Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan


Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan

Drinking water quality

Generally, water pressure is low in Pakistani supply systems. Together with leaky pipes, this has led to infiltration of contaminated water. As a result of sewage and industrial waste, which leaked into drinking water through damaged pipes, major outbreaks of waterborne disease epidemics swept the cities of Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar in 2006. Estimates indicate that each year, more than three million Pakistanis become infected with waterborne diseases. [Citation
newspaper = Weekly Independent
year = 2005
date = 2005-03-17
; cited in:cite journal
last = Water and Sanitation Program
title = Managing Karachi's water supply and sanitation services: lessons from a workshop
date = August 2004
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/11/28/000160016_20051128162902/Rendered/PDF/344430PK0Karachi0water0supply.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-04
, p. 3
]

In several areas, increased arsenic, nitrate and fluoride contamination was detected in drinking water.cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Planning and Development
title = Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10. Section 10: Water and Sanitation
location = Islamabad
date = 2004
url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/ministries/planninganddevelopment-ministry/mtdf/10-Water%20and%20Sanitation/10-Water%20&%20Sanitation.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, section 10.3.] The National Drinking Water Policy calls for safe water supply to the entire population by 2020. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Drinking Water Policy. Draft
date = November 2007
url = http://www.environment.gov.pk/NEP/DWPolicy-29Nov2007.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 4
] The situation may improve due to the Clean Drinking Water for All Programme (see below). [cite journal
last = Khan
first = Faheem Jehangir
coauthors = Javed, Yaser
title = Delivering Access to Safe Drinking Water and Adequate Sanitation in Pakistan
journal = PIDE-Working Papers
volume = 2007
issue = 30
publisher = Pakistan Institute of Development Economics
location = Islamabad
date = 2007
url = http://econpapers.repec.org/scripts/redir.pl?u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.pide.org.pk%2Fpdf%2FWorking%2520Paper%2FWorkingPaper-30.pdf;h=repec:pid:wpaper:2007:30
accessdate = 2008-06-02
, p. 18-19
]

Wastewater treatment

The Pakistani Ministry of Water and Power reported in 2002 that only 1% of the domestic and industrial wastewater receives treatment. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
authorlink =
title = Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Executive Summary. Volume 1
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol1.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 7
] According to the Pakistan Water Situational Analysis, there are three wastewater treatment plants in Islamabad, of which only one is functional. Karachi has two trickling filters, where effluents generally receive screening and sedimentation. Lahore has some screening and grit removal systems, but they are hardly functional. In Faisalabad, there is a wastewater treatment plant, in which wastewater receives primary treatment. In rural areas, wastewater treatment is nonexistent, leading to pollution of surface and groundwater. [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 22-23
]

History and recent developments

History

After Pakistan's independence in 1947, national water policies were defined in the government's five-year plans, which were replaced by a ten-year plan in 2001. Given the economic impact of the agricultural sector in the country, the plans were mainly focused on irrigation instead of rural and urban water supply. In the particular cases, the first and second five-year plans emphasized the increasing application of water for increasing productivity and control of waterlogging and salinity, which together with water conservation continued to be an element of the third and fourth five-year plans. The fifth, sixth and seventh plans dealt with water management, the reduction of water losses and increased user participation in the improvement of watercourses. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
authorlink =
title = Pakistan Water Seector Strategy. National Water Sector Profile. Volume 5
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol5.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 15-16
] The eighth and last plan provided for the formation of farmer organizations and decentralization of water management through Area Water Boards. [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis
date = 2005
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 10
] However, the plans have not always been implemented accordingly. [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis.
date = 2005
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 24
]

The existing water supply and sanitation facilities are mostly the product of a top-down approach, usually constructed by the Public Health Engineering Departments (PHEDs) and in many cases expensive and difficult to maintain for local communities. Hygiene education and user participation were neglected until 1992, when the federal government launched the Social Action Plan, which suggested various policy reforms concerning water supply and sanitation. This included user participation, hygiene promotion and low-cost technologies.cite journal
last = Ahmad
first = Malick Zulfiqar
title = Pakistan - Water and Sanitation Services in a Devolved Government System
journal = 31st WEDC International Conference
location = Kampala
date = 2005
url = http://www.dfid.gov.uk/pubs/files/max-benefits-wands.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-02
]

Recent developments

Until the 21st century, Pakistani water sector policies were mainly focused on water resources and irrigation. [For a list of the main legislation in the water sector until 2001, see: cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
authorlink =
title = Pakistan Water Seector Strategy. National Water Sector Profile. Volume 5
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol5.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 7
] This has changed with the National Drinking Water Policy (NDWP), the National Sanitation Policy (NSP) and the Clean Drinking Water for All Programme, which were prepared by the Ministry of Environment as integral parts of the Medium Term Development Framework (MTDF) 2005-2010. The MTDF provides about US$2 billion (120 billion rupee) for water and sanitation schemes. In addition, a Safe Drinking Water Act will be adopted under the MTDF to ensure compliance with the Pakistan Drinking Water Quality Standards. [cite journal
last = Bridges
first = Geoff
coauthors = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
title = Asian Water Development Outlook 2007. Country Paper Pakistan
date = 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/AWDO/2007/cr08.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 7
] A major shift of sector responsibility took place under the 2001 Local Government Ordinance.cite journal
last = Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
title = South Asian Conference on Sanitation 2003. Chapter 4: Country Papers on Sanitation
publisher = Water and Sanitation Program-South Asia
location = Dhaka, Bangladesh
date = June 2004
url = http://www.buet.ac.bd/itn/pages/publications/sacosan_2003/Chapter%204.pdf
isbn = 984-32-1500-1
accessdate = 2008-06-04
, p. 160]

Local Government Ordinance

Until the 2001 Local Government Ordinance (LGO), the PHED has been responsible for the development and maintenance of water and sanitation services in rural areas, whereas in urban areas services were provided by Development Authorities and Water and Sanitation Authorities (WASAs). Under the LGO, three tiers of local governments were created, namely District, Tehsil and Union Councils. The responsibility for water supply and sanitation was devolved to Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMAs), the second-lowest tier of local government in Pakistan, comparable to counties or sub-districts. The PHED was supposed to be merged into the Provincial Local Government Department. The staff was supposed to be devolved at the TMA level.

However it should be noted that the decentralization has not been implemented in all areas.cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Planning and Development
title = Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10. Section 10: Water and Sanitation
location = Islamabad
date = 2004
url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/ministries/planninganddevelopment-ministry/mtdf/10-Water%20and%20Sanitation/10-Water%20&%20Sanitation.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, section 10.4.] [cite journal
last = Water and Sanitation Program
title = Managing Karachi's water supply and sanitation services: lessons from a workshop
date = August 2004
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/11/28/000160016_20051128162902/Rendered/PDF/344430PK0Karachi0water0supply.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-04
, p. 5-7
] In 2008, it was reported that PHEDs were still active in water supply development, operation and maintenance, particularly in areas where the schemes spread across more than one tehsil. In those cases, the PHEDs usually develop supply-driven schemes with little or no participation of TMAs. In addition, the devolution took place differently in all provinces. According to a 2003 document, the PHED remains fully functional in the Balochistan Province and in the Punjab Province, local government powers were recentralized.

National Drinking Water Policy (NDWP)

In November 2007, the Ministry of Environment issued a draft form of the NDWP. It has been sent to all Pakistani provinces to solicit their comments and views. A main objective is a clearer segregation between the functions of service provision and regulation. The draft NDWP provides for an equitable provision of safe drinking water to the entire Pakistani population by 2020, including the poor and vulnerable at an affordable cost. The federal state is made responsible for ensuring the provision. The reduction of mortality and morbidity caused by waterborne diseases is included. Under the draft document, the right to water for drinking precedes all other purposes, like industrial or agricultural water use. Women are recognized as main actors of domestic water supply, and their active participation in the sector is ensured by the NDWP. In accordance with the LGO, the document highlights the responsibility of local governments to provide drinking water.

The guidelines of the draft include among others an increased access through the construction and rehabilitation of drinking water systems, water treatment as an integral part of water supply systems in order to improve drinking water quality, increased user participation and private sector participation and the promotion of a sector-wide approach for the water and sanitation sector. The policy is expected to be reviewed and updated every five years to examine its implementation and efficacy and to adapt it to the changing situation in the country. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Drinking Water Policy. Draft
date = November 2007
url = http://www.environment.gov.pk/NEP/DWPolicy-29Nov2007.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
]

National Sanitation Policy (NSP)

The NSP, approved by the federal government in 2006, [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Drinking Water Policy. Draft
date = November 2007
url = http://www.environment.gov.pk/NEP/DWPolicy-29Nov2007.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 10
] is focused on the safe disposal of excreta through the use of latrines, the creation of an open defecation free environment, safe disposal of liquid and solid waste and the promotion of health and hygiene practices. In order to support the implementation of the guidelines, effective institutional and financial frameworks are envisaged. Sanitation programs are linked with environment, housing, water and regional planning policies and programs. Furthermore, the federal government provides incentives for the implementation of the NSP in the form of rewards for open defecation-free tehsils/towns, 100% sanitation coverage tehsils/towns, the cleanest tehsils/towns and the cleanest industrial estates or clusters.

The roles and responsibilities of all stakeholders are accepted and coordinated. This includes government institutions, the private sector, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), Community-Based Organizations (CBOs), communities, individual households and the electronic and print media. The policy officially promotes the grassroots concept of community-led total sanitation (CLTS) in smaller communities with less than 1,000 inhabitants. In larger communities, the NSP provides for the component sharing model, under which sewage and wastewater treatment facilities are provided by the communities in the case that local government developed disposal is not available. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Sanitation Policy.
date = September 2006
url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/divisions/environment-division/media/Sanitation%20Policy.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-30
]

Clean Drinking Water for All Programme

The Clean Drinking Water for All Programme together with the Clean Drinking Water Initiative aim to improve the quality of drinking water. Under both, water treatment facilities are to be constructed. The US$8.2 million Clean Drinking Water Initiative provides for the construction of 445 water purification plants of 2,000 gallons per day in all Pakistani tehsils.

The Clean Drinking Water for All Programme by the Federal Government aims at delivering one filter plant to each Pakistani Union Council. The plants are expected to be maintained through contracting out for three subsequent years. It is estimated that one water filtration plant will serve 2-20% of each Union Council's population, which on average have 20,000 inhabitants. Altogether, under the US$168 million programme, the establishment of 6,035 purification plants with capacities of 500, 1,000 and 2,000 gallons per day is planned. [cite journal
last = Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = Clean Drinking Water for All (CDWA)
url = http://www.environment.gov.pk/PRO_PDF/CDWA-Briefs.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-02
]

Responsibility for water supply and sanitation

Policy and regulation

Drinking water and sanitation policy is the constitutional responsibility of provincial governments. However, the federal government is involved in poliy development and guidelines setting, mostly through the Ministry of Environment. There is no independent regulatory agency in the sector.cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
authorlink =
title = Pakistan Water Seector Strategy. Executive Summary. Volume 1
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol1.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 6]

The Ministry of Health is expected to set water quality standards and monitor drinking water quality in the country. Poor coordination with between the ministry and other authorities have been reported. The Health Services Academy under the Ministry of Health published Quality Drinking Water Standards for Pakistan in May 2007. [cite journal
last = Health Services Academy, Ministry of Health, Government of Pakistan
coauthors = World Health Organization (WHO)
title = Quality Drinking Water: Standards for Pakistan. Includes Legislating, Implementing and Monitoring Framework
date = May 2007
url = http://www.hsa.edu.pk/aboutus/news/2008/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20Final%20DWQ%20Standards%20for%20Pakistan.pdf
accessdate = 2008-07-02
] It should be noted that these standards were not officially implemented and monitored in 2008.

ervice provision

Since the 2001 Local Government Ordinance, water supply and sanitation services are expected to be delivered by the newly created Tehsil Municipal Administrations (TMAs) (see above). At the same time, responsibilities for coordination and joint implementation across TMAs were devolved to District Governments, including City District Governments in the largest cities and Common Districts. However, as indicated above constant challenges in the transition period were reported and PHEDs remain active in many regions.

In urban areas, local governments have formed public sector water boards or, in the case of the City District Governments, a total of seven Water and Sanitation Agencies (WASAs). [cite journal
last = Bridges
first = Geoff
coauthors = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
title = Asian Water Development Outlook 2007. Country Paper Pakistan
date = 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/AWDO/2007/cr08.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 8
] In Karachi, the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB) under the local government provides the services. [cite journal
last = Ahmed
first = Noman
coauthors = Sohail, Muhammad
title = Alternate water supply arrangements in peri-urban localities: awami (people’s) tanks in Orangi township, Karachi
journal = Environment and Urbanization
volume = 15
issue = 2
pages = 33-42
publisher = SAGE Publications
date = 2003
url = http://eau.sagepub.com/cgi/reprint/15/2/33.pdf
doi = 10.1177/095624780301500218
accessdate = 2008-06-05
, p. 34
]

There is little participation of private companies. However, there have been a few service contracts with the private sector. This can partly be explained by low cost recovery in the sector. [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis
date = 2005
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 41-42
] NGOs are particularly active in sanitation, and have reached some notable achievements. [cite journal
last = Bridges
first = Geoff
coauthors = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
title = Asian Water Development Outlook 2007. Country Paper Pakistan
date = 2007
url = http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/AWDO/2007/cr08.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 10
]

Under the National Drinking Water and Sanitation Policies, the participation of the private sector as well as NGOs is encouraged. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Drinking Water Policy. Draft
date = November 2007
url = http://www.environment.gov.pk/NEP/DWPolicy-29Nov2007.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 8
] [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Sanitation Policy.
date = September 2006
url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/divisions/environment-division/media/Sanitation%20Policy.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-30
, p. 20
]

Orangi Pilot Project

Orangi is a large informal low-income settlement located in Karachi and place of a user participation success story. The Orangi Pilot Project (OPP) was initiated by an NGO under Dr. Akhtar Hameed Khan in 1980 in order to improve the poor sanitation conditions through a low-cost sanitation program with active user participation. A main feature of the project is the component sharing model. The first component is responsibility of the communities, which receive technical assistance. The community develops and constructs primary household sanitary latrines, underground sewers and neighborhood collector sewers. Those are connected to main sewers and treatment plants, which form the second component and are constructed with public funds. The OPP was very successful and about 100,000 households have developed their own sanitation systems in Orangi. The project was replicated by NGOs and CBOs in other Pakistani cities. [cite journal
last = Hasan
first = Arif
title = The Orangi Pilot Project: Research and Training Institute’s Mapping Process and Its Repercussions
publisher = Orangi Pilot Project, International Institute for Environment and Development
location = Karachi
date = 2005
] The component sharing model is encouraged under the 2006 National Sanitation Policy. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Sanitation Policy.
date = September 2006
url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/divisions/environment-division/media/Sanitation%20Policy.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-30
, p. 9; 11; 14; 16; 20
]

Lodhran Pilot Project

Inspired by the OPP, a pilot project emerged in Lodhran District in 1999. The project follows a low cost, community owned rural sanitation model based on a participatory approach. In 2004, the Lodhran Pilot Project (LPP) received a US$1.1 million grant by the World Bank-administered Japan Social Development Fund (JSDF) to expand the model in 100 villages in Southern Punjab. Under the grant, TMAs receive technical assistance concerning public private partnerships, training and capacity building and communication. [cite web
last = World Bank
authorlink = World Bank
title = NGO Gets A Million Dollar WB Administered Japanese Grant For Sanitation
date = 2004-11-10
url = http://www.worldbank.org.pk/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/PAKISTANEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20279839~isCURL:Y~menuPK:293072~pagePK:64027988~piPK:64027986~theSitePK:293052,00.html
accessdate = 2008-07-03
] [cite web
last = Lodhran Pilot Project
title = Website
url = http://www.lpp.org.pk/
accessdate = 2008-07-03
]

Community-led total sanitation (CLTS)

In Pakistan, the concept of Community-led total sanitation (CLTS) was first introduced as a pilot project in Mardan District in the North West Frontier Province in 2003. A main objective of the concept is to create open defecation free villages through behavioral change in the whole community, rather than to construct sanitation facilities for individual households. Since then, CLTS has spread rapidly in the whole country and became a main feature of the National Sanitation Policy, which provides financial rewards for defined outcomes. Development agencies began to link their funding and incentives to theopen defecation free status. For example, the Khushal Pakistan Fund has allocated about US$200 million (12 billion Pakistani rupees [1 Pakistani Rupee = US$0.01631 (2007-12-31); source: http://oanda.com] ) to community infrastructure projects in open defecation free communities.

In addition, several organizations like Plan Pakistan and WaterAid have integrated CLTS in their strategies and projects. CLTS projects were active in all four Pakistani regions in 2007. NGOs were implementing CLTS in about 20 districts in 2008. At the same time, more than 130 defecation free villages already existed in Pakistan. [cite web
last = Masroor Ahmad, Water and Sanitation Program, the World Bank
title = Sanitation Movement Gains Ground in Pakistan
date = 2007-11-01
url = http://www.wsp.org/index.cfm?page=page_disp&pid=10506
accessdate = 2008-07-02
]

Efficiency

There is little evidence concerning efficiency in the Pakistani water supply and sanitation sector. However, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) prepared a document, which includes the respective data for the cities of Rawalpindi, Karachi and Lahore. Furthermore, data from six major cities were reported during a 2005 workshop in Karachi.

Non-revenue water

The share of non-revenue water (NRW), water which is produced but not billed due to several reasons like leakage and illegal connections is estimated at 35% in urban areas. [cite web
last = Pakistan Water Gateway
title = The Pakistan Water Situational Analysis
date = 2005
url = http://waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/pwsa.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 20
] The ADB reported an amount of 30% NRW in Rawalpindi and Karachi, and 42% in Lahore. As indicated in table 3, officials from major Pakistani cities reported a higher share of NRW during a 2005 workshop, ranging from 40% to 50%. There is no agreement on appropriate levels of NRW among professionals. However, Tynan and Kingdom propose a best practice target of 23% in developing countries.The study uses data from 246 water utilities, of which half are in 44 developing countries. The utilities range from small ones, which serve fewer than 125,000 people to large ones, serving more than 500,000. All regions and within countries, all income levels are included. In each of the five categories (NRW, labor productivity, service coverage, water prices and connection costs and continuity of service), at least 30 utilities from developing countries and 30 from developed countries are included. The best practice targets for developing countries are based on the performance of the top 25 utilities of developing country utilities. The study uses data from the World Bank's Water and Sanitation Utilities database and the Asian Development Bank; see: cite journal
last = Tynan
first = Nicola
coauthors = Kingdom, Bill
title = A Water Scorecard. Setting Performance Targets for Water Utilities
journal = Public Policy Journal
issue = 242
publisher = The World Bank Group
date = 2002-04-01
url = http://rru.worldbank.org/documents/publicpolicyjournal/242Tynan-040802.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-19
]

Labor productivity

There are no updated and precise figures for labor productivity, measured in employees per 1,000 connections. However, the Ministry of Power and Environment indicated a poor performance in the country's major cities. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
authorlink =
title = Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Detailed Strategy Formulation. Volume 4
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol4.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 118
] The ADB found an average of 5.6 employees per 1,000 connections in Karachi. In Lahore and Rawalpindi, labor productivity is indicated lower at 9.5 and 12.7 employees per 1,000 connections, respectively. At the 2005 workshop, between 6 and 27 employees per 1,000 connections in major cities were reported (see table 3). [cite journal
last = Water and Sanitation Program
title = Managing Karachi's water supply and sanitation services: lessons from a workshop
date = August 2004
url = http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2005/11/28/000160016_20051128162902/Rendered/PDF/344430PK0Karachi0water0supply.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-04
, p. 6
] Tynan and Kingdom propose a best practice target of 5 employees per 1,000 connections in developing countries. However it should be mentioned that equally to NRW, this target is a suggestion of the authors, which is not established as official best practice target among professionals. [Wikipedia:Footnotes| [broken footnote]

Financial aspects

Tariffs and cost recovery

Low tariffs, together with poor collecion efficiency and overstaffing cause that many urban utilities do not cover the costs for operation and maintenance (O&M). The ADB found typical domestic tariffs of US$0.13 per m³ in Karachi and US$0.25 in Lahore (fixed charges excluded). The Ministry of Power and Water reported in 2002 that in smaller cities and towns part of the O&M costs had been financed with local taxes until recently. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
title = Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Water Sector Profile. Volume 5
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol5.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 245
] The National Drinking Water Policy calls for appropriate user charges, increased cost recovery and cross subsidies. Tariffs are supposed to become differentiated according to the income situation of the respective city and town areas. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Environment
authorlink = Ministry of Environment (Pakistan)
title = National Drinking Water Policy. Draft
date = November 2007
url = http://www.environment.gov.pk/NEP/DWPolicy-29Nov2007.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-28
, p. 5
]

Investment and financing

The sector strongly depends on internal and external financing. The Ministry of Power and Water reported in 2002 that in recent years, 49% of the total new investments in the water sector had been financed by external loans and 43% by the government. [It is likely that in this case, the federal government is meant; see: cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Water and Power
title = Pakistan Water Sector Strategy. Water Sector Profile. Volume 5
date = October 2002
url = http://www.waterinfo.net.pk/pdf/vol5.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, p. 105
] The MTDF recognizes that with 0.25% of its total GDP, Pakistan's investment in the water supply and sanitation sector is inadequate and provides for US$2 billion (120 billion rupee) or US$404 million per year for the sector from 2005 to 2010, half of which is to be paid by the federal and provincial governments, including the construction and rehabilitation of water supply schemes in urban and rural areas and wastewater treatment plants in provincial capitals. The other half is expected to be provided by the private sector and includes water supply systems, sewerage networks and wastewater treatment as part of new housing schemes in cities and towns. [cite journal
last = Government of Pakistan. Ministry of Planning and Development
title = Medium Term Development Framework 2005-10. Section 10: Water and Sanitation
location = Islamabad
date = 2004
url = http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/ministries/planninganddevelopment-ministry/mtdf/10-Water%20and%20Sanitation/10-Water%20&%20Sanitation.pdf
accessdate = 2008-05-29
, sections 10.3.; 10.7.
]

External cooperation

The sector receives much support from development partners, among them the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC).

Asian Development Bank

The ADB financed the Punjab Community Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project with US$50 million, which was active in rural villages in all districts of the Punjab province from 2003 until the end of 2007. As a result, about 2.5 million additional people in 778 villages were provided with water supply and sanitation facilities with full cost recovery. CBOs maintain and operate the schemes and charge the users. Tehsil municipal administrations were strengthened and received training under the project. In addition, communities received training in health and hygiene practices and the construction of latrines. The project also established a link between the beneficiary communities and micro finance institutions, which have disbursed about US$4 million to about 15,000 borrowers in 617 communities. [cite journal
last = Asian Development Bank (ADB)
authorlink = Asian Development Bank
title = Punjab Community Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project : Pakistan
url = http://pid.adb.org:8040/pid/LoanView.htm?projNo=35314&seqNo=01&typeCd=3
accessdate = 2008-06-04
]

Japan Bank for International Cooperation

Under the Metropolitan Water Supply Project (Khanpur I), implemented between 1994 and 2000, the JBIC contributed to the improvement of water supply in the Islamabad Metropolitan Area, including Rawalpindi. The total amount disbursed was US$109 million (12,442 million Yen). [1 Japanese Yen = US$0.008742 (2000-12-31); source: http://oanda.com] Among other things, water purification facilities with a capacity of 281,000 m³ per day, water supply facilities and water storage facilities were constructed to meet the increasing demand for water supply. [cite journal
last = Japan Bank for International Cooperation
authorlink = Japan Bank for International Cooperation
title = Metropolitan Water Supply Project (Khanpur I)
date = February 2003
url = http://www.jbic.go.jp/english/oec/post/2003/pdf/2-27_full.pdf
accessdate = 2008-06-04
]

World Bank

econd Karachi Water Supply

Under the second Karachi Water Supply Project, the World Bank contributed with US$92 million to increase water supply coverage and sanitation in Karachi and to improve operation, management and financial viability of the Karachi Water and Sewerage Board (KWSB). The project started in 1993 and provided for the construction of a canal to bring water from the Indus River, pumping stations, water and wastewater treatment facilities. In low income areas, small bore sewers were to be built. The operational efficiency of KWSB was expected to improve through technical assistance by the World Bank and increased cost reduction measures, e.g. reduction of water losses. [cite journal
last = World Bank
authorlink = World Bank
title = Projects - Pakistan : 2nd Karachi Water Supply
date = 2001-01-30
url = http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?pagePK=64283627&piPK=73230&theSitePK=40941&menuPK=228424&Projectid=P010366
accessdate = 2008-06-03
]

Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project

The World Bank contributed with US$137 million to the Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project, which was active from 1991 to 2000 in the self-governing Pakistani state of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The main objectives of the project were to improve rural productivity and health and reduce poverty and deprivation. The components of the project included the construction and rehabilitation of water supply and sanitation schemes, institutional strengthening and training, latrine construction materials accompanied by health education and promotion, water resources and sanitation studies and private sector support. [cite journal
last = World Bank
authorlink = World Bank
title = Projects - Pakistan : Rural Water Supply & Sanitation Project
date = 2001-01-30
url = http://web.worldbank.org/external/projects/main?Projectid=P010366&Type=News&theSitePK=40941&pagePK=64308295&menuPK=64282138&piPK=64309265
accessdate = 2008-06-03
]

References

ee also

*Karachi Water and Sewerage Board
*Water resources management in Pakistan

External links

* [http://www.pakistan.gov.pk/ministries/index.jsp?MinID=24&cPath=291 Ministry of Water and Power]
* [http://www.wapda.gov.pk/ Water and Power Development Authority]
* [http://www.lda.gop.pk/lda_wasa.html Lahore Water and Sanitation Agency]
* [http://wasa.rda.gov.pk/ Water and Sanitation Agency Rawalpindi]


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