- Kresty Prison
Kresty ( _ru. Кресты, literally "Crosses") prison, officially 1st Detention Center of Administration of Federal Service of Execution of Punishments in Saint Petersburg (Следственный Изолятор № 1 УФСИН по г. Санкт-Петербургу) is a detention center in
Saint Petersburg, Russia. The prison consists of two cross-shaped buildings (hence the name) and Alexander Nevsky Cathedral. The prison has 960 cells and was originally designed for 1150 detainees. [http://www.encspb.ru/article.php?kod=2804022999 Kresty] article in "Encyclopedia of Saint Peterburg" ru icon ]
The history of the prison starts in the 1730s. During the reign of Anna Ioannovna, Vinny Gorodok (Wine Town) was a warehouse complex where all the wine for the city of
Saint Petersburgwas held. After the Emancipation reform of 1861the need for prison space greatly increased; before the reforms, serfs were incarcerated by their landowners and after the reforms they were put in state prisons. Thus, in 1867 the wine warehouse was transformed into a 700-bed prison separated into female and male areas. The reconstruction of the wine warehouse was developed by Vladislav Lvov, the chairman of the Saint Petersburg Prison Committee. [http://www.petersburg-history.narod.ru/p307.htm Следственный изолятор №1 - "КРЕСТЫ"] ru icon]
Construction of the new prison
In 20 years the prison became too small for the city. The project for the new city prison was developed by
Antony Tomishko, a citizen of Austria-Hungary, a member of the Russian Academy of Arts and a staff architect of the Russian "State Prison Administration". He was the designer of the "Model UyezdPrison" originally built in Staraya Russaand reproduced in Vesyegonsk, Vyazma, Tsaritsynand other places. Tomishko studied the organization of prisons in Germanyand was impressed by the Moabitprison, with three corpuses going out from one tower. He also appreciated the Philadelphiasystem that recommended building prisons in the shape of a star with many rays coming from a single observation point. The system was also known as the Panopticonsystem.
Tomishko designed a prison consisting of two five-storey cross-shaped buildings. The shape of the buildings allowed observation of all the corridors from a single point and also had religious significance, encouraging
penanceamong the inmates. The crosses were joined together by a massive five onion domed red brick Russian Revivalcathedral on top of an administrative building. There was also a prison hospital, a ward for infectious diseases, a morgue, an ice-room and a smithy.
Construction started in 1884 and continued until 1890. It was performed by the inmates of the prison who where kept on the site: a part of the old prison was demolished, then the detainees built the new one while continuing to live in the remaining parts of the old building, then the prisoners were moved to the new building, the remains of the old building were demolished and construction continued. The prison was one of the first buildings in Russia that used electric lighting, effective ventilation and central heating. In the center of one of the cross-shaped buildings Tomishko installed a monument to English philanthropist and prison reformer John Howard. By the time it was built it was considered the most advanced prison in the world and it still remains the largest prison in Europe. [http://www.kresty.ru/museum.html Museum of Kresty] ru icon ]
According to an
urban legend, Tomishko was so proud of his creation that he reported to Tsar Alexander III: "Your Majesty, I have built the prison for you"; "No, you have built it for yourself", supposedly answered the Tsar. The legend continues that besides the 999 official prison cells there is a secret cell number 1000 that still holds the dead body of Tomishko, while his ghost haunts the prison. The legend is almost certainly false (at least there are only 960 cells in the prison).
Prison in Imperial Russia
In Imperial Russia the prison was officially called Saint Petersburg Prison for Solitary Confinment and was used for the detention of both common criminals and political prisoners. Among the inmates were: future Prime Minister of the
Russian Provisional Government Alexander Kerensky, the founder of the Constitutional Democratic party Pavel Milyukov, the prominent Bolshevikrevolutionary Leon Trotsky, future first Soviet People's Commissarof Enlightenment Anatoly Lunacharsky, Bolsheviks Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenkoand Vladimir Antonov-Ovseenko.In 1906 all 200 deputies of the first State Duma of the Russian Empirewho had signed the Vyborg Manifestohad to spent three months in Kresty Prison.
On the evening of OldStyleDate|12 March|1917|27 February, during the
February Revolution, rebellious soldiers and workers who came to a meeting near the Finlyandsky Rail Terminalwere led by Mikhail Kalininto storm the Kresty. They freed the inmates and destroyed all the prison paperwork.
After the Revolution
After the February Revolution Kresty became a place of imprisonment for the ministers of the Tsarist government and prominent police officers. After the
October Revolutionthey were joined by people from the Russian Provisional Government, non-Bolshevik politicians and intelligentsia. Among the people imprisoned there were Prime Minister Boris Stürmer, who died in Kresty in September 1917, Justice Minister Ivan Scheglovitov, Minister of the Interior Alexei Khvostov, Minister of War Mikhail Belyayev, former Minister of War Vladimir Sukhomlinov, Chief of Police Yevgeny Klimovich, the great Russian poet Nikolay Gumilyovand many others.
In 1920 the prison was renamed as the Second Special Camp for Involuntary Labor and was administered by Petrograd Ispolkom. In 1923 the prison became Petrograd District Isolation Prison (Петроградская Окружная Изоляционная Тюрьма), part of the Petrograd
Great Purges, the prison overflowed with inmates accused of state crimes. Often cells as small as 3 square meters designed for solitary confinement held 15-20 inmates or more. Among the inmates were: famous painter Kazimir Malevich, poet Nikolay Zabolotsky, historian Lev Gumilyov, actor Georgiy Zhzhonov, future Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovskyand many others. The prison features prominently in Anna Akhmatova's poem . In the "Preface" to her poem she writes:Cquote|In the terrible years of Yezhov terror I spent seventeen months waiting in line outside the prison in Leningrad. One day somebody in the crowd identified me. Standing behind me was a woman with lips blue from the cold, who had, of course, never heard me called by name before. Now she started out of the torpor common to us all and asked me in a whisper (everyone whispered there):"Can you describe this?":And I said: "I can.":Then something like a smile passed fleetingly over what had once been her face.
On the grounds of the prison operated a
sharashka- a research and development facility called OKB-172 that used inmates as weapons engineers and researchers. The facility developed torpedo boats that were widely used by the Soviet Navyduring World War II.
Siege of Leningradmost detainees were either conscripted into the Penal military units of Soviet Army or transferred to the Eastern regions of the country. The prison was used for detaining those involved in stealing of food or ration cards, and later also for German POWs. Many guards and detainees died of starvation during the siege.
In 1964 the prison became the facility used mostly for pre-trial detentions. It was greatly overcrowded: in the mid-1990s the prison held more than 12,500 inmates. That is more than ten times the design capacity of the prison (1150 inmates). Often in a cell originally designed for solitary confinement during the Tsarist period and according to the Soviet rules suitable for only 6 inmates would actually hold more than 20 inmates taking their turns to sleep on the three-level bunk bed and on the floor. Detention for months or even years in those conditions, often manipulated by the investigators, was often a method to press the suspects. In 1983 the prison was rendered unsuitable for women and minors.
The prison was mostly used for the common criminals but many
Soviet dissidentsfrom Leningrad were also held there during the investigations and trials.
The judicial reforms of the 1990s made long pre-trial detentions available only with approval of the courts. Currently no more than six inmates can be held in a cell originally designed for solitary confinement.
In 1993 a museum was open inside the prison devoted to the history of the prison, famous inmates and unusual objects found on the detainees.
28 April 1995the monument "To the victims of Political repressions" made by Mikhail Shemyakinwas installed on the embankment across the Neva Riverfrom the prison. It depicts two bronze sphinxes with pretty women's faces as seen from the residential houses on the embankment and bare skulls as seen from the prison's side of the river. There is a stylized window with prison bars between the sphinxes. On the granite base of the monument there are inscriptions with quotes from Nikolay Gumilyov, Osip Mandelstam, Anna Akhmatova, Nikolay Zabolotsky, Daniil Andreyev, Dmitry Likhachev, Joseph Brodsky, Yuri Galanskov, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Vladimir Vysotskyand Vladimir Bukovsky.
19 December 2006a monument to poet Anna Akhmatovaby Galina Dodonovawas erected across Neva River opposite to the prison [ [http://www.rg.ru/2006/12/19/ahmatova.html Памятник Ахматовой встал напротив "Крестов"] ] according to her will in her poem Requiem[..А если когда-нибудь в этой стране//Воздвигнуть задумают памятник мне,//Согласье на это даю торжество,//Но только с условьем: не ставить его//Ни около моря, где я родилась//(Последняя с морем разорвана связь),//Ни в царском саду у заветного пня,//Где тень безутешная ищет меня,//А здесь, где стояла я триста часов//И где для меня не открыли засов.. Anna Akhmatova"Requiem", 1937] On 25 December 2006a copy of the monument was installed in a corridor of the prison itself.
In summer 2006
Vladimir Putin(then President of Russia) announced that the prison would be relocated to a new facility in the Kolpinsky Districton the outskirts of Saint Petersburg. After the relocation is complete the Kresty building will be sold at auction. It is anticipated that the prison building will be transferred into a hotel-entertainment complex. The available options are limited as the prison is considered a protected architectural landmark and only very limited redesign is possible.
* [http://www.kresty.ru/ Official site of the prison] ru icon
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Kresty — may refer to: *Kresty, Krasnogorodsky District, Pskov Oblast, a village in Krasnogorodsky District of Pskov Oblast, Russia *Kresty, Botalovskaya Volost, Kunyinsky District, Pskov Oblast, a village in Botalovskaya Volost of Kunyinsky District of… … Wikipedia
Boris Galerkin — Boris Grigoryevich Galerkin ( ru. Борис Григорьевич Галёркин, surname more accurately romanized as Galyorkin; OldStyleDate|March 4|1871|February 20, 1871 – July 12, 1945), born in Polozk, Belarus, was a mathematician and an… … Wikipedia
Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire — Cathedral of Saint Vladimir in Kiev was the first neo Byzantine design approved for construction in Russian Empire (1852). It was not the first to be completed though, since construction started in 1859 and continued until 1889 … Wikipedia
Law, Crime, and Law Enforcement — ▪ 2006 Introduction Trials of former heads of state, U.S. Supreme Court rulings on eminent domain and the death penalty, and high profile cases against former executives of large corporations were leading legal and criminal issues in 2005.… … Universalium
Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia — Infobox Russian Royalty|grand duke name = Nicholas Mikhailovich title =Grand Duke Nicholas Mikhailovich of Russia imgw = 180px caption = spouse = issue = imperial house =House of Holstein Gottorp Romanov father =Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of… … Wikipedia
Grand Duke Dimitri Constantinovich of Russia — Infobox Russian Royalty|grand duke name = Dimitri Constantinovich title =Grand Duke Dimitri Constantinovich of Russia imgw = 190px caption = spouse = issue = imperial house =House of Holstein Gottorp Romanov father =Grand Duke Constantine… … Wikipedia
Grand Duke George Mikhailovich of Russia (1863-1919) — Infobox Russian Royalty|grand duke name = George Mikhailovich title =Grand Duke George Mikhailovich of Russia imgw = 180px caption = imperial house = House of Holstein Gottorp Romanov father =Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia mother… … Wikipedia
Yevgeny Ukhnalyov — Yevgeny Ilyich Ukhnalyov ( ru. Евгений Ильич Ухналёв; born 4 September 1931 in Leningrad) is a Russian artist. He is a founding member of the Russian Guild of Heraldic Artists and the author of many state symbols of modern Russia including its… … Wikipedia
Saint Petersburg — Leningrad redirects here. For other uses, see Leningrad (disambiguation). This article is about the city in Russia. For other uses, see Saint Petersburg (disambiguation). Saint Petersburg Санкт Петербург (Russian) Federal … Wikipedia
Joseph Brodsky — Infobox Writer name = Joseph Brodsky awards = awd|Nobel Prize in Literature|1987 birthdate = birth date|1940|5|24|mf=y birthplace = Leningrad, Soviet Union deathdate = death date and age|1996|1|28|1940|5|24|mf=y deathplace = New York City, New… … Wikipedia