 Commutation theorem

In mathematics, a commutation theorem explicitly identifies the commutant of a specific von Neumann algebra acting on a Hilbert space in the presence of a trace. The first such result was proved by F.J. Murray and John von Neumann in the 1930s and applies to the von Neumann algebra generated by a discrete group or by the dynamical system associated with a measurable transformation preserving a probability measure. Another important application is in the theory of unitary representations of unimodular locally compact groups, where the theory has been applied to the regular representation and other closely related representations. In particular this framework led to an abstract version of the Plancherel theorem for unimodular locally compact groups due to Irving Segal and Forrest Stinespring and an abstract Plancherel theorem for spherical functions associated with a Gelfand pair due to Roger Godement. Their work was put in final form in the 1950s by Jacques Dixmier as part of the theory of Hilbert algebras. It was not until the late 1960s, prompted partly by results in algebraic quantum field theory and quantum statistical mechanics due to the school of Rudolf Haag, that the more general nontracial Tomita–Takesaki theory was developed, heralding a new era in the theory of von Neumann algebras.
Contents
Commutation theorem for finite traces
Let H be a Hilbert space and M a von Neumann algebra on H with a unit vector Ω such that
 M Ω is dense in H
 M ' Ω is dense in H, where M ' denotes the commutant of M
 (abΩ, Ω) = (baΩ, Ω) for all a, b in M.
The vector Ω is called a cyclicseparating trace vector. It is called a trace vector because the last condition means that the matrix coefficient corresponding to Ω defines a tracial state on M. It is called cyclic since Ω generates H as a topological Mmodule. It is called separating because if aΩ = 0 for a in M, then aM'Ω= (0), and hence a = 0.
It follows that the map
 JaΩ = a * Ω
for a in M defines a conjugatelinear isometry of H with square the identity J^{2} = I. The operator J is usually called the modular conjugation operator.
It is immediately verified that JMJ and M commute on the subspace M Ω, so that
The commutation theorem of Murray and von Neumann states that
One of the easiest ways to see this^{[1]} is to introduce K, the closure of the real subspace M_{sa} Ω, where M_{sa} denotes the selfadjoint elements in M. It follows that
an orthogonal direct sum for the real part of inner product. This is just the real orthogonal decomposition for the ±1 eigenspaces of J. On the other hand for a in M_{sa} and b in M'_{sa}, the inner product (abΩ, Ω) is real, because ab is selfadjoint. Hence K is unaltered if M is replaced by M '.
In particular Ω is a trace vector for M' and J is unaltered if M is replaced by M '. So the opposite inclusion
follows by reversing the roles of M and M'.
Examples
 One of the simplest cases of the commutation theorem, where it can easily be seen directly, is that of a finite group Γ acting on the finitedimensional inner product space by the left and right regular representations λ and ρ. These unitary representations are given by the formulas
 for f in and the commutation theorem implies that
 The operator J is given by the formula
 Exactly the same results remain true if Γ is allowed to be any countable discrete group.^{[2]} The von Neumann algebra λ(Γ)' ' is usually called the group von Neumann algebra of Γ.
 Another important example is provided by a probability space (X, μ). The Abelian von Neumann algebra A = L^{∞}(X, μ) acts by multiplication operators on H = L^{2}(X, μ) and the constant function 1 is a cyclicseparating trace vector. It follows that
 so that A is a maximal Abelian subalgebra of B(H), the von Neumann algebra of all bounded operators on H.
 The third class of examples combines the above two. Coming from ergodic theory, it was one of von Neumann's original motivations for studying von Neumann algebras. Let (X, μ) be a probability space and let Γ be a countable discrete group of measurepreserving transformations of (X, μ). The group therefore acts unitarily on the Hilbert space H = L^{2}(X, μ) according to the formula

 U_{g}f(x) = f(g ^{− 1}x),
 for f in H and normalises the Abelian von Neumann algebra A = L^{∞}(X, μ). Let
 a tensor product of Hilbert spaces.^{[3]} The group–measure space construction or crossed product von Neumann algebra
 is defined to be the von Neumann algebra on H_{1} generated by the algebra and the normalising operators .^{[4]}
 The vector is a cyclicseparating trace vector. Moreover the modular conjugation operator J and commutant M ' can be explicitly identified.
One of the most important cases of the group–measure space construction is when Γ is the group of integers Z, i.e. the case of a single invertible measurable transformation T. Here T must preserve the probability measure μ. Semifinite traces are required to handle the case when T (or more generally Γ) only preserves an infinite equivalent measure; and the full force of the Tomita–Takesaki theory is required when there is no invariant measure in the equivalence class, even though the equivalence class of the measure is preserved by T (or Γ).^{[5]}^{[6]}
Commutation theorem for semifinite traces
Let M be a von Neumann algebra and M_{+} the set of positive operators in M. By definition,^{[2]} a semifinite trace (or sometimes just trace) on M is a functional τ from M_{+} into [0,∞] such that
 τ(λa + μb) = λτ(a) + μτ(b) for a, b in M_{+} and λ, μ ≥ 0 (semilinearity);
 τ(uau ^{*} ) = τ(a) for a in M_{+} and u a unitary operator in M (unitary invariance);
 τ is completely additive on orthogonal families of projections in M (normality);
 each projection in M is as orthogonal direct sum of projections with finite trace (semifiniteness).
If in addition τ is nonzero on every nonzero projection, then τ is called a faithful trace.
If τ is a faithul trace on M, let H = L^{2}(M, τ) be the Hilbert space completion of the inner product space
with respect to the inner product
 (a,b) = τ(b ^{*} a).
The von Neumann algebra M acts by left multiplication on H and can be identified with its image. Let
 Ja = a ^{*}
for a in M_{0}. The operator J is again called the modular conjugation operator and extends to a conjugatelinear isometry of H satisfying J^{2} = I. The commutation theorem of Murray and von Neumann
is again valid in this case. This result can be proved directly by a variety of methods,^{[2]} but follows immediately from the result for finite traces, by repeated use of the following elementary fact:
 If M_{1} M_{2} are two von Neumann algebras such that p_{n} M_{1} = p_{n} M_{2} for a family of projections p_{n} in the commutant of M_{1} increasing to I in the strong operator topology, then M_{1} = M_{2}.
Hilbert algebras
See also: Tomita–Takesaki theoryThe theory of Hilbert algebras was introduced by Godement (under the name "unitary algebras"), Segal and Dixmier to formalize the classical method of defining the trace for trace class operators starting from HilbertSchmidt operators.^{[7]} Applications in the representation theory of groups naturally lead to examples of Hilbert algebras. Every von Neumann algebra endowed with a semifinite trace has a canonical "completed"^{[8]} or "full" Hilbert algebra associated with it; and conversely a completed Hilbert algebra of exactly this form can be canonically associated with every Hilbert algebra. The theory of Hilbert algebras can be used to deduce the commutation theorems of Murray and von Neumann; equally well the main results on Hilbert algebras can also be deduced directly from the commutation theorems for traces. The theory of Hilbert algebras was generalised by Takesaki^{[6]} as a tool for proving commutation theorems for semifinite weights in Tomita–Takesaki theory; they can be dispensed with when dealing with states.^{[1]}^{[9]}^{[10]}
Definition
A Hilbert algebra^{[2]}^{[11]}^{[12]} is an algebra with involution x→x* and an inner product (,) such that
 (a,b)=(b*,a*) for a, b in ;
 left multiplication by a fixed a in is a bounded operator;
 * is the adjoint, in other words (xy,z) = (y, x*z);
 the linear span of all products xy is dense in .
Examples
 The HilbertSchmidt operators on an infinitedimensional Hilbert space form a Hilbert algebra with inner product (a,b) = Tr (b*a).
 If (X, μ) is an infinite measure space, the algebra L^{∞} (X) L^{2}(X) is a Hilbert algebra with the usual inner product from L^{2}(X).
 If M is a von Neumann algebra with faithful semifinite trace τ, then the *subalgebra M_{0} defined above is a Hilbert algebra with inner product (a, b) = τ(b*a).
 If G is a unimodular locally compact group, the convolution algebra L^{1}(G)L^{2}(G) is a Hilbert algebra with the usual inner product from L^{2}(G).
 If (G, K) is a Gelfand pair, the convolution algebra L^{1}(K\G/K)L^{2}(K\G/K) is a Hilbert algebra with the usual inner product from L^{2}(G); here L^{p}(K\G/K) denotes the closed subspace of Kbiinvariant functions in L^{p}(G).
 Any dense *subalgebra of a Hilbert algebra is also a Hilbert algebra.
Properties
Let H be the Hilbert space completion of with respect to the inner product and let J denote the extension of the involution to a conjugatelinear involution of H. Define a representation λ and an antirepresentation ρ of on itself by left and right multiplication:
These actions extend continuously to actions on H. In this case the commutation theorem for Hilbert algebras states that
Moreover if
the von Neumann algebra generated by the operators λ(a), then
These results were proved independently by Godement (1954) and Segal (1953).
The proof relies on the notion of "bounded elements" in the Hilbert space completion H.
An element of x in H is said to be bounded (relative to ) if the map a → xa of into H extends to a bounded operator on H, denoted by λ(x). In this case it is straightforward to prove that:^{[13]}
 Jx is also a bounded element, denoted x*, and λ(x*) = λ(x)*;
 a → ax is given by the bounded operator ρ(x) = Jλ(x*)J on H;
 M ' is generated by the ρ(x)'s with x bounded;
 λ(x) and ρ(y) commute for x, y bounded.
The commutation theorem follows immediately from the last assertion. In particular
 M = λ()".
The space of all bounded elements forms a Hilbert algebra containing as a dense *subalgebra. It is said to be completed or full because any element in H bounded relative to must actually already lie in . The functional τ on M_{+} defined by
 τ(x) = (a,a)
if x =λ(a)*λ(a) and ∞ otherwise, yields a faithful semifinite trace on M with
Thus:

There is a oneone correspondence between von Neumann algebras on H with faithful semifinite trace and full Hilbert algebras with Hilbert space completion H.
See also
Notes
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Rieffel & van Daele 1977
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} ^{d} Dixmier 1957
 ^ H_{1} can be identified with the space of square integrable functions on X x Γ with respect to the product measure.
 ^ It should not be confused with the von Neumann algebra on H generated by A and the operators U_{g}.
 ^ Connes 1979
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Takesaki 2002
 ^ Simon 1979
 ^ Dixmier uses the adjectives achevée or maximale.
 ^ Pedersen 1979
 ^ Bratteli & Robinson 1987
 ^ Dixmier 1977, Appendix A54–A61.
 ^ Dieudonné 1976
 ^ Godement 1954, pp. 52–53
References
 Bratteli, O.; Robinson, D.W. (1987), Operator Algebras and Quantum Statistical Mechanics 1, Second Edition, SpringerVerlag, ISBN 3540170936
 Connes, A. (1979), Sur la théorie non commutative de l’intégration, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, (Algèbres d'Opérateurs), SpringerVerlag, pp. 19–143, ISBN 9783540095125
 Dieudonné, J. (1976), Treatise on Analysis, Vol. II, Academic Press, ISBN 0122155022
 Dixmier, J. (1957), Les algèbres d'opérateurs dans l'espace hilbertien: algèbres de von Neumann, GauthierVillars
 Dixmier, J. (1981), Von Neumann algebras, North Holland, ISBN 0444863087 (English translation)
 Dixmier, J. (1969), Les C*algèbres et leurs représentations, GauthierVillars, ISBN 0720407621
 Dixmier, J. (1977), C* algebras, North Holland, ISBN 0720407621 (English translation)
 Godement, R. (1951), "Mémoire sur la théorie des caractères dans les groupes localement compacts unimodulaires", J. Math. Pures Appl. 30: 1–110
 Godement, R. (1954), "Théorie des caractères. I. Algèbres unitaires", Ann. Of Math. (Annals of Mathematics) 59 (1): 47–62, doi:10.2307/1969832, JSTOR 1969832
 Murray, F.J.; von Neumann, J. (1936), "On rings of operators", Ann. Of Math. (2) (Annals of Mathematics) 37 (1): 116–229, doi:10.2307/1968693, JSTOR 1968693
 Murray, F.J.; von Neumann, J. (1937), "On rings of operators II", Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. (American Mathematical Society) 41 (2): 208–248, doi:10.2307/1989620, JSTOR 1989620
 Murray, F.J.; von Neumann, J. (1943), "On rings of operators IV", Ann. Of Math. (2) (Annals of Mathematics) 44 (4): 716–808, doi:10.2307/1969107, JSTOR 1969107
 Pedersen, G.K. (1979), C* algebras and their automorphism groups, London Mathematical Society Monographs, 14, Academic Press, ISBN 0125494505
 Rieffel, M.A.; van Daele, A. (1977), "A bounded operator approach to Tomita–Takesaki theory", Pacific J. Math. 69: 187–221
 Segal, I.E. (1953), "A noncommutative extension of abstract integration", Ann. Of Math. (Annals of Mathematics) 57 (3): 401–457, doi:10.2307/1969729, JSTOR 1969729 (Section 5)
 Simon, B. (1979), Trace ideals and their applications, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, 35, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521222869
 Takesaki, M. (2002), Theory of Operator Algebras II, SpringerVerlag, ISBN 354042914X
Categories: Von Neumann algebras
 Representation theory of groups
 Ergodic theory
 Theorems in functional analysis
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