corner protested the stoppage; James P. Dawson of The New York Times stated, however, that "[t]hey were criticizing a humane act. The battle had been a slaughter, for want of a more delicate word." Robinson then won four consecutive bouts by knockout, before defeating Servo in a controversial split decision in their May rematch. After winning three more fights, Robinson faced Jake LaMotta, who would become one of his more prominent rivals, for the first time in October. He defeated LaMotta via unanimous decision. Robinson weighed 145 lb (66 kg) compared to 157.5 for LaMotta, but he was able to control the fight from the outside for the entire bout, and actually landed the harder punches during the fight. Robinson then won four more fights, including two against Izzy Jannazzo, from October 19 to December 14. For his performances, Robinson was named "Fighter of the Year". He finished 1942 with a total of 14 wins and no losses.
Robinson built a record of 40–0 before losing for the first time to LaMotta in a 10 round re-match. LaMotta, who had a 16 lb (7.3 kg) weight advantage over Robinson, knocked Robinson out of the ring in the eighth round, and won the fight by decision. The fight took place in Robinson's former home town of Detroit, and attracted a record crowd. After being controlled by Robinson in the early portions of the fight, LaMotta came back to take control in the later rounds. After winning the third LaMotta fight less than three weeks later, Robinson then defeated his childhood idol former champion Henry Armstrong. Robinson only fought Armstrong because Armstrong was in need of finances. By now Armstrong was an old fighter, and Robinson later stated that he carried Armstrong.
On February 27, 1943, Robinson was inducted into the United States Army, where he was again referred to as Walker Smith. Robinson had a short 15 month military career. Robinson served with Joe Louis, and the pair went on tours where they performed exhibition bouts in front of US troops. Robinson got into trouble several times while in the military. He argued with superiors who he felt were discriminatory against him, and refused to fight exhibitions when he was told African American soldiers were not allowed to watch them. In late March, 1944, Robinson was stationed at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn, waiting to ship out to Europe, where he was scheduled to perform more exhibition matches. But on March 29, Robinson disappeared from his barracks. When he woke up on April 5 in Fort Jay Hospital on Governor's Island, he had missed his sailing for Europe and was under suspicion of deserting. He himself reported falling down the stairs in his barracks on the 29th, but said that he had complete amnesia, and he could not remember any events from that moment until the 5th. According to his file, a stranger had found him in the street on the 1st of April and helped him to a hospital. In his examination report, a doctor at Fort Jay concluded that Robinson's version of events was sincere. He was examined by military authorities, who claimed he suffered from a mental deficiency. Robinson was granted an honorable discharge on June 3, 1944. He later wrote that unfair press coverage of the incident had "branded" him as a "deserter."  Robinson maintained his close friendship with Louis from their time in military service, and the two went into business together after the war. They planned to start a liquor distribution business in New York City, but were denied a license due to their race.
By 1946, Robinson had fought 75 fights to a 73–1–1 record, and beaten every top contender in the welterweight division. However, he refused to cooperate with the Mafia, which controlled much of boxing at the time, and was denied a chance to fight for the welterweight championship. Robinson was finally given a chance to win a title against Tommy Bell on December 20, 1946. Robinson had already beaten Bell once via decision in 1945. The two fought for the title vacated by Servo, who had himself lost twice to Robinson in non-title bouts. In the fight, Robinson, who only a month before had been involved in a 10 round brawl with Artie Levine, was knocked down by Bell. The fight was called a "war," but Robinson was able to pull out a close 15 round decision, winning the vacant welterweight title.
In June 1947, after four non-title bouts, Robinson was scheduled to defend his title for the first time in a bout against Jimmy Doyle. Before that fight, Robinson had a dream that he was going to accidentally kill Doyle in the ring. As a result, he decided to pull out of the fight. However, a priest and a minister convinced him to go ahead with the bout. His foe, however, died from the injuries he sustained. Robinson said that the impact of Doyle's death was "very trying."
On the night of June 25, Robinson dominated Doyle and scored a decisive knockout in the eighth round that knocked Doyle unconscious and resulted in Doyle's death that night.
In 1948, Robinson fought five times, but only one bout was a title defense. Among the fighters he defeated in those non-title bouts was future world champion Kid Gavilan in a close, controversial 10 round fight. Gavilan hurt Robinson several times in the fight, but Robinson controlled the final rounds with a series of jabs and left hooks. In 1949, he boxed 16 times, but again only defended his title once. In that title fight, a rematch with Gavilan, Robinson again won via decision. The first half of the bout was very close, but Robinson took control in the second half. Gavilan would have to wait two more years to begin his own historic reign as welterweight champion. The only boxer to match Robinson that year was Henry Brimm, who fought him to a 10-round draw in Buffalo.
Robinson fought 19 times in 1950. He successfully defended his welterweight title for the last time against Charley Fusari. Robinson won a lopsided 15 round decision, knocking Fusari down once. Robinson donated all but $1 of his purse for the Fusari fight to cancer research. In 1950, Robinson fought George Costner, who had also taken to calling himself "Sugar" and stated in the weeks leading up to the fight that he was the rightful deserver of the name. "We better touch gloves, because this is the only round," Robinson said as the fighters were introduced at the center of the ring. "Your name ain't Sugar, mine is." Robinson then knocked Costner out in 2 minutes and 49 seconds.
Robinson stated in his autobiography that one of the main considerations for his move up to middleweight was the increasing difficulty he was having in making the 147 lb (67 kg) welterweight weight limit. However, the move up would also prove beneficial financially, as the division then contained some of the biggest names in boxing. Vying for the Pennsylvania state middleweight title in 1950, Robinson defeated Robert Villemain. Later that year, in defense of that crown, he defeated Jose Basora, with whom he had previously drawn. Robinson's 50-second first round knockout of Basora set a record that would stand for 38 years. In October 1950, Robinson knocked out Bobo Olson a future middleweight title holder.
On February 14, 1951, Robinson and LaMotta met for the sixth time. The fight would become known as The St. Valentine's Day Massacre. Robinson won the undisputed world middleweight title with a 13th round technical knockout. Robinson outboxed LaMotta for the first 10 rounds, then unleashed a series of savage combinations on LaMotta for three rounds, finally stopping the champion for the first time in their legendary six-bout series—and dealing LaMotta his first legitimate knockout loss in 95 professional bouts. LaMotta had lost by knockout to Billy Fox earlier in his career. However, that fight was later ruled to have been fixed and LaMotta was sanctioned for letting Fox win. That bout, and some of the other bouts in the six-fight Robinson-LaMotta rivalry, was depicted in the Martin Scorsese film Raging Bull. "I fought Sugar Ray so often, I almost got diabetes," LaMotta later said. Robinson won five of his six bouts with LaMotta.
After winning his second world title, he embarked on a European tour which took him all over the Continent. Robinson traveled with his flamingo-pink Cadillac, which caused quite a stir in Paris, and an entourage of 13 people, some included "just for laughs". He was a hero in France due to his recent defeat of LaMotta—the French hated LaMotta for defeating Marcel Cerdan in 1949 and taking his championship belt (Cerdan died in a plane crash en route to a rematch with LaMotta). Robinson met President of France Vincent Auriol at a ceremony attended by France's social upper crust; following the ceremony he kissed the President's blushing wife once on each cheek, then repeated the two kisses at the request of press photographers. During his fight in Berlin against Gerhard Hecht, Robinson was disqualified when he knocked his opponent with a punch to the kidney: a punch legal in the US, but not Europe. The fight was later declared a no-contest. In London, Robinson lost the world middleweight title to Englishman Randy Turpin in a sensational bout. Three months later in a rematch in front of 60,000 fans at the Polo Grounds, he knocked Turpin out in ten rounds to recover the title. In that bout Robinson was leading on the cards but was cut by Turpin. With the fight in jeopardy, Robinson let loose on Turpin, knocking him down, then getting him to the ropes and unleashing a series of punches that caused the referee to stop the bout. Following Robinson's victory, residents of Harlem danced in the streets. In 1951, Robinson was named Ring Magazine's "Fighter of the Year" for the second time.
In 1952, he fought a rematch with Olson, winning by a decision. He next defeated former champion Rocky Graziano by a third-round knockout, then challenged world light heavyweight champion Joey Maxim. In the Yankee Stadium bout with Maxim, Robinson built a lead on all three judges' scorecards, but the 103 °F (39 °C) temperature in the ring took its toll. The referee, Ruby Goldstein, was the first victim of the heat, and had to be replaced by referee Ray Miller. The fast-moving Robinson was the heat's next victim – at the end of round 13, he collapsed and failed to answer the bell for the next round, suffering the only knockout of his career.
After the Maxim bout, Robinson gave up his title and retired with a record of 131-3-1-1. He began a career in show business, singing and tap dancing. In his autobiography, he stated that in the weeks leading up to his debut as a dancer in France, he trained harder than he ever had as a boxer. After about three years, the decline of his businesses and the lack of success in his performing career made him decide to return to boxing. He resumed training in 1954.
In 1955, Robinson returned to the ring. Although he had been inactive for two and a half years, his work as a dancer kept him in peak physical condition: in his autobiography, Robinson states that in the weeks leading up to his debut for a dancing engagement in France, he ran five miles every morning, and then danced for five hours each night. Robinson even stated that the training he did in his attempts to establish a career as a dancer were harder that any he undertook during his boxing career. He won five fights in 1955, before losing a decision to Ralph 'Tiger' Jones. He bounced back, however, and defeated Rocky Castellani by a split decision, then challenged Bobo Olson for the world middleweight title. He won the middleweight championship for the third time via a second round knockout—his third victory over Olson. After his comeback performance in 1955, Robinson expected to be named fighter of the year. However, the title went to welterweight Carmen Basilio. Basilio's handlers had lobbied heavily for it on the basis that he had never won the award, and Robinson later described this as the biggest disappointment of his professional career. "I haven't forgotten it to this day, and I never will" Robinson wrote in his autobiography. They fought for the last time in 1956, and Robinson closed the four fight series with a fourth round knockout.
In 1957, Robinson lost his title to Gene Fullmer. Fullmer used his aggressive, forward moving style to control Robinson, and knocked him down in the fight. Robinson, however, noticed that Fullmer was vulnerable to the left hook. Fullmer headed into their May rematch as a 3–1 favorite. In the first two rounds Robinson followed Fullmer around the ring, however in the third round he changed tactics and made Fullmer come to him. At the start of the fourth round Robinson came out on the attack and stunned Fullmer, and when Fullmer returned with his own punches, Robinson traded with him, as opposed to clinching as he had done in their earlier fight. The fight was fairly even after four rounds. But in the fifth, Robinson was able to win the title back for a fourth time by knocking out Fullmer with a lightning fast, powerful left hook. Boxing critics have referred to the left-hook which knocked out Fullmer as "the perfect punch". It marked the first time in 44 career fights that Fullmer had been knocked out, and when someone asked Robinson after the fight how far the left hook had travelled, Robinson replied: "I can't say. But he got the message."
Later that year, he lost his title to Basilio in a rugged 15 round fight in front of 38,000 at Yankee Stadium, but regained it for a record fifth time when he beat Basilio in the rematch. Robinson struggled to make weight, and had to go without food for nearly 20 hours leading up to the bout. He badly damaged Basilio's eye early the fight, and by the seventh round it was swollen shut. The two judges gave the fight to Robinson by wide margins: 72–64 and 71–64. The referee scored the fight for Basilio 69–64, and was booed loudly by the crowd of 19,000 when his decision was announced. The first fight won the "Fight of the Year" award from The Ring magazine for 1957 and the second fight won the "Fight of the Year" award for 1958.
Robinson knocked out Bob Young in the second round in Boston in his only fight in 1959. A year later, he defended his title against Paul Pender. Robinson entered the fight as a 5–1 favorite, but lost a split decision in front of 10,608 at Boston Garden. The day before the fight Pender commented that he planned to start slowly, before coming on late. He did just that and outlasted the aging Robinson, who, despite opening a cut over Pender's eye in the eighth round, was largely ineffective in the later rounds. An attempt to regain the crown for an unheard of sixth time proved beyond Robinson. Despite Robinson's efforts, Pender won by decision in that rematch. On December 3 of that year, Robinson and Fullmer fought a 15-round draw for the WBA middleweight title, which Fullmer retained. In 1961, Robinson and Fullmer fought for a fourth time, with Fullmer retaining the NBA middleweight title by a unanimous decision. The fight would be Robinson's last title bout.
Robinson spent the rest of the 1960s fighting 10-round contests. In October 1961, Robinson defeated future world champion Denny Moyer via unanimous decision. A 12–5 favorite, the 41 year old Robinson defeated the 22 year old Moyer by staying on the outside, rather than engaging him. In their rematch four months later, Moyer defeated Robinson on points, as he pressed the action and made Robinson back up throughout the fight. Moyer won 7–3 on all three judges scorecards. Robinson lost twice more in 1962, before winning six consecutive fights against mostly lesser opposition. In February 1963, Robinson lost via unanimous decision to former world champion and fellow Hall of Famer Joey Giardello. Giardello knocked Robinson down in the fourth round, and the 43 year old took until the count of nine to rise to his feet. Robinson was also nearly knocked down in the sixth round, but was saved by the bell. He rallied in the seventh and eight rounds, before struggling in the final two. Robinson then embarked on an 18-month boxing tour of Europe.
Robinson's second no-contest bout came in September, 1965 in Norfolk, Virginia in a match with an opponent who turned out to be an impostor. Boxer Neil Morrison, at the time a fugitive and accused robber, signed up for the fight as Bill Henderson, a capable club fighter. The fight was a fiasco, with Morrison being knocked down twice in the first round and once in the second before the disgusted referee, who said "Henderson put up no fight", walked out of the ring. Robinson was initially given a TKO in 1:20 of the second round after the "obviously frightened" Morrison laid himself down on the canvas. Robinson fought for the final time in 1965. He lost via unanimous decision to Joey Archer. Famed sports author Pete Hamill mentioned that one of the saddest experiences of his life was watching Robinson lose to Archer. He was even knocked down and Hamill pointed out that Archer had no knockout punch at all; Archer admitted afterward that it was only the second time he had knocked an opponent down in his career. The crowd of 9,023 at the Civic Arena in Pittsburgh gave Robinson several standing ovations, even while he was being thoroughly outperformed by Archer.
On November 11, 1965, Robinson announced his retirement from boxing, saying: "I hate to go too long campaigning for another chance." Robinson retired from boxing with a record of 173-19-6 (2 no contests) with 108 knockouts in 200 professional bouts, ranking him among the all-time leaders in knockouts.
After retiring as a boxer
In his autobiography Robinson states that by 1965 he was broke, having spent all of the $4 million in earnings he made inside and out of the ring in his career. A month after his last fight, Robinson was honored with a Sugar Ray Robinson Night on December 10, 1965 in New York's Madison Square Garden. During the ceremony, he was honored with a massive trophy. However, there was not a piece of furniture in his small Manhattan apartment with legs strong enough to support it. Robinson was elected to the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1967, two years after he retired. In the late 60s he acted in some television shows. In 1969 he founded the Sugar Ray Robinson Youth Foundation for inner-city Los Angeles area. The foundation does not sponsor a boxing program. He was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus that was treated with insulin. In Robinson's last years, he was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. He died in Los Angeles at the age of 67 and was interred in the Inglewood Park Cemetery, Inglewood, California.
Robinson married Marjorie Joseph in 1938; the marriage was annulled the same year. Their son, Ronnie Smith, was born in 1939. Robinson met his second wife Edna Mae Holly, a noted dancer who performed at the Cotton Club and toured Europe with Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway, in 1940. According to Robinson, he met her at a local pool he frequented after his boxing workouts. In an attempt to get her attention he pushed her into the pool one day, and claimed it was an accident. After this attempt was met with disdain, he appeared at the nightclub she danced at and introduced himself. Soon the couple were dating and they married in 1943. They had one son, Ray Robinson Jr. (born 1949) and divorced in 1960. She appeared on the first cover of Jet magazine in 1951. In April 1959, Robinson's eldest sister Marie died of cancer at the age of 41.
In 1965, Robinson married Millie Wiggins Bruce, who was several years his senior, and the couple settled in Los Angeles. When Robinson was sick with his various ailments, his son accused Robinson's wife of keeping him under the influence of medication to manipulate him. According to Ray Robinson Jr., when Sugar Ray's mother died, Sugar Ray could not attend his mother's funeral because Millie was drugging and controlling him. However, Robinson had been hospitalized the day before his mother's death due to agitation which caused his blood pressure to rise. Robinson Jr. and Edna Mae also claimed that they were kept away from Robinson by Millie during the last years of his life.
Boxing styleRhythm is everything in boxing. Every move you make starts with your heart, and that's in rhythm or you're in trouble.—Ray Robinson
Robinson was a fluid boxer who possessed a quick jab and knockout power. He possessed tremendous versatility—according to boxing analyst Bert Sugar, "Robinson could deliver a knockout blow going backward." Robinson was efficient with both hands, and he displayed a variety of effective punches—according to a TIME magazine article in 1951, "Robinson's repertoire, thrown with equal speed and power by either hand, includes every standard punch from a bolo to a hook—and a few he makes up on the spur of the moment." Robinson commented that once a fighter has trained to a certain level, their techniques and responses become almost reflexive. "You don't think. It's all instinct. If you stop to think, you're gone."
LegacySomeone once said there was a comparison between Sugar Ray Leonard and Sugar Ray Robinson. Believe me, there's no comparison. Sugar Ray Robinson was the greatest.—Sugar Ray LeonardThe king, the master, my idol.—Muhammad Ali He was the greatest. Pound for pound, the greatest fighter who ever lived. There's no question about it.—Jake La Motta
Robinson has been ranked as the greatest boxer of all time by sportswriters, fellow boxers, and trainers. The phrase "pound for pound", was created by sportswriters for him during his career as a way to compare boxers irrespective of weight, and Hall of Fame fighters such as Muhammad Ali, Joe Louis and Sugar Ray Leonard have ranked Robinson as the greatest pound for pound boxer in history. In 1997, The Ring ranked him as the best pound for pound fighter in history, and in 1999, he was named "welterweight of the century" and "middleweight of the century" by the Associated Press. In 2007, ESPN.com featured the piece "50 Greatest Boxers of All Time", in which it named Robinson the top boxer in history. In 2003, The Ring magazine ranked him number 11 in the list of all-time greatest punchers.
Robinson was one of the first African Americans to establish himself as a star outside of sports. He was an integral part of the New York social scene in the 1940s and 1950s. His glamorous restaurant, Sugar Ray's, hosted stars such as Frank Sinatra, Jackie Gleason, Nat "King" Cole, Joe Louis, and Lena Horne among others. Robinson was known as a flamboyant personality outside the ring. He combined striking good looks, with charisma, and a flair for the dramatic: He drove a flamingo-pink Cadillac, and was an accomplished singer and dancer, who once pursued a career in the entertainment industry. According to ESPN.com's Ron Flatter: "He was the pioneer of boxing's bigger-than-life entourages, including a secretary, barber, masseur, voice coach, a coterie of trainers, beautiful women, a dwarf mascot and lifelong manager George Gainford." When Robinson first traveled to Paris, a steward referred to his companions as his "entourage". Although Robinson said he did not like the word's literal definition of "attendants", since he felt they were his friends, he liked the word itself and began to use it in regular conversation when referring to them. In 1962, when Robinson returned to Paris—where he was still a national hero—in order to persuade him to make the trip, the French promised to bring over his masseur, his hairdresser, a guy who whistled while he trained, and his trademark Cadillac. This larger than life persona made him the idol of millions of African American youths in the 1950s. Robinson inspired several other fighters who took the nickname "Sugar" in homage to him such as Sugar Ray Leonard, Sugar Shane Mosley, and UFC fighter "Sugar" Rashad Evans.
Professional boxing record
173 Wins (108 Knockouts), 19 Defeats (1 Knockout), 6 Draws, 2 No Contests Res. Record Opponent Type Rd., Time Date Location Notes Loss 173-19-6 Joey Archer UD 10 1965-11-10 Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Win 173-18-6 Rudolph Bent KO 3 (10), 2:20 1965-10-20 Community Arena, Steubenville, Ohio Win 172-18-6 Peter Schmidt UD 10 1965-10-01 Cambria County War Memorial Arena, Johnstown, Pennsylvania Win 171-18-6 Harvey McCullough UD 10 1965-09-23 Philadelphia A.C., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania NC 170-18-6 Neil Morrison NC 2 (10), 1:20 1965-09-15 The Arena, Norfolk, Virginia Loss 170-18-6 Stan Harrington UD 10 1965-08-10 Hawaii International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii Win 170-17-6 Harvey McCullough UD 10 1965-07-27 Richmond Arena, Richmond, Virginia Loss 169-17-6 Ferd Hernandez SD 10 1965-07-12 Hacienda Hotel, Las Vegas, Nevada Win 169-16-6 Harvey McCullough UD 10 1965-06-24 Washington Coliseum, Washington, District of Columbia Loss 168-16-6 Stan Harrington UD 10 1965-06-01 Hawaii International Center, Honolulu, Hawaii Loss 168-15-6 Memo Ayon SD 10 1965-05-24 Memorial Auditorium, Tijuana, Baja California Win 168-14-6 Rocky Randell KO 3 (10) 1965-04-28 Norfolk Municipal Auditorium, Norfolk, Virginia Win 167-14-6 Earl Bastings KO 1 (10), 2:34 1965-04-03 Sports Center, Savannah, Georgia Win 166-14-6 Jimmy Beecham KO 2 (10), 1:48 1965-03-06 National Stadium, Kingston Draw 165-14-6 Fabio Bettini PTS 10 1964-11-27 Palazzetto dello Sport, Rome, Lazio Win 165-14-5 Jean Beltritti PTS 10 1964-11-14 Palais des Sports, Marseille, Bouches-du-Rhône Win 164-14-5 Jean Baptiste Rolland PTS 10 1964-11-07 Helitas Stadium, Caen, Calvados Win 163-14-5 Jackie Cailleau PTS 10 1964-10-24 Palais des Sports, Nice, Alpes-Maritimes Win 162-14-5 Johnny Angel TKO 6 (8) 1964-10-12 Hilton Hotel (Anglo American SC), Mayfair, London Win 161-14-5 Yoland Leveque PTS 10 1964-09-28 Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France Loss 160-14-5 Mick Leahy PTS 10 1964-09-03 Paisley Ice Rink, Glasgow Draw 160-13-5 Art Hernandez PTS 10 1964-07-27 Omaha Civic Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska Win 160-13-4 Clarence Riley TKO 6 (10) 1964-07-08 Wahconah Park, Pittsfield, Massachusetts Win 159-13-4 Gaylord Barnes UD 10 1964-05-19 Portland Exposition Building, Portland, Maine Win 158-13-4 Armand Vanucci PTS 10 1963-12-09 Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France Win 157-13-4 Andre Davier PTS 10 1963-11-29 Palais des Sports, Grenoble, Isère Win 156-13-4 Emiel Sarens KO 8 (10) 1963-11-16 Palais des Sports, Brussels, Bruxelles-Capitale Draw 155-13-4 Fabio Bettini PTS 10 1963-11-09 Palais des Sports, Lyon, Rhône Win 155-13-3 Armand Vanucci PTS 10 1963-10-14 Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France Loss 154-13-3 Joey Giardello UD 10 1963-06-24 Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 154-12-3 Maurice Rolbnet KO 3 (10) 1963-05-05 Palais des Sports, Sherbrooke, Quebec Win 153-12-3 Billy Thornton KO 3 (10) 1963-03-11 Lewiston Armory, Lewiston, Maine Win 152-12-3 Bernie Reynolds KO 4 (10) 1963-02-25 Estadio Quisqueya, Santo Domingo Win 151-12-3 Ralph Dupas SD 10 1963-01-30 Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami Beach, Florida Win 150-12-3 Georges Estatoff TKO 6 (10) 1962-11-10 Palais des Sports, Lyon, Rhône Win 149-12-3 Diego Infantes TKO 2 (10), 1:15 1962-10-17 Stadthalle, Vienna Loss 148-12-3 Terry Downes PTS 10 1962-09-25 Empire Pool, Wembley, London Loss 148-11-3 Phil Moyer SD 10 1962-07-09 Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California Win 148-10-3 Bobby Lee KO 2 (10), 2:38 1962-04-27 National Stadium, Port-of-Spain Loss 147-10-3 Denny Moyer UD 10 1962-02-17 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 147-9-3 Wilf Greaves KO 8 (10), 0:43 1961-12-08 Civic Arena, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Win 146-9-3 Al Hauser TKO 6 (10), 1:59 1961-11-20 Providence Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island Win 145-9-3 Denny Moyer UD 10 1961-10-21 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 144-9-3 Wilf Greaves SD 10 1961-09-25 Convention Arena, Detroit, Michigan Loss 143-9-3 Gene Fullmer UD 15 1961-03-04 Las Vegas Convention Center, Las Vegas, Nevada Draw 143-8-3 Gene Fullmer PTS 15 1960-12-03 Los Angeles Sports Arena, Los Angeles, California Loss 143-8-2 Paul Pender SD 15 1960-06-10 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts For World Middleweight Title Win 143-7-2 Tony Baldoni KO 1 (10), 1:40 1960-04-02 Baltimore Coliseum, Baltimore, Maryland Loss 142-7-2 Paul Pender SD 15 1960-01-22 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Lost World Middleweight Title Win 142-6-2 Bob Young KO 2 (10), 1:18 1959-12-14 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Win 141-6-2 Carmen Basilio SD 15 1958-03-25 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Won World Middleweight Title
The Ring magazine's "Fight of the Year" (1958)
Loss 140-6-2 Carmen Basilio SD 15 1957-09-23 Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York Lost World Middleweight Title
The Ring magazine's "Fight of the Year" (1957)
Win 140-5-2 Gene Fullmer KO 5 (15), 1:27 1957-05-01 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Won World Middleweight Title Loss 139-5-2 Gene Fullmer UD 15 1957-01-02 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Lost World Middleweight Title Win 139-4-2 Bob Provizzi UD 10 1956-11-10 New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut Win 138-4-2 Bobo Olson KO 4 (15), 2:51 1956-05-18 Wrigley Field, Los Angeles, California Retained World Middleweight Title Win 137-4-2 Bobo Olson KO 2 (15), 2:51 1955-12-09 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Won World Middleweight Title Win 136-4-2 Rocky Castellani SD 10 1955-07-22 Cow Palace, San Francisco, California Win 135-4-2 Garth Panter UD 10 1955-05-04 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 134-4-2 Ted Olla TKO 3 (10), 2:15 1955-04-14 Milwaukee Arena, Milwaukee, Wisconsin Win 133-4-2 Johnny Lombardo SD 10 1955-03-29 Cincinnati Gardens, Cincinnati, Ohio Loss 132-4-2 Ralph Jones UD 10 1955-01-19 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Win 132-3-2 Joe Rindone KO 6 (10), 1:37 1955-01-05 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Loss 131-3-2 Joey Maxim TKO 14 (15) 1952-06-25 Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York For World Light Heavyweight Title Win 131-2-2 Rocky Graziano KO 3 (15), 1:53 1952-04-16 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Retained World Middleweight Title Win 130-2-2 Bobo Olson UD 15 1952-03-13 San Francisco Civic Auditorium, San Francisco, California Retained World Middleweight Title Win 129-2-2 Randy Turpin TKO 10 (15) 1951-09-12 Polo Grounds, New York, New York Won World Middleweight Title Loss 128-2-2 Randy Turpin PTS 15 1951-07-10 Earls Court Arena, Kensington, London Lost World Middleweight Title Win 128-1-2 Cyrille Delannoit RTD 3 (10) 1951-07-01 Palazzetto dello Sport, Torino, Piemonte NC 127-1-2 Gerhard Hecht NC 2 (10) 1951-06-24 Waldbühne, Westend, Berlin Win 127-1-2 Jean Walzack TKO 6 (10) 1951-06-16 Palais des Sports, Liège, Liège Win 126-1-2 Jan de Bruin TKO 8 (10) 1951-06-10 Sportpaleis, Antwerpen, Antwerpen Win 125-1-2 Jean Wanes UD 10 1951-05-26 Sports Center, Zurich Win 124-1-2 Kid Marcel TKO 5 (10) 1951-05-21 Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France Win 123-1-2 Don Ellis KO 1 (10), 1:36 1951-04-09 Municipal Auditorium, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Win 122-1-2 Holly Mims UD 10 1951-04-05 Miami Stadium, Miami, Florida Win 121-1-2 Jake LaMotta TKO 13 (15), 2:04 1951-02-14 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Won World Middleweight Title Win 120-1-2 Hans Stretz TKO 5 (10) 1950-12-25 Haus der Technik, Frankfurt, Hessen Win 119-1-2 Robert Villemain TKO 9 (10) 1950-12-22 Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France Win 118-1-2 Jean Walzack UD 10) 1950-12-16 Pavillion Des Sports, Geneva Win 117-1-2 Luc van Dam KO 4 (10) 1950-12-09 Palais des Sports, Brussels, Bruxelles-Capitale Win 116-1-2 Jean Stock TKO 2 (10) 1950-11-27 Palais des Sports, Paris, Île-de-France Win 115-1-2 Bobby Dykes MD 10 1950-11-08 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Win 114-1-2 Bobo Olson KO 12 (15), 1:19 1950-10-26 Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 113-1-2 Joe Rindone TKO 6 (10), 0:55 1950-10-16 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Win 112-1-2 Billy Brown UD 10 1950-09-04 Coney Island Velodrome, Brooklyn, New York Win 111-1-2 José Basora KO 1 (15), 0:55 1950-08-25 Scranton Stadium, Scranton, Pennsylvania Win 110-1-2 Charley Fusari PTS 15 1950-08-09 Roosevelt Stadium, Jersey City, New Jersey Retained World Welterweight Title Win 109-1-2 Robert Villemain UD 15 1950-06-05 Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 108-1-2 Ray Barnes UD 10 1950-04-28 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 107-1-2 Cliff Beckett TKO 3 (10), 1:45 1950-04-21 Memorial Hall, Columbus, Ohio Win 106-1-2 George Costner KO 1 (10), 2:49 1950-03-22 Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 105-1-2 Jean Walzack UD 10 1950-02-27 Saint Louis Arena, Saint Louis, Missouri Win 104-1-2 Aaron Wade KO 3 (10) 1950-02-22 Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia Win 103-1-2 Al Mobley TKO 6 (10) 1950-02-13 Coliseum Arena, Miami, Florida Win 102-1-2 George LaRover TKO 4 (10) 1950-01-30 New Haven Arena, New Haven, Connecticut Win 101-1-2 Vern Lester KO 5 (10), 0:12 1949-11-13 Coliseum Arena, New Orleans, Louisiana Win 100-1-2 Don Lee UD 10 1949-11-09 Denver Auditorium Arena, Denver, Colorado Win 99-1-2 Charley Dodson KO 3 (10), 0:20 1949-09-12 City Auditorium, Houston, Texas Win 98-1-2 Benny Evans KO 5 (10), 2:56 1949-09-09 Omaha Civic Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska Win 97-1-2 Steve Belloise TKO 7 (10) 1949-08-24 Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York Win 96-1-2 Kid Gavilan UD 15 1949-07-11 Philadelphia Municipal Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Retained World Welterweight Title Win 95-1-2 Cecil Hudson KO 5 (10) 1949-06-20 Rhode Island Auditorium, Providence, Rhode Island Win 94-1-2 Freddie Flores TKO 3 (10), 2:41 1949-06-07 Page Arena, New Bedford, Massachusetts Win 93-1-2 Earl Turner TKO 8 (10), 1:51 1949-04-20 Oakland Auditorium, Oakland, California Win 92-1-2 Don Lee UD 10 1949-04-11 Omaha Civic Auditorium, Omaha, Nebraska Win 91-1-2 Bobby Lee UD 10 1949-03-25 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Draw 90-1-2 Henry Brimm PTS 10 1949-02-15 Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York Win 90-1-1 Young Gene Buffalo KO 1 (10) 1949-02-10 West Side Armory, Kingston, Pennsylvania Win 89-1-1 Bobby Lee UD 10 1948-11-15 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 88-1-1 Kid Gavilan UD 10 1948-09-23 Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York Win 87-1-1 Bernard Docusen UD 15 1948-06-28 Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois Retained World Welterweight Title Win 86-1-1 Henry Brimm UD 10 1948-03-16 Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York Win 85-1-1 Ossie Harris UD 10 1948-03-04 Toledo Sports Arena, Toledo, Ohio Win 84-1-1 Chuck Taylor TKO 6 (15), 2:07 1947-12-19 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Retained World Welterweight Title Win 83-1-1 Billy Nixon TKO 6 (10), 2:10 1947-12-10 Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey Win 82-1-1 California Jackie Wilson TKO 7 (10), 1:35 1947-10-28 Olympic Auditorium, Los Angeles, California Win 81-1-1 Flashy Sebastian KO 1 (10), 1:02 1947-08-29 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 80-1-1 Sammy Secreet KO 1 (10), 1:02 1947-08-21 Rubber Bowl, Akron, Ohio Win 79-1-1 Jimmy Doyle TKO 8 (15), 1:02 1947-06-24 Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio Retained World Welterweight Title Win 78-1-1 Georgie Abrams SD 10 1947-05-16 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 77-1-1 Eddie Finazzo TKO 4 (10), 2:30 1947-04-08 Memorial Hall, Kansas City, Kansas Win 76-1-1 Freddie Wilson KO 3 (10) 1947-04-03 Akron Armory, Akron, Ohio Win 75-1-1 Bernie Miller TKO 3 (10), 1:32 1947-03-27 Dorsey Park, Miami, Florida Win 74-1-1 Tommy Bell UD 15 1946-12-20 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Won World Welterweight Title Win 73-1-1 Artie Levine KO 10 (10), 2:41 1946-11-06 Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio Win 72-1-1 Cecil Hudson KO 6 (10), 2:58 1946-11-01 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 71-1-1 Ossie Harris PTS 10 1946-10-07 Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Win 70-1-1 Sidney Miller KO 3 (10), 1:52 1946-09-25 Twin City Bowl, Elizabeth, New Jersey Win 69-1-1 Vinnie Vines KO 6 (10), 2:46 1946-08-15 Hawkins Stadium, Albany, New York Win 68-1-1 Joe Curcio KO 2 (10), 0:10 1946-07-12 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 67-1-1 Norman Rubio PTS 10 1946-06-25 Roosevelt Stadium, Union City, New Jersey Win 66-1-1 Freddie Wilson KO 2 (10), 2:00 1946-06-12 Worcester Auditorium, Worcester, Massachusetts Win 65-1-1 Freddie Flores KO 5 (10), 2:52 1946-03-21 Golden Gate Arena, New York, New York Win 64-1-1 Izzy Jannazzo UD 10 1946-03-14 Fifth Regiment Armory, Baltimore, Maryland Win 63-1-1 Sammy Angott UD 10 1946-03-04 Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Win 62-1-1 Cliff Beckett KO 4 (10) 1946-02-27 Saint Louis Arena, Saint Louis, Missouri Win 61-1-1 O'Neill Bell KO 2 (10), 1:01 1946-02-15 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 60-1-1 Tony Riccio TKO 4 (10), 2:16 1946-02-05 Elizabeth Armory, Elizabeth, New Jersey Win 59-1-1 Dave Clark TKO 2 (10), 2:22 1946-01-14 Duquesne Gardens, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Win 58-1-1 Vic Dellicurti UD 10 1945-12-04 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Win 57-1-1 Jake LaMotta SD 12 1945-09-26 Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois Win 56-1-1 Jimmy Mandell TKO 5 (10), 1:31 1945-09-18 Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, Buffalo, New York Win 55-1-1 Jimmy McDaniels TKO 2 (10), 1:23 1945-06-15 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Draw 54-1-1 José Basora PTS 10 1945-05-14 Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 54-1 Jake LaMotta UD 10 1945-02-23 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 53-1 George Costner KO 1 (10), 2:55 1945-02-14 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Win 52-1 Tommy Bell UD 10 1945-01-16 Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio Win 51-1 Billy Furrone TKO 2 (10), 2:28 1945-01-10 Uline Arena, Washington, District of Columbia Win 50-1 George Martin TKO 8 (10) 1944-12-22 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Win 49-1 Sheik Rangel TKO 2 (10), 2:50 1944-12-12 Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 48-1 Vic Dellicurti UD 10 1944-11-24 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 47-1 Lou Woods TKO 9 (10) 1944-10-27 Chicago Stadium, Chicago, Illinois Win 46-1 Izzy Jannazzo TKO 2 (10), 1:10 1944-10-13 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Win 45-1 Henry Armstrong UD 10 1943-08-27 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 44-1 Ralph Zannelli UD 10 1943-07-01 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Win 43-1 Freddie Cabral KO 1 (10), 2:20 1943-04-30 Boston Garden, Boston, Massachusetts Win 42-1 Jake LaMotta UD 10 1943-02-26 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 41-1 California Jackie Wilson MD 10 1943-02-19 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Loss 40-1 Jake LaMotta UD 10 1943-02-05 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 40-0 Al Nettlow TKO 3 (10) 1942-12-14 Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 39-0 Izzy Jannazzo TKO 8 (10), 2:43 1942-12-01 Cleveland Arena, Cleveland, Ohio Win 38-0 Vic Dellicurti UD 10 1942-11-06 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 37-0 Izzy Jannazzo UD 10 1942-10-19 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 36-0 Jake LaMotta UD 10 1942-10-02 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 35-0 Tony Motisi KO 1 (10), 2:41 1942-08-27 Comiskey Park, Chicago, Illinois Win 34-0 Reuben Shank KO 2 (10), 2:26 1942-08-21 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 33-0 Sammy Angott UD 10 1942-07-31 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 32-0 Marty Servo SD 10 1942-05-28 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 31-0 Dick Banner KO 2 (10) 1942-04-30 Minneapolis Armory, Minneapolis, Minnesota Win 30-0 Harvey Dubs TKO 6 (10) 1942-04-17 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 29-0 Norman Rubio TKO 8 (12) 1942-03-20 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 28-0 Maxie Berger TKO 2 (12), 1:43 1942-02-20 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 27-0 Fritzie Zivic TKO 10 (12), 0:31 1942-01-16 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 26-0 Fritzie Zivic UD 10 1941-10-31 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 25-0 Marty Servo UD 10 1941-09-25 Philadelphia Convention Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 24-0 Maxie Shapiro TKO 3 (10), 2:04 1941-09-19 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 23-0 Maurice Arnault TKO 1 (8), 1:29 1941-08-29 Atlantic City Convention Hall, Atlantic City, New Jersey Win 22-0 Carl Guggino TKO 3 (8), 2:47 1941-08-27 Queensboro Arena, Queens, New York Win 21-0 Sammy Angott UD 10 1941-07-21 Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 20-0 Pete Lello TKO 4 (8), 1:48 1941-07-02 Polo Grounds, New York, New York Win 19-0 Mike Evans KO 2 (8), 0:52 1941-06-16 Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 18-0 Nick Castiglione KO 1 (10), 1:21 1941-05-19 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 17-0 Victor Troise TKO 1 (8), 2:39 1941-05-10 Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York Win 16-0 Joe Ghnouly TKO 3 (8), 2:07 1941-04-30 Uline Arena, Washington, District of Columbia Win 15-0 Charley Burns KO 1 (10) 1941-04-24 Waltz Dream Arena, Atlantic City, New Jersey Win 14-0 Jimmy Tygh TKO 1 (10), 1:51 1941-04-14 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 13-0 Jimmy Tygh KO 8 (10), 1:13 1941-03-03 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 12-0 Gene Spencer TKO 5 (6) 1941-02-27 Olympia Stadium, Detroit, Michigan Win 11-0 Bobby McIntire UD 6 1941-02-21 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 10-0 Benny Cartagena KO 1 (6), 1:33 1941-02-08 Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York Win 9-0 George Zengaras PTS 6 1941-01-31 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 8-0 Frankie Wallace TKO 1 (6), 2:10 1941-01-13 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 7-0 Harry LaBarba KO 1 (6), 0:40 1941-01-04 Ridgewood Grove, Brooklyn, New York Win 6-0 Oliver White TKO 3 (4) 1940-12-13 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Win 5-0 Norment Quarles TKO 4 (8), 0:56 1940-12-09 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 4-0 Bobby Woods KO 1 (6), 1:31 1940-11-11 Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Win 3-0 Mitsos Grispos UD 6 1940-10-22 New York Coliseum, Bronx, New York Win 2-0 Silent Stafford TKO 2 (4) 1940-10-08 Municipal Auditorium, Savannah, Georgia Win 1-0 Joe Echevarria TKO 2 (4), 0:51 1940-10-04 Madison Square Garden, New York, New York Professional Debut
- List of male boxers
- Ring Magazine pound for pound
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao Sugar Ray Robinson, boxrec.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Businessman Boxer, TIME, June 25, 1951, available online via time.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b c d Sugar Ray Robinson Returns to the Ring to a 'Stamping Ovation' of 100 Million, usps.com, April 7, 2006, accessed June 5, 2007.
- ^ a b Robinson and Anderson, pg. 7.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 8–9.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 5.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Flatter, Ron. The sugar in the sweet science, espn.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b c Nichols, Joseph C.Harlem Fighter Still Unbeaten, The New York Times, November 1, 1941, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b Dawson, James P. Robinson Knocks Out Zivic in Tenth Round to Score 27th Victory in Row, The New York Times, January 17, 1942, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Nichols, Joseph C. Robinson Takes Unanimous Decision Over La Motta in Garden 10-Round Bout,The New York Times, October 3, 1942, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b c Associated Press. Robinson's Streak Ended by LaMotta, The New York Times, February 6, 1943, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 110.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 120-129.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 126-130.
- ^ Ray Robinson, fbi.gov, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 130.
- ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pgs. 94
- ^ Sugar: Too sweet for Raging Bull, bbc.co.uk, July 13, 2001, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e f Sugar Ray Robinson, Contemporary Black Biography, The Gale Group, 2006 ISBN 0-7876-7927-5, available online via Answers.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pg. 93
- ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pgs. 105–06
- ^ a b Anderson, Dave. Sports of the Times; The Original Sugar Ray 'Never Lost', The New York Times, April 13, 1989, accessed April 10, 2008.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 165.
- ^ Jake LaMotta, boxrec.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pgs. 187–88.
- ^ Dethroned in London, The New York Times, July 15, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Sugar Ray Gives Mme. Auriol Kiss; Boxer as Cancer Fund 'Envoy,' Busses French Chief's Wife Twice on Each Cheek, The New York Times, May 17, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Sugar's Lumps, TIME, July 23, 1951, available online at time.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Daley, Arthur. Sports of The Times; For the Championship, The New York Times, September 12, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Harlem Hails Robinson; More Than 10,000 Cheer Verdict, Sing and Dance in Street, The New York Times, September 13, 1951, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Sugar Ray Robinson Named Fighter Of Year, St. Petersburg Times, December 27, 1951, accessed October 14, 2010.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 227.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson. pg. 227
- ^ Robinson and Anderson. pg. 266
- ^ Nichols, Joseph C. Utah 160-Pounder to Defend Crown, The New York Times, May 1, 1957, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b c d e Nichols, Joseph C. Robinson Knocks Out Fullmer in Fifth Round to Regain Middleweight Crown, The New York Times, May 2, 1957 accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Fitzgerald and Hudson. pg. 40
*Gene Fullmer, ibhof.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Basilio Takes Title By Beating Robinson, The New York Times, September 24, 1957, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b Nichols, Joseph C. Robinson Outpoints Basilio and Wins World Middleweight Title Fifth Time.The New York Times, March 26, 1958, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b nichols, Joseph C. 5-1 Choice Loses A Split Decision, The New York Times, January 23, 1960, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Conkilin, William R. Robinson Beats Moyer in Ten-Rounder Here, The New York Times, October 22, 1961, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Teague, Robert L. Denny Moyer Defeats Robinson, The New York Times, February 18, 1962, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b Left Hook Floors Sugar Ray in 4th, The New York Times, June 25, 1963, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b Associated Press. Robinson Beaten in Archer Fight, The New York Times, November 11, 1965, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Associated Press. Robinson Declares Bout With Archer Was His Last Fight, The New York Times, November 12, 1965, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 4.
- ^ Mission Impossible, accessed October 14, 2010.
- ^ Wiley. pg. 223
- ^ a b Pace, Frank. Keeping Pace with Sugar Ray Robinson, LA Sports Magazine, August 1976, available online via hofmag.com, accessed June 5, 2007.
- ^ a b Edna Mae Robinson, ex-wife of boxing champ Sugar Ray Robinson, dies, JET, May 27, 2002, available online via findarticles.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pp. 91-2.
- ^ Chenault. pg. 31
- ^ Ray Robinson's' Sister Dies, The New York Times, April 21, 1959, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b Wiley. pg. 221
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 75.
- ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pg. 271
- ^ a b c Sugar Ray Robinson quotes, cgmworldwide.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Hauser. pg. 29
- ^ a b Sugar Ray Bio, cgmworldwide.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
*Review Joe and Teddy Pick Their Top Fighters, espn.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
* Smith, Michael David. ESPN Greatest Boxers List: Sugar Ray Robinson No. 1, aolsports.com, May 13, 2007, accessed June 6, 2007.
* Wiley. pg. 226
*Anderson, Dave. Sugar Ray Robinson, Boxing's 'Best,' Is Dead, The New York Times, April 13, 1989, accessed April 10, 2008.
* Trickett, Alex, and Dirs, Ben. Who is the greatest of them all?, bbc.co.uk, June 13, 2005, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ a b Mulvaney, Kieran. Who's the Greatest?, espn.com, accessed March 18, 2009.
- ^ Kehoe, Patrick. Ray Robinson: The champions’ champion. secondsout.com, accessed June 4, 2007.
- ^ Hauser. pg. 212
- ^ Associated Press. Sugar Ray named century's best, espn.com, December 8, 1999, accessed March 4, 2009.
- ^ Ring Magazine's 100 Greatest Punchers, The Ring, (2003), available online at about.com, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Boyd and Robinson II. pg. 105
- ^ Goldman, Albert. Sugar Ray: Is He a Black Gable?, The New York Times, October 8, 1968, accessed June 6, 2007.
* Sammons. pg. xii
*The Man Who Comes Back, TIME, April 7, 1958, available via time.com accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Fitzgerald and Hudson. pgs. 205–06
- ^ Robinson and Anderson, pg. 169.
- ^ Daley, Robert. Sugar Ray Is Still Young in Paris; Age Hasn't Dimmed Robinson's Skills in Frenchmen's Eyes, The New York Times, May 13, 1962, accessed June 6, 2007.
- ^ Anderson, Dave For Some People there is only One Sugar Ray, The New York Times, reprinted in The Miami News, June 18, 1980, accessed August 24, 2010.
- ^ Schuyler, Ed. Article: Sugar Shane wants to look sweet for Sugar Ray, Associated Press online, September 21, 1998, accessed August 24, 2010.
- ^ Iole, Kevin. Few pegged Rashad Evans’ main-event status, mmajunkie.com, September 06, 2008, accessed August 24, 2010.
- Boyd, Herb, and Robinson, Ray II. Pound for Pound: A Biography of Sugar Ray Robinson, New York: HarperCollins, 2005 ISBN 0060188766
- Chenault, Julie. Edna Mae Robinson Still Looking Good in Her Mink. Jet, Johnson Publishing Company Nov 5, 1981 issue ISSN 0021-5996 (available online)
- Donelson, Thomas, and Lotierzo, Frank. Viewing Boxing from Ringside, Lincoln: iUniverse, 2002 ISBN 0595237487
- Fitzgerald, Mike H., and Hudson, Dabid L. Boxing's Most Wanted: The Top Ten Book of Champs, Chumps and Punch-drunk Palookas, Virginia: Brassey's, 2004 ISBN 1574887149
- Hauser, Thomas. The Black Lights: Inside the World of Professional Boxing, Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2000 ISBN 1557285977
- Robinson, Sugar Ray, and Anderson, Dave. Sugar Ray, London: Da Capo Press, 1994 ISBN 030680574X
- Sammons, Jeffrey Thomas. Beyond the Ring: The Role of Boxing in American Society, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1998 ISBN 0252061454
- Wiley, Ralph. Serenity: A Boxing Memoir, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2000 ISBN 0803298161
Achievements Preceded by
World Welterweight Champion
20 Dec 1946– 14 Feb 1951
Recognized by NBA
World Middleweight Champion
14 Feb 1951– 10 Jul 1951
World Middleweight Champion
12 Sep 1951– Dec 1952
Carl (Bobo) Olson
Carl (Bobo) Olson
World Middleweight Champion
9 Dec 1955– 2 Jan 1957
World Middleweight Champion
1 May 1957– 23 Sep 1957
World Middleweight Champion
25 Mar 1958– 22 Jan 1960
Only recognized by New York and Massachusetts at time of title loss
Awards Preceded by
Ring Magazine Fighter of the Year
Ring Magazine Fighter of the Year
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Sugar Ray Robinson — D … Deutsch Wikipedia
'Sugar' Ray Robinson — ‘Sugar’ Ray Robinson [Sugar Ray Robinson] (1920–89) a US ↑boxer who many people regard as the greatest of all time. He was the World Welterweight Champion (1946) and then the only person to become World Middleweight Champion five times. During… … Useful english dictionary
Sugar Ray Robinson — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Robinson. Sugar Ray Robinson Sugar Ray Robinson 1965 Fiche d’identité … Wikipédia en Français
Sugar Ray Robinson — Sugar Ray Robinson … Wikipedia Español
Sugar Ray Robinson — noun United States prizefighter who won the world middleweight championship five times and the world welterweight championship once (1921 1989) • Syn: ↑Robinson, ↑Ray Robinson, ↑Walker Smith • Instance Hypernyms: ↑prizefighter, ↑gladiator … Useful english dictionary
‘Sugar’ Ray Robinson — ➡ Robinson (VII) * * * … Universalium
Sugar Ray Leonard — Fiche d’identité Nom complet Ray Charles Leonard Surnom Sugar Nationalité … Wikipédia en Français
Sugar ray leonard — Fiche d’identité Nom complet Ray Charles Leonard Surnom Sugar Nationalité … Wikipédia en Français
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Ray Robinson (disambiguation) — Ray Robinson may refer to one of the following people:*Ray Robinson (1914 1965), Australian cricket player *Ray A. Robinson (1896 1976), United States Marine Corps general *Sugar Ray Robinson (1921 1989), American boxer *Ray Charles (1930 2004),… … Wikipedia