- Red River of the North
river_name = Red River of the North
caption = The Red River drainage basin, with the Red River highlighted
origin = confluence of the
Bois de Sioux Riverand Otter Tail River
United States, Canada
length = convert|550|mi|km|0|abbr=on
watershed = km2 to mi2|287500|abbr=es|precision=0 [Cite web|url=http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/learningresources/facts/rivers.html|author=Atlas of Canada|title=Rivers of Canada|accessdate=2008-08-02] The Red River ( _fr. rivière Rouge) is a
North American river. Formed by the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail rivers in the United States, it flows northward through the Red River Valleyand forms the border between the U.S. statesof Minnesotaand North Dakotabefore continuing into Manitoba, Canada. At its mouth the river flows into Lake Winnipeg. The Red River flows through several major urban areas along its path including Fargo-Moorheadand Greater Grand Forksin the United States and Winnipegin Canada. The Red is about convert|550|mi|km|0 long. [ [http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/canoeing/redriver/index.html Red River of the North] , Minnsota DNR] The US portion is convert|395|mi|km|0 long and the Canadian portion is convert|155|mi|km|0. [ [http://files.dnr.state.mn.us/maps/canoe_routes/red_river_3.pdf Red River Map 3] , Minnesota DNR; map shows the international border at river mile155.] The river falls convert|70|m|ft|0 on its trip to Lake Winnipegwhere it spreads into the vast deltaic wetland known as Netley Marsh. In the United States, the Red River is sometimes called the Red River of the North which helps to distinguish it from the other Red River which is a tributaryof the Mississippi Riverthat forms part of the border between Texasand Oklahoma. In Canada, the Red has been designated as a Canadian Heritage River.
Along its course, the Red River flows across the flat, fertile flood plain of the ancient glacial
Lake Agassiz. The Red River forms at Wahpeton, North Dakotaand Breckenridge, Minnesota, passes through Fargo, North Dakota/ Moorhead, Minnesotaand Grand Forks, North Dakota/ East Grand Forks, Minnesota, and then continues on to the province of Manitobain Canada. Manitoba's capital — Winnipeg— is at the Red's confluence with the Assiniboine River, at a point commonly referred to as The Forks. The Red then flows further north before draining into Lake Winnipegwhich is part of the Hudson Baywatershed.
Originally part of
Rupert's Land, the Red was a key river in the early settlement of Canada, a centre of the fur tradeand the Métis people, and the site of the Red River Colony— the primary settlement of which eventually became Winnipeg, Manitoba.
The River is well known for flooding in spring due to snow runoff, and has been a topic of "paleoflood" study. [ [http://www.gov.mb.ca/iedm/mrd/geo/pflood/index.html Paleofloods in the Red River Basin] ] Although only three major floods are generally talked about since Europeans have settled in the area, in 1826, 1950 and 1997, there have been many other floods of equal size and even larger ones that can be studied due to their effects on the local landforms. [ [http://www.rrbdin.org/about/flood-tables.jsp Major Historical Floods in the Red River Basin] ]
May 8, 1950the Red River reached its highest level since 1861. Eight dikes protecting Winnipeg gave way and flooded much of the city, turning convert|600|sqmi|km2|0 of farmland into an enormous lake. The city turned to the Canadian Armyand the Red Crossfor help, and nearly 70,000 people were evacuated from their homes and businesses (which was one of the largest in Canadian history). Four of eleven bridges in the city were destroyed, and damage was estimated at between $600 million and $1 billion.
As a result of the floods, a flood control project was started to ensure the same would never happen again. The
Red River Floodwaywas cause for some derision at the time, as it seemed massively overbuilt and was the largest earth-moving project in the world at the time. The project was completed under-budget, and has been used for at least some flood control twenty times in the thirty-seven years from its completion to 2006. The Floodway has saved an estimated $10 billion (CAD) in flood damages.
In April 1997, the Red River rapidly swelled and eventually caused widespread flooding. Damages to the city of
Grand Forks, North Dakotatotaled US$2 billion and resulted in the largest civilian evacuation in the United States since the burning of Atlanta during the Civil War. [ [http://www.knightfoundation.com/default.asp?story=news_at_knight/newsletters/37_summer1998/index.html Information about 1997 evacutaion of Grand Forks] - Knight Foundation] In Winnipeg, the Floodway diverted most of the floodwaters around the city, although the surrounding area and some parts of the city were flooded, causing C$500 million in damage. In April 2006, another large flood caused the Gretna, Manitobaborder crossing to close as the water levels rose considerably.
The Red River Floodway is now under expansion and is slated for late 2010 at a final cost of more than $665,000,000 CAD.
Red River Valley
Red River Floodway
Red River Settlement
* [http://www.ccge.org/ccge/english/Resources/rivers/tr_rivers_redRiver.asp Canadian Council for Geographic Education page with a series of articles on the history of the Red River] .
* [http://gsc.nrcan.gc.ca/floods/redriver/index_e.php Geological Survey of Canada page describing the nature and history of Red River floods] .
* [http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/canoeing/redriver/index.html Minnesota DNR Red River website]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Red River of the North — Rivière Rouge Verlauf und Einzugsgebiet des Red River of the North Daten … Deutsch Wikipedia
Red River of the North — (spr. redd riwwer ŏw thë north, »Roter Fluß des Nordens«), Fluß in Nordamerika, kommt aus dem Elbowsee in Minnesota, fließt südlich durch mehrere kleine Seen und den Ottertailsee, vereinigt sich bei Breckenridge mit dem aus dem Lake Traverse… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Red River of the North — River, northern U.S. and southern Canada. It flows north, forming the Minnesota–North Dakota boundary, before entering Manitoba and emptying into Lake Winnipeg after a course of 545 mi (877 km). It was explored in 1732–33 by the French voyageur… … Universalium
Red River of the North — Rivière Rouge (Manitoba) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Rivière Rouge. Rivière Rouge (Red River) … Wikipédia en Français
Snake River (Red River of the North) — The Snake River is a tributary of the Red River of the North in northwestern Minnesota in the United States. It is one of three streams in Minnesota with this name (see Snake River (Minnesota)).CourseThe Snake River is about 50 mi (80 km) long… … Wikipedia
Red River — may refer to the following: Rivers and their namesakes * Red River (Mississippi watershed), a Mississippi River tributary flowing between Texas and Oklahoma ** Red River (film), USA ** Red River Campaign, a series of battles fought in the… … Wikipedia
Red River Formation — Stratigraphic range: Caradoc to Ashgill … Wikipedia
Red River Valley Research Corridor — The Red River Valley Research Corridor is the name that has been given to a region in the American state of North Dakota. It roughly comprises the corridor along the Red River of the North. The Research Corridor is anchored by the University of… … Wikipedia
Red River ox cart — The Red River ox cart was a large two wheeled cart made entirely of natural materials, and typically was drawn by oxen. The carts were used throughout most of the 19th century in the fur trade and in westward expansion in Canada and the United… … Wikipedia
Red River — (englisch für „Roter Fluss“) heißen mehrere Flüsse: der Red River of the North, verläuft durch Minnesota, North Dakota und Manitoba ins Red River Valley der Red River (Mississippi), Nebenfluss des Mississippi in Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas und… … Deutsch Wikipedia