Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Paralympics


Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Paralympics

Infobox Paralympics Great Britain
games=2008 Summer
competitors= 212cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7292859.stm |title=GB Paralympic team for Beijing |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-07-24]
sports= 18
flagbearer= Danny Crates (opening) [cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7599955.stm |title=Crates to take GB Paralympic flag |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-09-05] [cite web |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4687529.ece |title=Danny Crates honoured to carry British flag |publisher=The Times |date=2008-09-06 |accessdate=2008-09-28]
David Roberts (closing)cite web |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7618639.stm |title=Pool star Roberts to carry flag |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-09-16 |accessdate=2008-09-16] cite web |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4765582.ece |title=David Roberts to lead Great Britain at Paralympic closing ceremony |publisher=The Times |date=2008-09-16 |accessdate=2008-09-28]
officials= approx. 200
gold= 42
silver= 29
bronze= 31
total= 102
rank= 2

Great Britain competed at the 2008 Summer Paralympics in Beijing, People's Republic of China. Great Britain sent a delegation of around 400, of which 212 were athletes, to compete in eighteen sports at the Games. The team was made up of athletes from the whole United Kingdom; athletes from Northern Ireland, who may elect to hold Irish citizenship under the pre-1999 article 2 of the Irish constitution, are able to be selected to represent either Great Britain or Ireland at the Paralympics. [cite web|title=Full text of the constitution |publisher= [http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/ Department of the Taoiseach] |url=http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/attached_files/Pdf%20files/Constitution%20of%20Ireland.pdf |accessdate=2008-09-17] Additionally some British overseas territories compete separately from Britain in Paralympic competition.

Britain finished second in the medal table, behind host nation China, winning 42 gold medals and 102 total medals, equalling the position achieved in the table at the 2004 Athens Games. The number of medals won was an increase on the 94 medals and 35 golds in Athens. The team was the most successful in two decades, with 80 different athletes winning at least one medal. [cite web |title=British Paralympians return home |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2009-09-18 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7622735.stm |accessdate=2008-09-22] The United Kingdom will be the next host of the Summer Paralympics, holding the 2012 Games in London.

Disability classifications

Every participant at the Paralympics has their disability grouped into one of five disability categories; amputation, the condition may be congenital or sustained through injury or illness; cerebral palsy; wheelchair athletes, there is often overlap between this and other categories; visual impairment, including blindness; Les autres, any physical disability that does not fall strictly under one of the other categories, for example dwarfism or multiple sclerosis. [cite web |title=Paralympics categories explained |publisher=ABC |date=2008-09-03 |url=http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/09/03/2354016.htm?site=paralympics/2008 |accessdate=2008-09-25] [cite web |title=Making sense of the categories |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2000-10-06 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/olympics2000/paralympics/959701.stm |accessdate=2008-09-18] Each Paralympic sport then has its own classifications, dependant upon the specific physical demands of competition. Events are given a code, made of numbers and letters, describing the type of event and classification of the athletes competing. Some sports, such as athletics, athletes are divided by both the category and severity of their disabilities. Other sports, for example swimming, group competitors from different categories together, the only separation being based on the severity of the disabiliy. [cite web |title=A-Z of Paralympic classification |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-08-28 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7586684.stm |accessdate=2008-09-18]

Medallists

The following British competitors won medals at the games, all dates are September 2008. [cite web |title=Medallists GBR - Great Britain |publisher=The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games |url=http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/GL/92A/GBR_T.shtml |accessdate=2008-09-18] In the 'by discipline' sections below, medallists' names are emboldened.

width="78%" align="left" valign="top"

Targets

In July 2008, UK Sport, the body responsible for the distribution of National Lottery funding to elite sport, published its expectations for the Games. It identified a 112 "stretch" medal target and expected to win 95 of them, including around 35 gold medals in order to finish second in the medal table. [cite press release|title=British Athletes on target for Beijing success - UK Sport |publisher=UK Sport |date=2008-07-03 |url=http://www.uksport.gov.uk/news/ritish_athletes_on_target_for_beijing_success/ |accessdate=2008-09-27]

The athletes met the expectations of UK Sport for total medals, gold medals and medal table position, finishing second behind hosts China with 42 gold and 102 total medals. [cite web |title=Final Medals Table |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-09-17 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/medals_table/default.stm |accessdate=2008-09-27] It should be noted that the medals claimed were not all ones that had been targeted, the team fell short of targets in some sports whilst it exceeded them in others, eight out of the fifteen sports set a target met it.


nowrap|WR – World record; nowrap|W – Won; nowrap|L – Lost; nowrap|N/A – Round not applicable for the event;

Athletics

The GB Paralympic team included thirty-five competitors in the sport of athletics, amongst them reigning champions Kenny Churchill, Danny Crates, Daniel Greaves and Stephen Miller. [cite web |url=http://www.paralympics.org.uk/show_news.asp?itemid=2192&itemTitle=ParalympicsGB+receive+athletics+nominations+for+the+Beijing+2008+Paralympics&section=000100010006&sectionTitle=News |title=ParalympicsGB receive athletics nominations for the Beijing 2008 Paralympics |publisher=British Paralympics Association |date=2008-06] David Weir failed in his attempts to win five gold medals at the Games after suffering from a virus, [cite web |title=Suffering David Weir falls short in 400m |publisher=The Daily Telegraph |date=2008-09-10 |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/paralympicsport/2779031/Suffering-David-Weir-falls-short-in-400m---Paralympics.html |accessdate=2008-09-28] but did win four medals; two gold, one silver, one bronze; before pulling out of his final event. [cite web |title=Great Britain's David Weir wins second gold medal of 2008 Paralympics |publisher=The Daily Telegraph |date=2008-09-17 |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/paralympicsport/2972052/Great-Britains-David-Weir-wins-second-gold-medal-of-2008-Paralympics---Paralympics.html |accessdate=2008-09-28]

British participants were involved in a number of controversies regarding the reallocation of medals during the Games. Shelly Woods was initially awarded the silver medal in the women's 5000 m T54, but a rerun was ordered by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) after the Australian, US and Swiss teams protested the result because six competitors were involved in a crash on the penultimate lap. When the race was rerun Woods won the bronze medal. [cite web |title=Woods battles to bronze in rerun |publisher=BBCSport |date=2008-09-12 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7611699.stm |accessdate=2008-09-18] David Weir believed he had won the gold medal in the athletics, men's 800 m T54 but a rerun of the race was ordered after it was discovered that the Australian silver medallist, Kurt Fearnley, had begun the race in the wrong lane. Following a letter from Fearnley and the Australian authorities to the IPC, which asked that the result not be overturned in the spirit of sportsmanship, the rerun was cancelled and Weir's medal reinstated.cite web |title=Gold for Weir after appeal U-turn |publisher=BBC Sport |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7613772.stm |accessdate=2008-09-16] Discus thrower Rebecca Chin was originally awarded the silver medal in the women's F37–38, but her classification was challenged and Chin was deemed ineligible for the event, stripped of her medal, and her results were erased.cite web |title=Rebecca Chin stripped of Paralympic silver by 'failing' system |publisher=The Daily Telegraph |date=2008-09-15 |url=http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/othersports/paralympicsport/2959412/Chin-stripped-of-silver-by-failing-system---Paralympics.html |accessdate=2008-09-18] The decision was particularly controversial given that Chin had already been assessed earlier in the Games whilst she competed in the women's F37–38 shot put final.

;Men—Track

;Women—Field


nowrap|PTS – Points; nowrap|Pld – Played; nowrap|W – Games won; nowrap|D – Games drawn; nowrap|L – Games lost; nowrap|PF – Points for; nowrap|PA – Points against; nowrap|PD – Points difference; nowrap|colorbox|#ccffcc – Qualified for quarterfinals;

basketballbox|bg=#eee
date = 7 September
time = 18:30
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400B03.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|CHN|2008 Summer
scoreA = 34
scoreB = 81
Q1 = 10–18
Q2 = 6–17
Q3 = 12–27
Q4 = 6–19
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
points1 = Yang 12
rebounds1 = Ding 10
assist1 = Chen H., Chen Q., Ding, Guo 1
otherstat1 =
points2 = Munn 19
rebounds2 = Munn 11
assist2 = Orogbemi 4
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing National Indoor Stadium
attendance = 11797
referee =Jonathan Blake Burford (USA)
TV =
basketballbox
date = 8 September
time = 20:45
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400B06.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|GBR|2008 Summer
scoreA = 48
scoreB = 57
Q1 = 19–19
Q2 = 4–21
Q3 = 12–14
Q4 = 7–13
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|AUS|2008 Summer
points1 = Bestwick, Munn 9
rebounds1 = Bestwick 8
assist1 = Hall 3
otherstat1 =
points2 = Ness 16
rebounds2 = Ness 9
assist2 = Ness 4
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing National Indoor Stadium
attendance = 8580
referee = Edwin Frank Wallaart (Netherlands)
TV =
basketballbox|bg=#eee
date = 9 September
time = 20:45
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400B09.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|USA|2008 Summer
scoreA = 50
scoreB = 54
Q1 = 18–14
Q2 = 13–13
Q3 = 8–8
Q4 = 11–19
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
points1 = Chambers 14
rebounds1 = Chambers, Schulte 9
assist1 = Schulte 3
otherstat1 =
points2 = Pollock 19
rebounds2 = Bestwick 15
assist2 = Pollock 9
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing National Indoor Stadium
attendance = 8162
referee = Rui David Marques (Brazil)
TV =
basketballbox
date = 10 September
time = 20:45
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400B12.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|GBR|2008 Summer
scoreA = 69
scoreB = 53
Q1 = 20–10
Q2 = 13–14
Q3 = 14–16
Q4 = 22–13
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|BRA|2008 Summer
points1 = Munn 26
rebounds1 = Munn 21
assist1 = Finbow 6
otherstat1 =
points2 = Nunes 11
rebounds2 = Nunes 10
assist2 = Lima 4
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing National Indoor Stadium
attendance = 8201
referee = Max Kindervater (Germany)
TV =
basketballbox|bg=#eee
date = 11 September
time = 10:00
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400B13.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|ISR|2008 Summer
scoreA = 67
scoreB = 82
Q1 = 16–22
Q2 = 10–19
Q3 = 16–21
Q4 = 25–20
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
points1 = Rozenberg 17
rebounds1 = Phillips 11
assist1 = Rozenberg 6
otherstat1 =
points2 = Munn 25
rebounds2 = Munn 20
assist2 = Pollock 13
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing Science and Technology University Gymnasium
attendance = 1302
referee = Edwin Frank Wallaart (Netherlands)
TV =

;Quarterfinal

basketballbox
date = 13 September
time = 16:45
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400303.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|GER|2008 Summer
scoreA = 64
scoreB = 71
Q1 = 17–21
Q2 = 13–17
Q3 = 14–20
Q4 = 20–13
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
points1 = Kohler-Lenz 18
rebounds1 = Kohler-Lenz 11
assist1 = Christink 5
otherstat1 =
points2 = Munn 31
rebounds2 = Munn 20
assist2 = Pollock 8
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing National Indoor Stadium
attendance = 12000
referee = Bill Kuerzi (USA)
TV =

;Semifinal

basketballbox|bg=#eee
date = 14 September
time = 19:00
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400204.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|GBR|2008 Summer
scoreA = 54
scoreB = 67
Q1 = 6–19
Q2 = 14–17
Q3 = 13–18
Q4 = 21–13
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|AUS|2008 Summer
points1 = Pollock 18
rebounds1 = Munn 11
assist1 = Pollock 3
otherstat1 =
points2 = Eveson 22
rebounds2 = Ness 11
assist2 = Eveson 2
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing National Indoor Stadium
attendance = 12000
referee = Juan Manuel Urunuela (Spain)
TV =

;Bronze medal final

basketballbox|bg=#eee
date = 16 September
time = 17:00
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/WB/C73/WBM400102.pdf Full results]
teamA = flagIPC-rt|USA|2008 Summer
scoreA = 77
scoreB = 85
Q1 = 14–18
Q2 = 22–19
Q3 = 11–24
Q4 = 30–24
OT =
teamB = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
points1 = Chambers 25
rebounds1 = Chambers 6
assist1 = Lade, Paye 3
otherstat1 =
points2 = Bywater 32
rebounds2 = Munn 13
assist2 = Pollock 5
otherstat2 =
place = Beijing National Indoor Stadium
attendance = 12000
referee = Max Kindervater (Germany)
TV =


bronze medal

Women

Cycling

Great Britain's cycling team consisted of ten riders, including returning Paralympic gold medalists Aileen McGlynn, her tandem partner Ellen Hunter, and Darren Kenny. Former swimmers Jody Cundy and Sarah Storey were also named in the squad. The Paralympic cycling team, coached by Chris Furber and managed Helen Mortimer, trained alongside the British Olympic cycling team. [cite web |title=Cyclists target Paralympics glory |publisher=BBC |date=2008-08-25 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7580552.stm |accessdate=2008-08-27 ] Darren Kenny won five medals, four gold and one silver, more golds than any other British competitor at these Games. [cite web |title=Kenny and Stone win cycling golds |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-09-13 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7613755.stm |accessdate=2008-09-22] Jody Cundy set a new world record and won two gold medals on the track, matching Rebecca Romero's achievement in the Olympics of beccoming a medal winer in two different sports.cite web| url=http://www.peterboroughtoday.co.uk/sport/Cundy-is-golden-wonder-in.4475983.jp| title=Cundy is golden wonder in two different sports| publisher=Peterborough Evening Telegraph| date=2008-09-10| accessdate=2008-09-10] In all British cyclists won twenty medals, seventeen of them gold, to top the cycling medal tables for both road and track events. [cite web |title= Medal Standings Cycling Road |url=http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/CR/C95/CR0000000.shtml |accessdate=2008-09-22 |publisher=The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games] [cite web |title= Medal Standings Cycling Track |url=http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/CT/C95/CT0000000.shtml |accessdate=2008-09-22 |publisher=The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games]

;Factor time

To ensure a fair event when athletes with differing disabilities compete, times achieved are sometimes modified by a percentage rate, to produce a result known as "Factor Time". It is this time that decides the result of the races, and is listed below. Where this differs from the actual time recorded, actual time is also listed. [cite web |title=Paralympic cycling qualification and results criteria procedure |url=http://www.paralympic.org/release/Main_Sections_Menu/Paralympic_Games/Beijing_2008/2007_01_16_Cycling_Beijing_2008_PG_Qualification_Criteria__Final.pdf |date=2007-01-16 |accessdate=2008-09-11]

Road

;Key:
*OVL = Win by overtaking
*Q = Qualified for next round
*WR = World record

Equestrian

The only equestrian events held in the Paralympic Games are in the Dressage discipline. Seven British riders competed, in both individual and team events, winning 5 gold and 5 silver medals. Lee Pearson won three titles for the third successive Games, [cite web |title=Lee Pearson claims another gold at Paralympics |publisher=The Times Online |date=2008-09-12 |url=http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/sport/olympics/article4736048.ece |accessdate-2008-09-27] and Anne Dunham, at the age of 59, won her first individual Paralympic Games gold medal, having previously won three team golds and been a five time world champion.


nowrap|PTS – Points; nowrap|Pld – Played; nowrap|W – Games won; nowrap|D – Games drawn; nowrap|L – Games lost; nowrap|GF – Goals for; nowrap|GA – Goals against; nowrap|GD – Goal difference; nowrap|colorbox|#ccffcc – Qualified for semifinals; nowrap|colorbox|#ffcccc – Advanced to 5-8 Classification semifinal;

footballbox|bg=#eee
date = 8 September
time= 15:45
team1 = flagIPC-rt|UKR|2008 Summer
score = 8–1
team2 = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
goals1 = Ivan Shkvarlo (3)
Taras Dutko (2)
Denis Ponomaryov
Vol Antonyuk
Anatolii Shevchyk
goals2 = Matthew Dimbylow
stadium = Olympic Green Hockey Field
attendance=5141
referee= Kou Yadong (China)
footballbox
date = 10 September
time= 9:00
team1 = flagIPC-rt|IRI|2008 Summer
score = 3–0
team2 = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
goals1 = Moslem Akbari
Abdolreza Karimzadeh (2)
goals2 =
stadium = Olympic Green Hockey Field
attendance=5500
referee=Yang Lingyu (China)
footballbox|bg=#eee
date = 12 September
time= 15:45
team1 = flagIPC-rt|GBR|2008 Summer
score = 1–1
team2 = flagIPC|IRL|2008 Summer
goals1 = Michael Barker
goals2 = Joseph Markey
stadium = Olympic Green Hockey Field
attendance=11365
referee= Deng Qiang (China)

;5-8 Classification semifinalfootballbox
date = 14 September
time= 9:00
team1 = flagIPC-rt|NED|2008 Summer
score = 4–2
team2 = flagIPC|GBR|2008 Summer
goals1 = Johannes Straatman (2) Stephan Lokhoff Joey Mense
goals2 = Matthew Dimbylow Matthew Ellis
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/FT/C73/FTM400203.pdf (Report)]
stadium = Olympic Green Hockey Field
attendance= 6312
referee= Fang Aijun (China)

;7-8 Classification finalfootballbox|bg=#eee
date = 16 September
time= 9:00
team1 = flagIPC-rt|GBR|2008 Summer
score = 10–2
team2 = flagIPC|CHN|2008 Summer
goals1 = Matthew Dimbylow Michael Barker (4) Mark Robertson Roy Gordon Graeme Paterson Matthew Ellis Jonathan Paterson
goals2 = Fan Zhichao (2)
report = [http://results.beijing2008.cn/WRMP/ENG/INF/FT/C73/FTM400104.pdf (Report)]
stadium = Olympic Green Hockey Field A
attendance= 4235
referee= Fang Aijun (China)

Judo

Four British judokas qualified for the Games, all events were for visually impaired athletes. A single medal was won, by Sam Ingram, in the men's 90 kg category.

;Key:
*Q = Qualified for final
*R = Qualified for repechage
*WB = World best time

Wheelchair rugby

At the Paralympics teams in the sport of wheelchair rugby are made up of mixed classification tetraplegic athletes of both sexes. [cite web |title=Home > Paralympic Sports > Wheelchair Rugby > Classification |publisher=The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games |url=http://en.paralympic.beijing2008.cn/sports/wheelchairrugby/n214357497.shtml |accessdate=2008-09-22] Great Britain qualified via the Europe Zonal Championship and went on to finish fourth out of eight teams, losing the bronze medal playoff to Canada. [cite web |title=Britain miss out on rugby bronze |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-09-16 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7619109.stm |accessdate=2008-09-22]

;Key:
*(#) = Worst two results discarded
*CAN = Race cancelled

Shooting

British shooters won a single medal at the Games, a gold for Matt Skelhon in the mixed R3–10 m air rifle prone SH1. With his first six shots in the qualification round he equalled the world record with a perfect score of 600 out of 600.cite web |title=Skelhon wins shooting gold for GB |publisher=2008-09-11 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7609661.stm |accessdate=2008-09-25] Of the other six events in which there was a British competitor only Nathan Milgate, in the men's R1-10 m air rifle standing SH1, advanced to the final.;Rifle


nowrap|Q – Qualifiers for the next round as decided on a time only basis. Ranks shown are overall rank against competitors in all heats; nowrap|DQ – Disqualified; nowrap|WRWorld record; nowrap|PRParalympic record;

Table tennis

Eleven table tennis players were selected for the GB Paralympic squad. Included in the squad was 50-year old Dzaier Neil who had previously taken part in the 1984 Los Angeles Games before taking a ten year break from the sport. [cite web |title=Neil in Beijing Paralympics squad |publisher=BBC Sport |date=2008-02-21 |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7256700.stm |accessdate=2008-09-25] In the individual events only Neil Robertson progressed as far as the round of 16 whilst the four teams entered won a total of just two matches between them. The squad therefore failed to win any of the four medals that were targeted by UK Sport.

;Men

Media coverage

As with the 2008 Summer Olympics, the BBC aired coverage from the Games in the UK. The Games were broadcast in high-definition for the first time. BBCi and BBC.co.uk showed live coverage throughout the Games, with a nightly highlights programme on BBC Two (simulcast on BBC HD), anchored by Clare Balding and Steve Cram. Live coverage was also shown on BBC One, BBC Two, and BBC HD on Saturdays and Sundays. Both the opening and closing ceremonies were broadcast live.cite press release|title=The Paralympics 2008|publisher=BBC|date=2008-06-19|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2008/06_june/19/olympics2.shtml|accessdate=2008-06-20] [cite press release|title=Paralympics coverage on BBC TV|publisher=BBC|date=2008-06-19|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2008/06_june/19/olympics4.shtml|accessdate=2008-06-20] Radio coverage was provided by BBC Radio 5 Live.

ee also

*2008 Summer Paralympics
*Great Britain at the Paralympics
*Great Britain at the 2008 Summer Olympics

References

External links

* [http://en.paralympic.beijing2008.cn/index.shtml Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games Official Site]
* [http://www.paralympic.org International Paralympic Committee]
* [http://www.paralympics.org.uk/ British Paralympic Association]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7587965.stm "Where will Paralympic medals be won?"] , BBC, September 4, 2008
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/other_sports/disability_sport/7589668.stm "Paralympic challengers"] , BBC, September 6, 2008


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