- Series (stratigraphy)
Series are subdivisions of rock layers made based on the age of the rock. A series is therefore a chronostratigraphic unit, unrelated to
lithostratigraphy, which divides rock layers on their lithology. Series are subdivisions of systems and are themselves divided into stages.
Series is a term defining a unit of rocklayers formed in a certain interval in time; it is equivalent to the term "geological epoch"
epoch criteriadefining the interval of time itself, although the two words are sometimes confused in informal literature.
eries in the geological timescale
The geological timescale has all gSystems in the
Phanerozoic eonothemsubdivided into series. Some of these have their own names, in other cases a system is simply divided into a Lower, Middle and Upper series. The Cretaceoussystem is for example divided into the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Cretaceous series; while the Carboniferoussystem is divided in the Pennsylvanianand Mississippianseries. In 2008, the International Commission on Stratigraphyhad not yet named all four series of the Cambrian. Currently series are limited to the Phanerozoic, but the ICS has stated its intention of subdividing the three systems of the Neoproterozoic( Ediacaran, Cryogenianand Tonian) into stages too.
ystems and lithostratigraphy
Systems can include many lithostratigraphic units (for example formations, beds, members, etc.) of differing rock types that were being laid down in different environments at the same time. In the same way, a lithostratigraphic unit can include a number of systems or parts of them.
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