Longdendale


Longdendale

Longdendale is a valley in the north west of England, north of Glossop and south east of Holmfirth. The name means "long wooded valley".

Geography

The eastern part of the valley is in the non-metropolitan county of Derbyshire and includes the village of Tintwistle and, further east, part of the Peak District National Park, with the last half mile or so falling into the metropolitan borough of Barnsley. The western part of the valley, including the villages of Broadbottom, Mottram in Longdendale and Hollingworth is administered by the metropolitan borough of Tameside in the metropolitan county of Greater Manchester. The whole of Longdendale forms the easternmost extension of the lands which lie within the historic boundaries of the county palatine of Chester.

The River Etherow, a tributary of the River Mersey, rises south of Holmfirth and then flows through a chain of six reservoirs known as the Longdendale Chain: Arnfield Reservoir, Bottoms Reservoir, Valehouse Reservoir, Rhodeswood Reservoir, Torside Reservoir and Woodhead Reservoir. There was a seventh reservoir at Hollingworth, but it has now been abandoned.

History

Feudal estates

The lordship of Longdendale was an ancient feudal estate encompassing the medieval manors of Godley, Hattersley, Hollingworth, Matley, Mottram, Newton, Staley, Tintwistle and Werneth. The lordship was created by the Earl of Chester in the late twelfth century; William de Neville was the first lord of Longdendale, as appointed by the Earl of Chester. [cite book |author=Mike Nevell |date=1994 |title=The People Who Made Tameside |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough with University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |pages=86 |isbn=1-871324-12-2] Buckton Castle, near Carrbrook, was probably built by William de Neville in the late twelfth centurycite book |author=Mike Nevell |date=1998 |title=Lands and Lordships in Tameside |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council with the University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |pages=60-61, 63 |isbn=1-871324-18-1] and was also probably the centre of lordship of Longdendale as it is the only castle within the lordship. [cite book |author=Mike Nevell and John Walker |date=1999 |title=Tameside in Transition |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough with University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |pages=95 |isbn=1-871324-24-6] One of the privileges of the lordship was to carry out trial by combat. The lordship of Longdendale was passed from de Neville to his son in law, Thomas de Burgh, in 1211 on his death. The lordship reverted to the control of the crown in 1357, and remained under crown control until 1374. The lordship was given to Matilda Lovell and the Lovells controlled Longdendale until 1465 when conrol again reverted to the crown. The lordship was granted to Sir William Stanley in 1489, however the lordship once again reverted to the crown when Stanley was executed in 1495 as a supporter of Perkin Warbeck. In 1554 the lordship was granted to Richard Wilbraham. [cite book |author=Mike Nevell |date=1991 |title=Tameside 1066-1700 |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough with the University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |pages=11-13, 15, 39-40 |isbn=1-871324-02-5] Tollemache family inherited lordship of Longdendale from the Wilbrahams in the 1690s. [cite book |author=Mike Nevell |date=1993 |title=Tameside 1700-1930 |publisher=Tameside Metropolitan Borough with the University of Manchester Archaeological Unit |pages=17, 93 |isbn=1-871324-08-4] It was part of the Hundred of Macclesfield. An estate survey, or 'Extent' of the lordship for 1360 was published by the Record Society of Lancashire and Cheshire in July 2005.

alt trade

A packhorse route called a saltway was maintained from the Middle Ages onwards for the purpose of allowing the export of salt from the Cheshire "wiches" of Nantwich, Northwich and Middlewich across the Pennines. The passing trade brought prosperity to settlements along the route. The importance of the salt trade along such saltways is shown by surviving placenames; for example Salter's Brook (gbm4ibx|SK137999) is where the saltway forked, with one route leading to Wakefield and another to Barnsley. [ [http://www.peakdistrict-nationalpark.info/studyArea/factsheets/21.html Peak District National Park: Study Area ] ] The stone Lady Shaw Bridge still exists at this point, as do the ruins of an old inn. The bridge is just wide enough for a packhorse, though it is suspected that the bridge may have originally been wider, and deliberately narrowed when the Saltersbrook turnpike was built to prevent vehicles bypassing the toll barrier. [On-site information board: ]

Turnpike road

The turnpike road from Manchester to Saltersbrook connected to further turnpikes for Yorkshire destinations and was built in the mid-eighteenth century, based on the older saltway route.

The reservoirs

The Longdendale catchment exceeds convert|30|sqmi|km2 and has an annual rainfall of convert|52.5|in|mm. The civil engineer John Frederick Bateman, recognised the potential and conceived a plan to deliver this water to Manchester and Salford, while still maintaining the flow in the River Etherow that was needed to power the mills of Tintwistle and Glossop. The six reservoirs have a capacity of 4,200 million gallons. . A tunnel was built at a depth of convert|200|ft|m to carry the water from Longdendale into the valley of the River Tame.An Act of Parliament (10 Victoria Cap.cciii) (9th July 1847) was passed to allow the land to be acquired and construction to commence. cite book | title= Manchester's water: the reservoirs in the hills | author= Quayle, Tom | year= 2006 | publisher= Tempus | location= Stroud | isbn= 0-7524-3198-6 pp. 7,19.]

The railway

The first railway line between Manchester and Sheffield was constructed between 1839 and 1845 on the south side of the reservoir chain by 1,500 navvies of whom many died and most suffered illness. The three-mile-long double Woodhead Tunnel was, for a time, the longest tunnel in the country. It was replaced by a single, larger tunnel in 1954. The first tunnel was subsequently used by CEGB to reroute the main high-voltage link up the valley and through the National Park underground. The railway line ceased to be economical, and in 1970 the passenger service ceased, followed in 1981 by the freight service. The passenger service was adversely affected by the requirement to keep the Hope Valley line open, whilst the freight service was affected by the falloff in Trans-Pennine coal traffic. The track was lifted in 1986. There have been plans to re-open the railway at various times since it was closed, but none have gained planning approval.

Administrative change

Hollingworth and Mottram were part of the Longdendale urban district in the administrative county of Cheshire from 1936. In 1974 the district was absorbed by Tameside metropolitan borough.

Recreation

Walking and cycling

After the rail line was closed, the trackbed was taken up and the Longdendale Trail constructed along its route. It is now part of the Trans-Pennine Trail (Sustrans National Cycle Route 62 [cite web|url=http://www.manchester.gov.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?categoryID=200102&documentID=2590|title=Signed Cycle Routes in Manchester|publisher=Manchester City Council|accessdate=2008-01-25] ) which, in its turn, is part of the 2000-mile European walking route E8 from Liverpool to Istanbul. The Pennine Way crosses Longdendale, descending from Bleaklow to the south and ascending Black Hill to the north. The youth hostel at Crowden is a traditional stop after the first day's walking, from Edale.

The circular walk known as 'The Longdendale Edges' takes in the high ground (at about the 1000-1500' level) on both sides of the valley. It is about 17 miles long and is 'not recommended in doubtful weather'. The detailed route, clockwise from Crowden Youth Hostel, is given in "Peak District Walking Guide No.2", published by the Peak Park Planning Board.

ailing

Torside Reservoir is home to Glossop & District Sailing Club [http://www.gdsc.org (GDSC)] .

Transport

Road

The M67 motorway starts at the M60 motorway in Manchester and heads east where it currently terminates at Mottram in Longdendale. There were plans in the 1960s to extend it through through the National Park to the M1 motorway and Sheffield [cite web|url=http://www.pathetic.org.uk/motorways/m67.shtml|title=M67|publisher=Pathetic Motorways|accessdate=2008-01-25] but it was never built. From here the A628 runs through the valley to join the A616.

As of January 2008 there are advanced plans to improve the A628 route by bypassing Mottram and Tintwistle to the north with a spur to the A57 road.Know as the "A57/A628 Mottram-in-Longdendale, Hollingworth & Tintwistle Bypass" or Longdendale Bypass, the public inquiry has been adjourned four times and is current adjourned 'indefinitely'.cite web|url=http://www.persona.uk.com/mottram/news.htm|title=The Mottram/Tintwistle Bypass and Glossop Spur Public Inquiry - News|publisher=Persona|accessdate=2008-01-21]

Rail

The Woodhead Line used to run though the valley using the Woodhead Tunnel. The national grid intend to install cable runs in the newest tunnel although others wish to re-open the line for freight. [cite web|url=http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=2&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.bettertransport.org.uk%2Fsystem%2Ffiles%2Fwoodhead_flyer.pdf&ei=xj2ZR_-ZEoykwQGsxYC0Aw&usg=AFQjCNEcy3VI_x7OR4NKB-Ly8mkdv0TWbQ&sig2=XXpuxoUHZUDNk4xCqpLApA |publisher=Campaign for Better Transport|title=Save Woodhead Tunnel|accessdate=2008-01-25]

Politics

Longdendale is part of Tameside Metropolitan Borough of Greater Manchester. Up until local government reforms in 1974, Longdendale formed part of the administrative county of Cheshire. The ward of Longdendale has three out of the fifty seven seats on Tameside Borough Council, and as of the 2007 local elections all three seats were held by the Labour Party. The Councillors representing Longdendale on Tameside Council are: [cite web |url=http://www.tameside.gov.uk/corpgen/new/councillors/long.htm |author=Anon |title=Councillors For The Ward Of Longdendale |publisher=Tameside MBC |date=2007-06-15 |accessdate=2007-08-27]
*Roy Oldham (Executive Leader of Council)
*Sean Parker-Perry
*Jonathan Reynolds

Longdendale lights

*The valley and the surrounding area has a reputation for strange phenomena, including unexplained lights [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/323866.stm BBC News | Sci/Tech | Peak viewing for ghouls ] ] and allegedly supernatural apparitions and has become a centre of attention for UFO and ghost hunters [http://www.longdendale.com/legends.html Longdendale Legends] .

External links

* [http://www.longdendale.com/ Community web site]
* [http://www.haunted-britain.com/Haunted_North_Midlands.htm Legends]
* [http://www.spaceless.com/photos/longdendale.html Longdendale Photographs]

References


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