- GNSS Road Pricing
GNSS Road Pricing is the charging of road users using
Global Navigation Satellite System(GNSS) sensors inside vehicles. Advocates argue that road pricingusing GNSS permits a number of policies such as tolling by distance on urban roads and can be used for many other applications in parking, insurance and vehicle emissions. Critics argue that GNSS could lead to an invasion of people’s privacy [ [http://psi.bth.se/swits/presentation_ulrik_karlsson.ppt A presentation explaining the benefits and privacy issues of GNSS road pricing] ] .
Even though GNSS and
electronic toll collectionhave been around for decades, the idea of using satellites for road tolling is quite recent. In 1998, the European Unionpublished a report which proposed the use of GNSS to charge vehicles by distance. [ [http://aei.pitt.edu/1136/01/transport_infra_wp_COM_98_466.pdf] Fair Payment for Infrastructure Use: A phased approach to a common transport infrastructure charging framework in the EU, "Commission of the European Communities", July 22, 1998.] . Germany introduced the first the GNSS road pricing system for truck tolling in 2005 [ [http://www.computerworld.com/mobiletopics/mobile/story/0,10801,98679,00.html] IDG article on German Truck Tolling] . In 2007, the Netherlandslegislated the implementation of GNSS road pricing by 2011, and nationwide by 2016 [ [http://www.verkeerenwaterstaat.nl/english/topics/mobility_and_accessibility/roadpricing/index.aspx] Dutch Ministry site describing the Netherlands tolling plans] .
How it works
Although the architecture of individual systems may vary, all GNSS road pricing systems share key common elements in how they work. In a typical
road pricingsystem, in-vehicle sensors record time and position data. The data vehicle is processed into trip data, which is in then matched to a set pricing scheme to produce a bill. Most systems process trip data at a back office, though some systems are designed with all the processing taking place inside the vehicle itself [ [http://www.skymetercorp.com/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=70&Itemid=70 Illustration of Skymeter's road pricing system here] ] [ [http://www.satellic.com/13.html Satellic's Road Pricing technology illustration] ] .
Many cities that have already implemented congestion pricing are looking at ways to expand and improve their systems. Proponents of GNSS road pricing claim it can be used to charge vehicles for how much they travel within a cordoned area as opposed to a flat entry fee, thus avoiding 'sharp pricing edges'.
Time Distance Place (TDP) Road Pricing
GNSS Road pricing enables road pricing policies based on time, distance and place (TDP). TDP road pricing is very much based on the road pricing principles outlined by
William Vickrey[Cite web|author= Vickrey, William | year=1992|url=http://www.vtpi.org/vickrey.htm|title= Principles of Efficient Congestion Pricing|accessdate=2008-02-26|publisher = Victoria Transport Policy Institute] . In such a system, vehicles are charged based on when, where, and how much they drive. [ [https://www.technologyprogramme.org.uk/extranet/competitions/InnovationPlatforms/Documents/TSBRoadCharging.pdf Technology Strategy Board Request for TDP proposals] ]
GNSS Road Pricing Providers
Global Navigation Satellite System
Global Positioning System
Electronic toll collection
* [http://www.gpsworld.com/gpsworld/Innovation/Innovation-A-GNSS-Odometer/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/509263 GPS world article on GNSS automotive applications]
* [http://www.skymetercorp.com Skymeter] : a company that has developed technology for GNSS road pricing
* [http://www.satellic.com/ Satellic] : the company that runs Germany's truck tolling
* [http://www.theregister.co.uk/2003/10/14/think_tank_recommends_satellite_road/ Article on British Think Tank's recommendation of satellite road charging]
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