- Kenneth Zucker
Kenneth J. Zucker is an American-Canadian
psychologistand sexologistbest known for his work on gender identity disorder in children.cite web |url= http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr04/gender.html |accessdate=2008-06-17 |author=Dingfelder, Sadie F. |title = Gender bender |date = April 2004 |work = "Monitor on Psychology", Vol. 35, No. 4]
Zucker is a Professor with the Departments of
Psychiatryand Psychologyat the University of Torontoand Psychologist-in-Chief and Head of the Gender Identity Service in the Child, Youth, and Family Program at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health. He was named editor-in-chief of " Archives of Sexual Behavior" in 2001. In 2007 Zucker was chosen to be a member of the American Psychological AssociationTask Force on Gender Identity, Gender Variance, and Intersex Conditions, and in 2008 was named chair of the American Psychiatric Associationworkgroup on "Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders" for the 2012 edition of the DSM-V. He previously served on workgroups for the DSM-IV and the DSM-IV-TR.Bradley SJ, Blanchard R, Coates SW, Green R, Levine SB, Meyer-Bahlburg HFL, Pauly IB, Zucker KJ (1991). Interim report of the DSM-IV Subcommittee on Gender Identity Disorders. " Archives of Sexual Behavior" Volume 20, Number 4 / August, 1991]
Zucker was born in New York.Wilkinson, Stephanie (2001). [http://www.brainchildmag.com/essays/fall2001_wilkinson.htm Drop the Barbie!] "Brain, Child"] Zucker received his B.A. from
Southern Illinois University, his M.A. from Roosevelt University, and his Ph.D. from University of Torontoin 1982. He holds a C. Psych. certification.
Zucker's graduate work in
developmental psychologyresulted in his master's thesis on normative gender identitydevelopment in children. While in graduate school, Zucker met his future collaborator Susan J. Bradley, a child psychiatrist on staff at the Child and Adolescent Service (now the Child and Family Studies Centre) at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health(then, the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry), a public mental health centre and a teaching hospital of the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine.
According to his biography, "Zucker's awe of the imposing Clarke Institute edifice inspired him to meet with the then chief of psychology, Dr. Kingsley Ferguson," who told Zucker of Bradley's new working group to assess children and adolescents with
gender identityproblems. Zucker, Kenneth J. and Susan J. Bradley (1995). "Gender Identity Disorder and Psychosexual Problems in Children and Adolescents." Guilford Press ISBN 0898622662] Zucker had read Richard Green's 1974 book "Sexual Identity Conflict in Children and Adults" and was convinced to join Bradley’s group.
Therapeutic intervention for gender variance
Since the mid-1970s Zucker has treated about 500 preadolescent gender-variant children to "help these kids be more content in their biological gender" until they are older and can determine their sexual identity.Brown, Patricia Leigh (December 2, 2006). [http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/02/us/02child.html Supporting Boys or Girls When the Line Isn’t Clear] . "
New York Times"] For children assigned as males at birth, Zucker orders parents to take away their child’s "feminine" toys and instruct the child not to play with or draw pictures of girls.Spiegel, Alix (May 7, 2008). [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=90247842 Two families grapple with sons' gender preferences] . " All Things Considered", National Public Radio] Psychologist Darryl Hill describes Zucker's approach to gender-variant children:
Zucker and Bradley believe that reparative treatments (encouraging the child to accept their natal sex and associated gender) can be therapeutic for several reasons. They believe that treatment can reduce social ostracism by helping gender non-conforming children mix more readily with same sex peers and prevent long-term psychopathological development (i.e., it is easier to change a child than a society intolerant of gender diversity). Reparative therapy is believed to reduce the chances of adult GID (i.e., transsexualism) which Zucker and Bradley characterize as undesirable. Hill DB, Rozanski C, Carfagnini J, Willoughby B (2006). Gender Identity Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence: A Critical Inquiry. pp. 7-34. In Karasic D, Drescher J (Eds.) "Sexual and Gender Diagnoses of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM): A Reevaluation." Haworth Press ISBN 0789032147]
Zucker says parents set the goals at his clinic. "We recommend that one goal be to help the child feel more secure about his or her actual gender, another to deal with the child's emotional difficulties, and a third to help with problems in the family. It's helpful to have parents set limits on things like cross-dressing, which many parents have not done before coming to us."Goleman, Daniel (March 22, 1994). [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9901E0DA153CF931A15750C0A962958260 The 'Wrong' Sex: A New Definition Of Childhood Pain] . "
New York Times"] Zucker's follow-up of 50 treated children found that "about 10 percent are still very unhappy about their gender, still cross-dressing, and thinking about having sex reassignment surgery" as young adults.
Zucker coauthored a statistical report with
J. Michael Baileythat found gays and lesbians exhibited more cross-gender activity as children.Bailey JM, Zucker KJ (1995). Childhood Sex-Typed Behavior and Sexual Orientation: A Conceptual Analysis and Quantitative Review. "Developmental Psychology", v31 n1 p43-55 Jan 1995] Bailey claims Zucker considers transsexualisma "bad outcome" for these children.Bailey, J. Michael (2003). "The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism". Joesph Henry Press, ISBN 978-0309084185]
Critics cite "'reparative' therapy that seeks to reverse sexual orientation or gender identification"Dean, Laura, Ilan H Meyer, Kevin Robinson, Randall L. Sell, Robert Sember, Vincent M.B. Silenzio, Daniel Wolfe (2000). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender health: Findings and concerns. "Journal of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association", 2000.] as an "extreme example" of bias that may hamper effectiveness of care, an approach that "may lead to increased self hatred and mental health problems." Ryan, C, Bradford, J & Honnold, J. (1999) Social workers' and counselors' knowledge and understanding of lesbians. "Journal of Lesbian and Gay Social Services", 9(4):1-26.] Clinicians have called Zucker's therapeutic intervention "something disturbingly close to reparative therapy for homosexuals." Pickstone-Taylor, Simon D. (2003). Children with gender nonconformity. "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry", 42, 266.] Journalist Marc Lostracco described Zucker's therapy as "problematic and harsh." Lostracco, Marc (May 9, 2008). [http://torontoist.com/2008/05/but_for_today_i_am_a_boy.php But for today I am a boy] . "Torontoist"] , and author Phyllis Burke wrote, "The diagnosis of GID in children, as supported by Zucker and Bradley, is simply
child abuse." Burke, Phyllis (1996). "Gender Shock". Anchor. ISBN 978-0385477185] Zucker dismisses Burke's book as "simplistic" and "not particularly illuminating;" journalist Stephanie Wilkinson said Zucker characterized Burke's book as "the work of a journalist whose views shouldn't be put into the same camp as those of scientists like Richard Green or himself."
LGBT activists protested Zucker's 2008 appointment to the DSM-V working group.Chibarro, Lou Jr. (May 30, 2008). [http://www.washingtonblade.com/2008/5-30/news/national/12682.cfm Activists alarmed over APA: Head of psychiatry panel favors 'change' therapy for some trans teens] . "Washington Blade"] Rau, Krishna (July 7, 2008). [http://www.xtra.ca/public/viewstory.aspx?AFF_TYPE=3&STORY_ID=5074&PUB_TEMPLATE_ID=2 Trans activists infuriated by doctors in charge of gender identity definitions.] "
Xtra"] The National Gay and Lesbian Task Forceissued a statement questioning the APA's decision to appoint Zucker and a second member of the work panel, Ray Blanchard, who argues that certain manifestations of transgender behavior should be classified as a paraphiliaor transvestic fetishism, terms to which transgender advocates object. According to a response released by American Psychiatric Association, Zucker does not advocate reparative therapy for transgender adults or for trans youth in all cases, and he opposes change therapy for gays under all circumstances.
According to the
Web of Science, Zucker has published almost 100 articles in peer-reviewed journals. These articles have been cited over 2000 times, with an h-indexof 20. [Citation
title = Web of Science
year = 2008
url = http://isiwebofknowledge.com
accessdate = 2008-07-01]
* "Gender identity disorder and psychosexual problems in children and adolescents", 1996, Guilford Press, ISBN 9780898622669, with Susan J Bradley
* "Ex-gay research: analyzing the Spitzer study and its relation to science, religion, politics, and culture", 2006, Harrington Park Press, ISBN 9781560235576, coedited with
* [http://www.camh.net/Research/Scientific_staff_profiles/bio_detail.php?cuserID=42 Kenneth Zucker profile] via Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
* [http://www.psych.org/MainMenu/Research/DSMIV/DSMV/MeettheTaskForce/KennethJZuckerPhD.aspx Kenneth Zucker profile] via American Psychiatric Association
*imdb name|2516047|Kenneth Zucker
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Zucker — is a German word meaning sugar and may refer to: * Zucker (album), an album by the FastbacksZucker is the surname of: *David Zucker, an American film director *Gerhard Zucker, a German businessman and rocket engineer *Harold Zucker, an former… … Wikipedia
Gender identity disorder in children — Gender Identity Disorder of Childhood Classification and external resources ICD 10 F64.2 ICD 9 302.6 … Wikipedia
Susan Bradley — Susan Jane Bradley is a Canadian psychiatrist best known for her work on gender identity disorder in children.cite web |url= http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr04/gender.html |accessdate=2008 06 17 |author=Dingfelder, Sadie F. |title = Gender bender… … Wikipedia
Lynn Conway — Conway in 2006 Born January 10, 1938 (1938 01 10) (age 73) White Plains, New York, U.S … Wikipedia
Joseph Nicolosi — (born January 21, 1947) is a clinical psychologist, founder and director of the Thomas Aquinas Psychological Clinic, in Encino, California, and a Past President of the National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH). [… … Wikipedia
Childhood gender nonconformity — is a phenomenon in which pre pubescent children do not conform to expected gender related sociological or psychological patterns, and/or identify with the opposite gender. Typical behaviour among those who exhibit the phenomenon includes but… … Wikipedia
Stephen B. Levine — For the author born in 1937 who writes about death and dying, see Stephen Levine (author). Stephen Barrett Levine (born 1942) is an American psychiatrist known for his work in human sexuality, particularly sexual dysfunction and… … Wikipedia
DSM-5 — The next (fifth) edition of the American Psychiatric Association s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), commonly called DSM 5 (previously known as DSM V until the APA decided to abandon the Roman Numerals), is… … Wikipedia
Androphilia and gynephilia — Transgender topics Identities Androgyne · Genderqueer Hijra · Third gender / Third sex Transgender · Trans man Trans woman · Trigender · Two Spirit Queer heterosexuality … Wikipedia
International Academy of Sex Research — The International Academy of Sex Research (IASR) is a scientific society for researchers in sexology. The official journal of IASR is the Archives of Sexual Behavior . IASR is unique among sexology organizations in that individuals must be… … Wikipedia