- Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland (Polish: "Rząd Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej" or RTRP) was created by
Krajowa Rada Narodowaon the night of 31 December 1944. [ [Norman Davies|Davies, Norman, 1982 and several reprints. "God's Playground". 2 vols. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0-231-05353-3 and ISBN 0-231-05351-7] ]
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland was created to take the place of the previous governmental body, the
Polish Committee of National Liberation("Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego" or PKWN). Because of its location in Lublin, the PKWN was also known as the "Lublin Committee". The establishment of the RTRP was an important step in strengthening the control of the Polish Workers' Partyand Union of Soviet Socialist Republicsin Poland.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland created
1 January 1945, the Polish Committee of National Liberation became the Provisional Government of Republic of Poland. In London, the Polish government-in-exileprotested. They issued a declaration that the Soviet Union had "taken over the sovereign political rights of the Polish nation." The governments of Winston Churchilland Franklin D. Rooseveltalso issued formal protest, but they took no further action.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Poland did not recognize the
Polish government-in-exileand proclaimed itself to be the legitimate government of Poland. Initially, the RTRP was only officially recognized by the Soviet Union. But before the Yalta Conference, Joseph Stalinconveyed his intention to the Western Alliesthat Poland was under the control of the Soviet Union and that he intended for it to stay that way. The RTRP was given control of the Polish territories seized by the Red Armyas the it advanced westward.
The RTRP was chaired by the previous Prime Minister of PKWN,
Edward Osóbka-Morawski. The Deputy Prime Ministers of the RTRP were Władysław Gomułkaof the Polish Workers' Party(PPR, for "Polska Partia Robotnicza") and Stanisław Januszfrom Stronnictwo Ludowe. The Minister of defense was Michał Rola-Żymierski. The Minister of Security was Stanisław Radkiewicz.
The Polish Workers' Party declared that the RTRP was to be a
coalition, but in practice all key posts were controlled by PPR. Semi-official control of the RTRP was exercised by Soviet General Ivan Sierov. Some Polish Communists, like Władysław Gomułka and Edward Ochab, were opposed to this excessive Soviet control. However, they could do little to change the existing status quo.
18 January, the RTRP was relocated from Lublinto Warsaw.
30 Januaryto 2 February, the heads of government of the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States— Joseph Stalin, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, respectively — attended preliminary discussions on the Yalta Conference in Malta.
4 Februaryto 12 February, the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union attended the Yalta Conference in the Crimea. At Yalta, the following "Joint Allied Declaration on Poland" was developed:
"The three heads of governments consider that the Eastern frontier of Poland should follow the Curzon line, with digressions from it in some regions of five to eight kilometers in favor of Poland. They recognize that Poland must receive substantial of accessions of territory in the north and west. They feel that the opinion of the new Polish Provisional Government of National Unity should be sought in due course on the extent of these accessions, and that the final delimitation of the Western frontier of Poland should thereafter await the Peace Conference." [ [Page 158, "The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan", Hans Dollinger, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047] ]
7 February, Churchill documented the following discussion while at Yalta:
"How soon," asked the President, "will it be possible to hold elections?""Within a month," Stalin replied, "unless there is some catastrophe at the front, which is improbable.""I said that this would of course set our minds at rest, and we could wholeheartedly support a freely elected Government which would supersede everything else, but we must not ask for anything which would in any way hamper the military operations." [ [Page 158, "The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan", Hans Dollinger, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047] ]
In Warsaw on
21 April 1955, Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Romania, and the Soviet Unionsigned Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, or Warsaw Pact. Besides founding a military alliance to counter the perceived threat from the Western Bloc, this treaty confirmed the change in Polish borders and granted control over internal security of Poland to the Soviet Union.
23 April, Soviet diplomat Vyacheslav Molotovwas in Washington, DC. President Harry S Trumanand the State Department of the United State appealed to Molotov for a compromise on the "Polish question". On the same day, Prime Minister Edward Osóbka-Morawski of the RTRP announced the following at a press conference:
"We need people who agree with our foreign policy and with our social reforms. Only such a government can do its work properly. We need the collaboration of men who accept the Yalta decisions, not only formally, but in fact. We are making every effort to contact such people. What we do not want are Fascists . . . " [ [Page 158, "The Decline and Fall of Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan", Hans Dollinger, Library of Congress Catalogue Card Number 67-27047] ]
Provisional Government of National Unity replaces the RTRP
28 June, the Provisional Government of Republic of Poland ("Rząd Tymczasowy Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej") was transformed into the more coalition-like Provisional Government of National Unity("Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej"). This was promised by Stalin at Yalta and done by him as gesture of good will towards the Western Allies and Polish government-in-exilein London.
Polish Committee of National Liberation("Polski Komitet Wyzwolenia Narodowego" or PKWN) - 1944/45
Provisional Government of National Unity("Tymczasowy Rząd Jedności Narodowej" or TRJN)- 1945/47
* Peoples' Army of Poland ("
Ludowe Wojsko Polskie" or LWP)
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