- Generation Y
Generation Y', also known as the ' (or Millennials), Generation Next, Net Generation, Echo Boomers, or Worst Generation describes the demographic cohort following Generation X. There are no precise dates for when the Millennial generation starts and ends, and commentators have used birth dates ranging somewhere from the mid-1970s to the early 2000s.  Members of this generation are called Echo Boomers, due to the significant increase in birth rates through the 1980s and into the 1990s, and because many of them are children of baby boomers. The 20th century trend toward smaller families in developed countries continued, however, so the relative impact of the "baby boom echo" was generally less pronounced than the original boom.
Characteristics of the generation vary by region, depending on social and economic conditions. However, it is generally marked by an increased use and familiarity with communications, media, and digital technologies. The effects of this environment are disputed.
The Generation Y first appeared in an August 1993 Ad Age editorial to describe teenagers of the day, which they defined, at that time, as separate from Generation X, and then aged 12 or younger (born after 1981), as well as the teenagers of the upcoming ten years. Since then, the company has sometimes used 1982 as the starting birth year for this generation. "Generation Y" alludes to a succession from "Generation X."
Authors William Strauss and Neil Howe have been influential in defining American generations in their book Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069 (1991). Their generational theory is frequently cited in books and articles on the subject. Howe and Strauss maintain that they use the term Millennials in place of Generation Y because the members of the generation themselves coined the term, not wanting to be associated with Generation X. Almost a decade later, they followed their large study of the history of American demographics with a book devoted to the new generation, titled Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation (2000). In both books, William Strauss and Neil Howe use 1982 and 2001 as the start and end years of the generation, respectively. They believe that the coming of age of year 2000 high school graduates sharply contrasts with those born before them and after them due to the attention they received from the media and what influenced them politically.
According to the authors' 1997 book, The Fourth Turning, modern history repeats itself every four generations; approximately 80–100 years. The authors of the book mention that the four-cycles always come in the same order. The first one, the High cycle, occurs when a new order or human expansion is developed, replacing the older one. The next cycle is called the Awakening. More spiritual than the previous, this is a time of rebellion against the already established order. The third cycle is known as the Unraveling, when elements of individualism and fragmentation take over society, developing a troubled era which leads directly to the Fourth Turning, an era of crisis dominating society during which a redefinition of its very structure, goals, and purposes is established.
Each generation has its archetypes, the four having the following one defined as: Prophet, Nomad, Hero, and Artist. According to the aforementioned book, Millennials belong to the Hero category, featuring a deep trust in authority and institutions; being somewhat conventional, but still powerful. They grew up during an Unraveling cycle with more protections than the previous generation (Gen X). They are heavily dependent on team work, and thus, when they come of age, turn into the heroic team-working young people of a Crisis. In their middle years, they become the energetic, decisive, and strong leaders of a High cycle; and in old age, they become the criticized powerful elders of an Awakening cycle. Another previous generation that belongs to this category is The Greatest Generation (1916–1924).
One author, Elwood Carlson, locates the American generation, which he calls "New Boomers," between 1983 and 2001, because of the upswing in births after 1983, finishing with the "political and social challenges" that occurred after the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001, and the "persistent economic difficulties" of the time.
In Australia, there is much debate over the dates of Generation Y - that is, when "Gen Y" began, and the "cut-off" period. It is generally accepted, however, that the first "Gen Y" members were born in 1982. Though some sources use the date range 1982-1995 for the generation, many, including the Australian Bureau of Statistics, use 1982-2000.
Like members of Generation X, who are heavily influenced by the advent of MTV, early members of Generation Y are also sometimes called the MTV Generation. This term can also be a catch phrase for youth of the late 20th century, depending on the context.
Jean Twenge, author of the 2007 book Generation Me, considers Generation Y along with later Xers to be part of a generation called Generation Me. This is based on personality surveys that showed increasing narcissism among this generation compared to Boomers when they were teens and twentysomethings. She questions the predictions of Strauss & Howe that this generation would come out civic-minded, citing the fact that when the War on Iraq began military enlistments went down instead of up.
Twenge attributes confidence and tolerance to this generation, as well as a sense of entitlement, narcissism and rejection of social conventions.
Fred Bonner believes that much of the commentary on the Millennial Generation may be partially accurate, but overly general and that many of the traits they describe apply primarily to "white, affluent teenagers who accomplish great things as they grow up in the suburbs, who confront anxiety when applying to super-selective colleges, and who multitask with ease as their helicopter parents hover reassuringly above them." Other socio-economic groups often do not display the same attributes commonly attributed to Generation Y. During class discussions, he has listened to black and Hispanic students describe how some or all of the so-called seven core traits did not apply to them. They often say the "special" trait, in particular, is unrecognizable. "It's not that many diverse parents don't want to treat their kids as special," he says, "but they often don't have the social and cultural capital, the time and resources, to do that."
Experts differ on the actual start date of Generation Y. Some sources use starting dates as early as 1976. Other sources use 1978, 1980, or 1982. Generation Y is the group generally considered to be the last generation of children wholly born in the 20th century. Source(s) And while 1982 is a fairly common start date, some sources use even later dates. Sources citing 1982 mark the end the generation either in the early or mid-1990s or the early 2000s, with 1982-1995 and 1982-2000 as common ranges. Today, there are approximately 80 million Echo Boomers.
The majority of Generation Y is culturally liberal with many supporting modern yet historically more liberal views in general as well as various other politically liberal stances, but, in spite of the new dominant liberal growth, a growing number of new youth clubs and groups have been created in developed countries (such as the US, UK, Japan, Australia and Italy) to take the task of promoting and preserving conservative views and religious beliefs (i.e. the rapid growth of nondenominational churches by gen-Yers), such as free market principles and "socially conservative" behavior (i.e. abstinence from drug experimentation, underage drinking and premarital sex). Since the 2000 U.S. Census which allowed persons to select more than one racial group, "Millennials" in abundance have asserted their right to have all their heritages respected, counted and acknowledged
Generation Y'ers are largely the children of the Baby Boomers. Younger members of this generation have parents that belong to Generation X, and some older members have parents that are members of the Silent Generation.
There are different views regarding Generation Y. When the term originated in 1993, it referred to teenagers aged 13 to 19 at the time (born between 1974 and 1980) with "more to come over the next 10 years". Here is a verbatim reprint of the actual Advertising Age op ed. of August 30, 1993 -- the above erroneous information notwithstanding:
"That cynical, purple-haired blob watching TV, otherwise known as Generation X, has been giving marketers fits for a long time. He doesn't respond to advertising, isn't brand-loyal and probably doesn't have much discretionary income, i.e. a job. But help is on the way. Following this angry young adult generation is a group of teens-agers who are leaving Generation X at the gate. There are 27 million of these 13-to-19-year-olds spending $ 95 billion a year, and both numbers will rise in the next 10 years. As our headline last week pointed out, this group is interested in real life, real solutions.
"Teens care -- about AIDS, race relations, child abuse and abortion. But instead of saying, I got screwed, they say, What am I going to do about it? They like to volunteer and they respond to marketers who they can believe are helping make the world better. There are other differences with Generation X. Male teens read and don't spend all their time in front of the TV. A Roper survey showed that 83% of male teens read a major magazine at least once every four weeks, and 43% subscribe to a magazine. Comic books and place-based media are good ways to reach teens. If they're over 16, they listen to radio.
"OK, they like to shop for price and dump a brand if it gets costly. In personal care products especially, teens look for bargains. But Jane Grossman, Seventeen publisher, says they love brands and trust advertising more than any other group.
"That advertising can address them honestly and seriously without their tuning out. The Gap, Reebok and Bausch & Lomb are but three of the marketers that speak to teens without condescending to hip-hop language to do it. And they are reaping the benefits, proving again there are no smarter consumers than our average teen-agers, and no smarter marketers than those who speak honestly to them."
Economic prospects for the Millennials have worsened due to the late-2000s recession. Several governments have instituted major youth employment schemes out of fear of social unrest due to the dramatically increased rates of youth unemployment. In Europe, youth unemployment levels are very high (40% in Spain, 35% in the Baltic states, 19.1% in Britain and more than 20% in many more). In 2009 leading commentators began to worry about the long term social and economic effects of the unemployment. Unemployment levels in other areas of the world are also high, with the youth unemployment rate in the U.S. reaching a record level (19.1%, July 2010) since the statistic started being gathered in 1948. In the United States the economic difficulties have led to dramatic increases in youth poverty, unemployment, and the numbers of young people living with their parents. It has been argued that this unemployment rate and poor economic situation has given Generation Y a rallying call with the 2011 Occupy Wall Street movement. In Canada, unemployment amongst youths aged 15 to 24 years of age in July 2009 was 15.9%, the highest it had been in 11 years.
Generation Y who grew up in Asian countries show different preferences and expectations of work to those who grew up in the US or Europe. This is usually attributed to the differing cultural and economic conditions experienced while growing up.
The Millennials are sometimes called the "Trophy Generation", or "Trophy Kids," a term that reflects the trend in competitive sports, as well as many other aspects of life, where mere participation is frequently enough for a reward. It has been reported that this is an issue in corporate environments. Some employers are concerned that Millennials have too great expectations from the workplace. Studies predict that Generation Y will switch jobs frequently, holding far more than Generation X due to their great expectations. To address these new challenges, many large firms are currently studying the social and behaviorial patterns of Millennials and are trying to devise programs that decrease intergenerational estrangement, and increase relationships of reciprocal understanding between older employees and Millennials, while at the same time making Millennials more comfortable. The UK's Institute of Leadership & Management researched the gap in understanding between Generation Y recruits and their managers in collaboration with Ashridge Business School. The findings included high expectations for advancement, salary and for a coaching relationship with their manager, and suggested that organisations will need to adapt to accommodate and make the best use of Generation Y. In an example of a company trying to do just this, Goldman Sachs conducts training programs that use actors to portray Millennials who assertively seek more feedback, responsibility, and involvement in decision making. After the performance, employees discuss and debate the generational differences they have seen played out.
Peter Pan Generation
This generation is also sometimes referred to as the Boomerang Generation or Peter Pan Generation, because of the members' perceived penchant for delaying some rites of passage into adulthood, longer periods than most generations before them. These labels were also a reference to a trend toward members living with their parents for longer periods than previous generations.
As a group, Generation Y are said to be much closer to their parents than their parents' generation, the Baby Boomers were.  While 40% of Baby Boomers in 1974 claimed they would be "better off without their parents" according to one study, 90% of Generation Y'ers claimed to be "extremely close" to their parents in another study.  Most also claim that the older generations had better morals. Generation Y also saw the highest divorce rates of their parents, was the highest amount of children in foster care programs, and the highest amounts of child abuse cases in U.S. history.
According to Kimberly Palmer "High housing prices, the rising cost of higher education, and the relative affluence of the older generation are among the factors driving the trend." However, other explanations are seen as contributing. Questions regarding a clear definition of what it means to be an adult also impacts a debate about delayed transitions into adulthood. For instance, one study by professors at Brigham Young University found that college students are more likely now to define "adult" based on certain personal abilities and characteristics rather than more traditional "rite of passage" events. Dr. Larry Nelson, one of the three Marriage, Family, and Human Development professors to perform the study, also noted that some Millennials are delaying the transition from childhood to adulthood as a response to mistakes made by their parents. "In prior generations, you get married and you start a career and you do that immediately. What young people today are seeing is that approach has led to divorces, to people unhappy with their careers ... The majority want to get married [...] they just want to do it right the first time, the same thing with their careers."
In the United States, Generation Y has a slightly lower level of religiosity to older generations, and they are more likely to be skeptical of religious institutions. A 2005 study looked at 1,385 people aged 18 to 25 and found that over half of those in the study said that they pray regularly before a meal. A third said that they talked about religion with friends, attend places of worship, and read religious materials weekly. 23% of those studied did not identify themselves as belonging to a religious affiliation.
Communication and interaction
The Millennial Generation (or Gen Y), like other generations, has been shaped by the events, leaders, developments and trends of its time. The rise of instant communication technologies made possible through use of the internet, such as email, texting, and IM and new media used through websites like YouTube and social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace, and Twitter, may explain the Millennials' reputation for being somewhat peer-oriented due to easier facilitation of communication through technology. The internet has also revolutionized music, allowing music to be created without a major label, but has also blunted the ability for a generational defining sound to be created. (Rock and soul for baby boomers, grunge and hip hop for Generation X) The indie rock of the 2000s has been attributed to Generation Y. A 2000 USA Today article stated "Music that Generation Y listens to at the moment tends to be more rhythmically driven and more rooted in hip hop than rock, my guess is when they get older and start to date and go out at night with friends, dance music will become relevant."
Expression and acceptance has been highly important to this generation. In well-developed nations, several cohorts of Generation Y members have found comfort in online games such as MMORPGs and virtual worlds like World of Warcraft and Second Life. Flash mobbing, internet memes, and online communities have given some of the more expressive Generation Y members acceptance, while online pen pals have given the more socially timid individuals acceptance as well.
In their 2007 book, authors Junco and Mastrodicasa expanded on the work of Howe and Strauss to include research-based information about the personality profiles of Millennials, especially as it relates to higher education. They conducted a large-sample (7,705) research study of college students. They found that Next Generation college students, born between 1982–1992, were frequently in touch with their parents and they used technology at higher rates than people from other generations. In their survey, they found that 97% of these students owned a computer, 94% owned a cell phone, and 56% owned an MP3 player. They also found that students spoke with their parents an average of 1.5 times a day about a wide range of topics. Other findings in the Junco and Mastrodicasa survey revealed 76% of students used instant messaging, 92% of those reported multitasking while IMing, 40% of them used television to get most of their news, and 34% of students surveyed used the Internet.
In June 2009, Nielsen released the report, "How Teens Use Media" which discussed the latest data on media usage by generation. In this report, Nielsen set out to redefine the dialogue around media usage by the youngest of Generation Y, extending through working age Generation Y and compared to Generation X and Baby Boomers. One of the more popular forms of media use in Generation Y is through social networking. In 2010, research was published in the Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research which claimed that students who used social media and decided to quit showed the same withdrawal symptoms of a drug addict who quit their stimulant.
Some have argued that the Millennials have "moved beyond" the ideological battles spawned by the counterculture of the 1960s, which persisted through the 1990s in the form of the culture wars. This is further documented in Strauss & Howe's book titled Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation, which describes the Millennial generation as "civic minded," rejecting the attitudes of the Baby Boomers and Generation X. Generation Y'ers never truly rebelled against their parents, unlike prior generations, often enjoying the same music, movies and products as their parents.
- ^ Strauss, William & Howe, Neil. Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. Perennial, 1992 (Reprint). ISBN 0-688-11912-3 pp. 31, 327
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- ^ Strauss, William & Howe, Neil. Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. Perennial, 1992 (Reprint). ISBN 0-688-11912-3 pp. 31, 327
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- Price, Sarah; Kass, Susanna (2006-06-18). "Generation Y turning away from religion". Melbourne: The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/generation-y-turning-away-from-religion/2006/08/05/1154198378623.html. Retrieved 2009-11-27. "born between 1976 and 1990"
- Katy Marquardt (2008-09-04). "Troubled Finances of the Young and Restless - New Money". usnews.com. http://www.usnews.com/blogs/new-money/2008/9/4/troubled-finances-of-the-young-and-restless.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24. "born between 1976 and 1987"
- "Is Your Firm Ready for the Millennials? - Knowledge@Emory". Knowledge.emory.edu. 2006-03-08. http://knowledge.emory.edu/article.cfm?articleid=950. Retrieved 2010-08-24. "born between 1982 and 2002"
- Elliot, Stuart (2011-01-30). "MTV Strives to Keep Up With Young Viewers". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/31/business/media/31adcol.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2011-10-23.
- Tovar, Molly (August/September 2007). "Getting it Right: Graduate Schools Respond to the Millenial Challenge". Communicator 40 (7): 1. http://www.cgsnet.org/portals/0/pdf/comm_2007_08.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-29. "born between 1982 and 1994"
- Neuborne, Ellen (1999-02-15). "Generation Y". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/1999/99_07/b3616001.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-17. "Born during a baby bulge that demographers locate between 1979 and 1994"
- Bush, Alan J.; Craig Martin, Alan Bush, VVictoria Bush (2004-05-12). "Sports Celebrity Influence on the Behavioral Intentions of Generation Y". Journal of Advertising Research 44 (1): 108–118. doi:10.1017/S0021849904040206. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayFulltext?type=1&fid=216393&jid=JAR&volumeId=44&issueId=01&aid=216391. Retrieved 2010-10-28. "those individuals born between 1977 and 1994"
- By Nadira A. Hira, Fortune writer-reporter (2007-05-15). "Attracting the twentysomething worker. CNNMoney.com. May 15, 2007". Money.cnn.com. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/fortune_archive/2007/05/28/100033934/. Retrieved 2010-08-24. "for our purposes, those born between 1977 and 1995"
- "Demographics / Population Trends". Alliancetrends.org. http://www.alliancetrends.org/demographics-population.cfm?id=34. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- "The Echo Boomers". CBS News. 2009-02-11. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2004/10/01/60minutes/main646890.shtml. Retrieved 2011-7-23. "born between the years 1980 - 1995"
- "The millennials - ever optimistic about jobs". CNN Money. 2011-05-18. http://money.cnn.com/2011/05/18/news/economy/millennial_generation_workers/index.htm. Retrieved 2011-7-23. "These are the "millennials", born in the '80s and early '90s"
- "Gen Y'ers try 'speed dating' -- for jobs". CNN.com. 2011-07-21. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-07-21/living/millennial.brazen.careerist_1_millennials-network-roulette-job-recruiters?_s=PM:LIVING. Retrieved 2011-7-23. "Millennials -- those between 18 and 30"
- Davis, Glyn (2005-05-30). "Rise of the millennials". The Age (Melbourne). http://www.theage.com.au/news/Education-News/Rise-of-the-millennials/2005/05/27/1117129892594.html.
- "Millennial generation the next big thing". CNN.com. 2011-03-24. http://articles.cnn.com/2011-03-24/opinion/singer.young.leaders_1_boomers-millennial-generation-young-people?_s=PM:OPINION. Retrieved 2011-7-23. "the Millennial generation, born between 1980 and 2005"
- "How Generational Theory Can Improve Teaching: Strategies for Working with the "Millennials"" (PDF). Currents in Teaching and Learning 1 (1): 29–44. Fall 2008. http://www.worcester.edu/Currents/Archives/Volume_1_Number_1/CurrentsV1N1WilsonP29.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-16. "Born between 1982 and 2003"
- ^ a b Marino, Vivian (2006-08-20). "College-Town Real Estate: The Next Big Niche?". The New York Times (The New York Times Company): p. 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/20/realestate/commercial/20sqft.html?fta=y. Retrieved 2010-09-25. "College enrollments have been on the rise as the baby boomers’ children — sometimes known as the “echo boom” generation — come of age. This group, born from 1982 to 1995, is about 80 million strong."
- ^ a b Knoblach, Jochen (2006-01-21). "Ein neues Spiel" (in German). Berliner Zeitung (Berliner Verlag): p. 1. http://www.berlinonline.de/berliner-zeitung/archiv/.bin/dump.fcgi/2006/0121/sonderbeilagen/0035/index.html. Retrieved 2010-09-25. "Echo-Boomer-Generation nennen Marketing-Experten die neue Zielgruppe. Junge US-Amerikaner der Geburtsjahre 1982 bis 1995, die mit Videospielen aufgewachsen sind."
- ^ Elliott, Stuart (2010-10-25). "Selling New Wine in Millennial Bottles". The New York Times: pp. 1–2. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/10/25/business/media/25adnewsletter1.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28. "...members of the generation known as millennials, Generation Y or echo boomers...That demographic cohort is generally defined as being composed of those born between 1982 and 1995."
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- ^ Seabrook, Jeremy (2007-06-17). "Children of the market". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2007/jun/17/childrenofthemarket. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- ^ "Please Just F* Off, It's Our Turn Now". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2006-03-14. http://www.smh.com.au/news/book-reviews/please-just-f-off-its-our-turn-now/2006/03/14/1142098435830.html.
- ^ "Generation Y" Ad Age August 30, 1993. p. 16.
- ^ Francese, Peter (2003-09-01). "Trend Ticker: Ahead of the Next Wave". AdvertisingAge. http://adage.com/article/american-demographics/trend-ticker-ahead-wave/44208/. Retrieved 2011-03-31. "Today's 21-year-olds, who were born in 1982 and are part of the leading edge of Generation Y, are among the most-studied group of young adults ever."
- ^ Huntley, Rebecca (2006-09-01). The World According to Y: Inside the New Adult Generation. Allen Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-845-6. http://books.google.com/?id=b7RV5njJ3zcC&lpg=PP1&dq=generation%20y&pg=PA10#v=onepage&q=.
- ^ "Portrait of the Millennials". Millennials: A Portrait of Generation Next. Washington D.C.: Pew Research Center. 2010-02-24. "Judy Woodruff, Senior Correspondent, PBS Newshour: Neil Howe, I want to come to you first because you really are the person more than anybody in the country, who has studied generations and especially this one."
- ^ Hoover, Eric (2009-10-11). "The Millennial Muddle: How stereotyping students became a thriving industry and a bundle of contradictions". The Chronicle of Higher Education (The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc.). http://chronicle.com/article/The-Millennial-Muddle-How/48772/. Retrieved 2010-12-21. "They soon became media darlings, best-selling authors, and busy speakers. Generations would popularize the idea that people in a particular age group share distinct personae and values by virtue of occupying the same 'place' in time as they grow up. In turn, this would affirm the notion that Millennials were a riddle waiting to be solved...These days people all over the world seek Mr. Howe's advice about Millennials. Mellow and soft-spoken, he listens for rhythms in history. In fact, he's a well-connected consultant who runs a bustling business, LifeCourse Associates, from the ground floor of his spacious home...Each year Mr. Howe gives about 60 speeches, often followed by customized workshops...Mr. Howe has also consulted with some of the globe's biggest companies, including Nike, Hewlett-Packard, and Kraft Nabisco. Recently an investment firm in Prague hired him to do a demographic forecast...In the Millennials industry, plenty of people owe their success—not to mention their talking points—to Mr. Howe."
- ^ "Lifecourse Associates: Generations (Book)". Lifecourse.com. http://lifecourse.com/store/catalog/major/gens.html. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ "Lifecourse Associates: Millennials Rising (Book)". Store.lifecourse.com. http://store.lifecourse.com/products/16/Millennials-Rising.html. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ Howe, Neil; Strauss, William (September 2000). Millennials Rising: The Next Generation. New York: Vintage. pp. 3–120. ISBN 978-0-375-70719-3.
- ^ http://www.lifecourse.com/assets/files/yes_we_can.pdf
- ^ "Generation Y Full Guide". YouBioIt.com. 2010-06-20. http://www.youbioit.com/article/shared-information/1357/generation-y. Retrieved 2010-12-27.
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- ^ McCrindle, Mark (2005-07-18). "Superannuation and the Under 40s: Summary Report: Research Report on the Attitudes and Views of Generations X and Y on Superannuation" (www.aph.gov.au/house/committee/efpa/super/subs/sub002.pdf). McCrindle Research. "Generation X comprises those aged between 24 and 40...Generation Y 1982-2000..."
- ^ Kershaw, Pam (2005). "Managing Generation X and Y". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). http://www.kershaw.com.au/popup/editorial_05.html. Retrieved 2010-12-18. "Mark McCrindle, director of McCrindle Research Pty Ltd which specialises in social and generational studies, says differences between generations in the workplace have never been greater...Generation Y: born 1982 onwards, aged 23 or younger."
- ^ Shoebridge, Neil (2006-10-11). "Generation Y: Catch Them If You Can". Australian Financial Review (Fairfax Media). http://www.id.co.nz/138a1.page. Retrieved 2010-12-18. "The definitions of generation Y vary...others plumping for 1982 to 1995."
- ^ "State of the News Print Media in Australia Report 2008". Australian Press Council. 2008-12-22. http://www.presscouncil.org.au/snpma/snpma2008/ch08_2_snpma2008.html. Retrieved 2010-12-18. "This comment is not meant to convey a negative in regard Generation X (1965–1981) and Generation Y (1982–2000)."
- ^ "Generation X and Y: Who They Are and What They Want". Board Matters Newsletter 8 (3). 2008-11. http://www.governance.com.au/board-matters/fx-view-article.cfm?loadref=2&article_id=EB2FC50B-8C97-4666-861D7BB0EEF306AF. Retrieved 2010-12-18. "Generation Y 1982-2000"
- ^ "Achievement for All Children: An Apple Canada Perspective" (www.bcssa.org/topics/WhitePaper_Canada_CE.pdf). Apple Canada. Apple Inc.. 2004-04-19. http://www.bcssa.org/. Retrieved 2010-12-19. "Generation Y, or the 'Millennials,' as they prefer to be called, are the children of the Boomers and early-wave members of Generation X. They account for almost 26% of Canada’s population. Born between 1982 and 2000, this first generation of the new millennium populates classes in elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as colleges and universities."
- ^ Crealock, Martha (2008-Jan.). "The Teachers Write – About Millennials" (www.usask.ca/gmcte/drupal/files/bridges_Jan08.pdf). Bridges 6 (2): 10–11. "This issue’s topic is the Millennials. There has been a lot of talk about ‘Millennials,’ or “Generation Y”: young people born between 1982 - 2000."
- ^ "Generation Y: Challenging Employers to Provide Balance: Who are Generation Y and do employers and managers in the non-profit sector really need to fear them?". Family Connections 12 (2). 2008-Summer. http://www.bccf.ca/all/resources/generation-y-challenging-employers-provide-balance. Retrieved 2010-12-19. "Generation Y – also frequently known as the Echo Boomers, the Millenials, the Net Generation, or the Next Generation – are those people born between 1982 and 1997."
- ^ "Millennials & The Digital Entertainment Age: A Sourcebook for Consumer Marketers". The Millennials. Toronto, Canada: Digital Media Wire. 2008-03-05. http://www.millennialsconference.com/canada/. "By the year 2010, Millennials, born between 1982 and 2000, will outnumber both Baby Boomers and Gen-Xers and will be the most significant consumer sector for the media & entertainment industries."
- ^ "Destination Canada: Are We Doing Enough?". Deloitte Tourism, Hospitality & Leisure Industry and Tourism Industry Association of Canada (TIAC): 1–16. 2009. http://www.linkbc.ca/torc/downs1/Destionationcanadav3.pdf. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "67% are members of Generations X (1961-81) and Y (1982-2001), or the 'contemporary generations'"
- ^ Joel, Mitch (2010-10-14). "Social Media a Waste of Time? Not to Gen Y". The Vancouver Sun (Pacific Newspaper Group). http://www.vancouversun.com/business/technology/Social+media+waste+time/3669581/story.html. Retrieved 2010-12-19. "Contrast the news above with this blog post last week from MediaPost’s Engage — Gen Y titled, Social Network Disconnect (Oct. 8), which looks at generation Y (those born between 1982 and 2004)."
- ^ "Encouraging alternative forms of self expression in the generation Y student: a strategy for effective learning in the classroom". The ABNF Journal. 2003. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0MJT/is_6_14/ai_112905386?tag=untagged.
- ^ Silverman, Stephen M. (2002-01-15). "Colin Powell Joins MTV Generation - Colin Powell". People.com. http://www.people.com/people/article/0,,623292,00.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ Tahman Bradley (2007-10-29). "Obama Unplugged – Obama Talks With the MTV Generation - Political Radar". Blogs.abcnews.com. http://blogs.abcnews.com/politicalradar/2007/10/obama-unplugged.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ Kolbert, Elizabeth (1994-04-20). "Frank Talk by Clinton To MTV Generation". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1994/04/20/us/frank-talk-by-clinton-to-mtv-generation.html. Retrieved 2010-04-02.
- ^ Twenge, Jean M (2007-03-06). Generation me: Why today's young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitled--and more miserable than ever before. ISBN 9780743276986. http://books.google.com/books/about/Generation_me.html?id=tV4M1hpG-3wC.
- ^ Hoover, Eric (2009-10-11). "The Millennial Muddle: How stereotyping students became a thriving industry and a bundle of contradictions". The Chronicle of Higher Education (The Chronicle of Higher Education, Inc.). http://chronicle.com/article/The-Millennial-Muddle-How/48772/. Retrieved 2010-12-21. "commentators have tended to slap the Millennial label on white, affluent teenagers who accomplish great things as they grow up in the suburbs, who confront anxiety when applying to super-selective colleges, and who multitask with ease as their helicopter parents hover reassuringly above them. The label tends not to appear in renderings of teenagers who happen to be minorities, or poor, or who have never won a spelling bee. Nor does the term often refer to students from big cities and small towns that are nothing like Fairfax County, Va. Or who lack technological know-how. Or who struggle to complete high school. Or who never even consider college. Or who commit crimes. Or who suffer from too little parental support. Or who drop out of college. Aren't they Millennials, too?"
- ^ Erickson, Tamara (2008-08-19). "From 2006 to 2011, the number of Gen Y (those born between the years 1976 - 1992) online bankers will increase by an astounding 136 percent". Business Wire (CBS Interactive). http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2008_August_19/ai_n28010685. Retrieved 2011-03-30. "From 2006 to 2011, the number of Gen Y (those born between the years 1976 - 1990) online bankers will increase by an astounding 136 percent."
- ^ Armour, Stephanie (2005-11-08). "The new workplace mix". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2005-11-06-gen-y_x.htm.
- ^ Braid, Mary (2007-05-20). "How to connect with Generation Y: However workshy and demanding they seem, today's young people are still vital quarry for UK firms". The Sunday Times (London: Times Newspaper Ltd.). http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/career_and_jobs/recruiter_forum/article1813031.ece. Retrieved 2011-03-30. "this generation – born in or after 1980"
- ^ Warner, Judith (2010-05-28). "The Way We Live Now: The Why-Worry Generation". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/30/magazine/30fob-wwln-t.html. Retrieved 2011-03-30. "Once described by the trend-watchers Neil Howe and William Strauss as “the next great generation” — optimistic, idealistic and destined to do good — millennials, born between 1982 and 2002...showed up."
- ^ "Live Births and Birth Rates, by Year —". Infoplease.com. http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0005067.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
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- ^ [William Strauss and Neil Howe Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069:Perennial; Reprint edition (September 1, 1993) ]
- ^ "The President, the Census and the Multiracial "Community"". http://open.salon.com/blog/ulli_k_ryder/2011/02/20/the_president_the_census_and_the_multiracial_community#comment_2347299. Retrieved 2011-03-31.
- ^ "How We Survive: The Recession Generation" Making Contact, produced by National Radio Project. November 23, 2010.
- ^ Yen, Hope (2011-09-22). "Census: Recession Turning Young Adults Into Lost Generation". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/22/census-recession-young-adults_n_975476.html. Retrieved 2011-09-22.
- ^ "Jobless Youth: Will Europe's Gen Y Be Lost? - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News - International". Spiegel.de. http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/0,1518,638025,00.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ Travis, Alan (2009-08-12). "Youth unemployment figures raise spectre of Thatcher's Britain". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/aug/12/youth-unemployment-rate-bristol. Retrieved 2010-05-03.
- ^ "Europe's New Lost Generation, by Annie Lowrey". Foreign Policy. 2009-07-13. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/07/13/europes_new_lost_generation. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ "Employment and Unemployment Among Youth Summary". Bls.gov. 2009-08-27. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/youth.nr0.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ Thompson, Derek. "Are today's Youth Really a Lost Generation?". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2011/09/are-todays-youth-really-a-lost-generation/245524/. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
- ^ Serchuk, Dave. "Move over Boomers!". Forbes. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/daveserchuk/2011/10/13/the-millennial-generation-has-occupied-wall-street/. Retrieved 7 November 2011.
- ^ "Youth unemployment highest in 11 years: StatsCan". CBC.ca. 2009-07-10. http://www.cbc.ca/canada/british-columbia/story/2009/07/10/bc-unemployment-youth.html. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- ^ "Generation Y: Comparison between Asia and the rest of the World". talentsmoothie. http://www.talentsmoothie.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/Asia-GenY-highlights-2008.pdf.
- ^ a b c Alsop, Ron (October 13, 2008). The Trophy Kids Grow Up: How the Millennial Generation is Shaking Up the Workplace. Jossey-Bass. ISBN 978-0470229545.
- ^ Alsop, Ron (2008-10-21). "The Trophy Kids Go to Work". The Wall Street Journal. http://sec.online.wsj.com/article/SB122455219391652725.html. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
- ^ Kunreuther, Frances; Kim, Helen & Rodriguez, Robby (2009). Working Across Generations, San Francisco, CA:
- ^ "Great Expectations: Managing Generation Y, 2011". I-l-m.com. 2011-07-08. http://www.i-l-m.com/research-and-comment/generationy.aspx. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ Shaputis Kathleen. The Crowded Nest Syndrome: Surviving the Return of Adult Children. Clutter Fairy Publishing, 2004. Print. ISBN 978-0972672702
- ^ a b c "How Millennials Perceive a New Generation Gap". TIME. 2010-03-11. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1971433,00.html. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ Mahoney, Jill (2011-07-12). "Stronger by Association: Understanding Generational Conflict". Blog.drakeco.com. http://blog.drakeco.com/2011/07/understanding-generational-conflict.html. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ "Palmer, Kimberly. "The New Parent Trap: More Boomers Help Adult Kids out Financially." U.S. News & World Report 12 Dec 2007 Web.28 Jun 2009". Usnews.com. 2007-12-12. http://www.usnews.com/articles/business/your-money/2007/12/12/the-new-parent-trap.html?PageNr=1. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ a b Brittani Lusk - DAILY HERALD (2007-12-05). "Lusk, Brittani. "Study Finds Kids Take Longer to Reach Adulthood." Provo Daily Herald 5 December 2007". Heraldextra.com. http://www.heraldextra.com/news/article_3db6743c-35bc-5e6a-a737-938b93f57ac3.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
- ^ "Generation Y embraces choice, redefines religion". Washington Times. 2005-04-12. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2005/apr/12/20050412-121457-4149r/. Retrieved 2010-03-20.
- ^ McCrindle, Mark. "The ABC of XYZ: Generational Diversity at Work". McCrindle Research. http://www.quayappointments.com.au/email/040213/images/generational_diversity_at_work.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-19.
- ^ Davie, Sandra (12 May 2008). "Gen Y @ work". The Straits Times. http://www.asiaone.com/Business/Office/Learn/Story/A1Story20080511-64480.html. Retrieved 23 May 2010.
- ^ "The Sound of a Generation". NPR. 2008-06-05. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=91204851. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ Hilton, Robin (2008-06-06). "The Sound of a Generation : All Songs Considered Blog". NPR. http://www.npr.org/blogs/allsongs/2008/06/the_sound_of_a_generation.html. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ Horgan, Colin (2011-9-13). "Grunge revival shows rock'n'roll is not dead – just tired". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2011/sep/13/grunge-revival-kurt-cobain. Retrieved 2011-11-05.
- ^ Gunderson, Edna (2000-09-22). "Where will teen Tastes land next?". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/educate/college/casestudies/20010831-biz01.pdf. Retrieved 2011-11-17.
- ^ Duan, Mary (2009-08-02). "Businesses untangle the Gen Y knot - Silicon Valley / San Jose Business Journal:". Sanjose.bizjournals.com. http://sanjose.bizjournals.com/sanjose/stories/2009/08/03/focus1.html. Retrieved 2010-08-24.
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- ^ "City-Loving Millennials: Are They Born That Way? | New Jersey Future". Njfuture.org. http://www.njfuture.org/2011/07/28/city-loving-millennials-why/. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
- ^ Junco, Reynol; Mastrodicasa, Jeanna (2007). Connecting to the Net.Generation: What Higher Education Professionals Need to Know About Today's Students. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators. ISBN 0931654483.
- ^ Berk, Ronald A. (2009). "How Do You Leverage the Latest Technologies, including Web 2.0 Tools, in Your Classroom?". International Journal of Technology in Teaching and Learning 6 (1): 4. http://www.ronberk.com/articles/2010_leverage.pdf. Retrieved 2010-09-29.
- ^ Nielsen. "How Teens Use Media - A Nielsen report on the myths and realities of teen media trends (2009)" (2009)
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- ^ "Coming of Age in Cyberspace". The New York Times. 2007-09-24. http://essay.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/09/24/coming-of-age-in-cyberspace/. Retrieved 2010-04-02. "the logic of setting established traditionalism against a youth counterculture has collapsed with our generation. But that does not mean we have lost the will to make change"
- ^ Howe, Neil, Strauss, William Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation, p. 352.
- ^ Cannon, Stephen (2010-08-24). "When Gen Y Speaks, Boomers Must Listen". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/stephen-cannon/when-gen-y-speaks-boomers_b_692694.html. Retrieved 2011-09-13.
Cultural Generations of Western Society
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