Krasin (1916 icebreaker)


Krasin (1916 icebreaker)

The first icebreaker "Krasin" (Russian: Красин) was built for the Imperial Russian Navy as "Svyatogor". She had a long, distinguished career in rescue operations, as well as a pathfinder and explorer of the Northern Sea Route. She has been fully restored to operating condition and is now a museum ship in Saint Petersburg.

History and service

The icebreaker was built by Armstrong Whitworth in Newcastle upon Tyne under the supervision of Yevgeny Zamyatin. The vessel was launched as the Svyatogor on 3 August 1916 and completed in February 1917. Up to the beginning of the 1950s she remained the most powerful icebreaker in the world. [cite web| url=http://www.krasin.org/eng/history.html| title=The "Krasin" Icebreaker| publisher=krasin.org| accessdate=2008-07-20]

During the allied intervention against the Bolsheviks in Northern Russia (1918-19) she was scuttled by the Royal Navy. They raised her for use in the White Sea and later brought her to Scapa Flow for minesweeping.

"Svyatogor" was returned to the USSR under the Krasin trade agreement in 1921. In 1927 this icebreaker was renamed by the Soviet government to honor the recently deceased politician and diplomat Leonid Borisovich Krasin.

Perhaps the most famous duty the "Krasin" performed was rescuing the expedition of downed balloonist General Umberto Nobile close to the North Pole, during his failed Italian Polar expedition in 1928. Later in the same year, "Krasin" rescued German passenger ship "Monte Servantes", with 1835 passengers on board, after it hit an iceberg and its hull was severely damaged.

In 1933 "Krasin" became the first vessel to reach the inaccessible northern shores of Novaya Zemlya in the history of navigation. In the 1938, the "Krasin" rescued Icebreaker Lenin and her convoy, trapped in ice at the end of the previous summer. [cite journal |last=Barr |first=William |authorlink=William Barr (Arctic historian) |year=1980 |month=March |title=The Drift of "Lenin"'s Convoy in the Laptev Sea, 1937-1938 |journal=Arctic |volume=33 |issue=1 |pages=3–20 |url=http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic33-1-3.pdf |accessdate=2008-07-26]

During World War II, "Krasin" participated in many Russian convoys. In 1941 the US Government entered into negotiations with the Russian Government for the purchase or lease of one or more of their modern ice breakers for use by the US Coast Guard on the east coast of Greenland. The "Krasin" was offered, crossed the Pacific and passed through the Panama Canal to Bremerton, Washington. She was surveyed and found to be in need of repairs totalling about $500,000. Funds were allocated from President Franklin D. Roosevelt's "Emergency Fund for the President", but negotiations came to an abrupt end on 25 November 1941. Although the "Krasin" never served in the Coast Guard, the service gained valuable knowledge about icebreakers that was put to use in the design of the Wind class icebreakers.cite web| url=http://www.uscg.mil/history/WEBCUTTERS/Krassin_1917.html| title=Krassin (sic)| publisher=US Coastguard| accessdate=2008-07-26]

She continued her journey to Great Britain, where she was armed with surface and anti-aircraft guns and proceeded to Reykjavik, Iceland to join convoy PQ-15. She escorted the convoy through the North and Barents Seas, around the Kola Peninsula and into Murmansk. [cite web| url=http://www.hnsa.org/ships/krasin.htm| title=Icebreaker "Krasin"| publisher=Historic Naval Ships Association| accessdate=2008-07-20] In 1942 the "Krasin" and "Lenin" were spotted at the Mona Islands in the Kara Sea by a Kriegsmarine plane during Operation Wunderland. Heavy cruiser "Admiral Scheer" rushed to find them, but providential bad weather, fog and ice conditions saved the icebreakers from destruction.Fact|date=July 2008

Between August 1953 to June 1960, under the East German war reparations program, "Krasin" was extensively reconstructed at VEB Mathias-Thesen-Werft, Wismar, Germany. Until 1971 she served the Arctic Northern Sea Route. Then the icebreaker was used as an Arctic scientific vessel.cite web| url=http://www.krassin.ru/en/historical_notes| title=Historical notes about "Krassin"| accessdate=2008] As of 1998, she was owned by the International Fund for the History of Science, Murmansk and registered at St. Petersburg, where she is docked as a floating museum.

Today

After the war, the historic icebreaker took an active part in research expeditions in the Polar Ocean and led Soviet cargo convoys through the polar region. Rather than being destroyed (like the Icebreaker "Yermak") to make way for more modern ships, the "Krasin" was preserved and restored. The vessel is now a museum ship in Saint Petersburg, the only icebreaker maritime museum commemorating the Arctic convoys. [cite web| url=http://www.saint-petersburg.com/museums/icebreaker-krasin.asp| title=Icebreaker "Krasin"| publisher=saint-petersburg.com| accessdate=2008-07-20] She has been fully restored to operating condition and there are plans to sail her to various European ports.

An island in the Nordenskiöld Archipelago was named after this icebreaker. Postage stamps and a coin have been issued in her honor.

References

External links

* [http://www.krassin.ru/en/ Description, history, and 3D tour of the historic "Krasin".]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Krasin — Die Krasin im Jahr 1941 in Bremerton, Foto der US Küstenwache Die Krasin (auch Krassin, russisch Красин) ist ein ehemaliger sowjetischer Eisbrecher, der nun als Museumsschiff in Sankt Petersburg zur Schau steht. Er wurde vermutlich nach Leonid… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Krasin (Eisbrecher) — Die Krasin im Jahr 1941 in Bremerton, Foto der US Küstenwache Die Krasin (auch Krassin, russisch Красин) ist ein ehemaliger sowjetischer Eisbrecher, der nun als Museumsschiff in Sankt Petersburg zur Schau steht. Er wurde vermutlich nach Leonid… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • List of museum ships — is a comprehensive, annotated list of museum ships around the world.Ships marked (not a museum ship) do not strictly fit the definition in that article: see also List of classic vessels for non museum classic ships. The ships are arranged… …   Wikipedia

  • List of Russian explorers — The Russian Empire at its peak in 1866, including the spheres of influence; this territorial expansion largely corresponds to the extent of contiguous exploration by Russians. This is a list of explorers from the Russian Federation, Soviet Union …   Wikipedia

  • Otto Schmidt — For other people named Otto Schmidt, see Otto Schmidt (disambiguation). Otto Schmidt Otto Schmidt Born …   Wikipedia

  • We (novel) — We   …   Wikipedia

  • Herald Island (Arctic) — Herald Island or Gerald Island ( ru. Остров Геральд) is a small isolated Russian island in the Chukchi Sea, 60 km to the east of Wrangel Island. It rises in sheer cliffs, making it quite inaccessible, either by ship or by plane. The only sliver… …   Wikipedia

  • Wallsend — Infobox UK place official name= Wallsend country= England region= North East England population= Unknown at this time os grid reference= NZ301664 map type= Tyne and Wear latitude= 54.99128 longitude= 1.53110 post town= WALLSEND postcode area= NE… …   Wikipedia

  • Nikolai Kolomeitsev — Pre 1917 photo of Kolomeitsev Born July 16, 1867(1867 07 16) near Kherson, Ukraine …   Wikipedia

  • Finn Malmgren — Finn Adolf Erik Johan Malmgren (1895 in Göteborg June 1928) was a Swedish meteorologist and Arctic explorer. Malgrem studied in Göteborg, Sundsvall and Stockholm. In 1912 he started to study at the Uppsala University where he received bachelor… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.