- House of Bernadotte
The House of Bernadotte, the current
Royal Houseof the Kingdom of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. Between 1818 and 1905 it was also the Royal House of Norway.
Finnish Warin 1809, Sweden suffered the traumatic loss of Finland, which had constituted the eastern half of the Swedish realmfor centuries. The agony and resentment towards King Gustav IV Adolf precipitated a " coup d'état", and Gustav Adolf's uncle, the childless Charles XIII, replaced him. This was merely a temporary solution, and in 1810 the Swedish Riksdag of the Estateselected the Danish Prince Christian August of Augustenborgas heir to the throne. As Swedish crown prince he took the name Charles August (Karl August); however, he died later that same year.
Napoleon I of Francewas Emperorof the French, and ruled, directly or indirectly, over much of Continental Europethrough a network of client kingdoms headed by his brothers (see Napoleonic Empire), the Swedish parliament saw it practical to elect a king whom Napoleon could accept. On August 21, 1810, the Riksdag elected Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, Marshal of France, as heir apparentto the Swedish throne.
Bernadotte, born in the town of Pau, in the province of
Béarn, France, rose to the rank of general during the tumultuous years of the French Revolution. In 1798 he married Désirée Clary, who had a sister who was married to Joseph, Napoleon's elder brother. In 1804 Napoleon promoted him to a Marshal of France, a move that he would later regret when Bernadotte disobeyed orders and refused to attack during the Battle of Auerstaedt. He narrowly escaped a court martial because of his familial ties to the Emperor. Before defecting from France he was also granted the title 'Prince of Ponte Corvo', a town in southern Italy.
Crown Princeof Sweden he assumed the name Karl Johan ("Charles John"), acted officially as regentfor the remainder of Charles XIII's reign and secured a forced personal unionbetween Sweden and Norway in the 1814 Campaign against Norway. Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte reigned as King Charles XIV of Swedenand Carl III Johan of Norwayfrom February 5, 1818until his death on March 8, 1844.
The House of Bernadotte reigned in both countries until the
dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905. Prince Carl of Denmark, a grandson of King Charles XV, was then elected as Norway's new king.
coat of armsof the House of Bernadotte combines the coat of arms of the House of Vasa("heraldic right") and the coat of arms of Bernadotte as the Prince of Ponte Corvo("heraldic left"). It is visible as an inescutcheon in the Greater Coat of Arms of the Realm.
Kings of Sweden
*1818-1844 : Charles XIV John (Karl XIV Johan)
*1844-1859 : Oscar I
*1859-1872 : Charles XV (Karl XV)
*1872-1907 : Oscar II
*1907-1950 : Gustaf V
*1950-1973 : Gustaf VI Adolf
*1973-present : Carl XVI Gustaf
Kings of Norway
Bernadotte af Wisborg
Folke Bernadotte, diplomat and mediator, assassinated in 1948 while performing duties for the United Nationsin Jerusalem.
Swedish Act of Succession
Line of succession to the Swedish throne
* Jean-Marc Olivier, "Bernadotte Revisited, or The Complexity of a Long Reign (1810-1844)", in Nordic Historical Review, number 2, October 2006, pp. 127-137.
* [http://kindo.com/en/famous-people/swedish-royal-family-family-tree/swedish-royal-family.html The Bernadotte Dynasty family tree on Kindo]
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