Brahmanbaria District


Brahmanbaria District

Infobox of BD districts
native_name = Brahmanbaria
skyline =
skyline_size =
skyline_caption =
locator_position = right
latd = 23.9528
longd = 91.1167
division_name = Chittagong Division
population_as_of = 1991
population_total = 2365880
population_density = 1,227.68
literacy_rate = 26.6%
area_total = 1927.11
website = banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/B_0612.htm
website_caption = Banglapedia Article

Brahmanbaria (Bengali: ব্রাহ্মণবাড়িয়া "Bramhonbaŗia") is a district in east-central Bangladesh. It is a part of the Chittagong Division. It was part of greater Comilla District until 1984. Before 1830 the Sarail Pargana was a part of Mymensingh district. The district has 4 municipalities, 39 wards, 97 mahallas, 7 upazilas, 98 union parishads, 1052 mouzas and 1329 villages.

Geography

Brahmanbaria district is located at the east-central region of Bangladesh. It has a total area of 1927.11 km². Brahmanbaria is bounded by Kishoreganj District and Habiganj District on the north, Comilla District on the south, Habiganj District and Tripura State, India on the east and Meghna River, Kishoreganj District, Narsingdi District and Narayanganj District on the west.

The geography of the district is characterized by low-lying land with small hills and hillocks of red soil. Annual highest average temperature is 34.3 °C and lowest 12.7 °C. Total annual rainfall is 2551 mm. The main rivers of the district are the Meghna River, and the Titas River,Buri and Haora; Mehedi and Akashi haors are notable.

Administrative units

Brahmanbaria district is divided into eight Upazillas (previously known as Thanas). These are:
*Brahmanbaria Sadar Upazila
*Ashuganj Upazila
*Nasirnagar Upazila
*Nabinagar Upazila
*Sarail Upazila
*Kasba Upazila
*Akhaura Upazila
*Bancharampur Upazila

Culture

Brahmanbaria has a rich tradition of the cultivation of art, education and culture. It is often figuratively called the cultural capital of Bangladesh. To the field of literature the contributions of Adyta Mallavarman, Jotirindra Nandi, Abdul Kadir, Fazal Shahabuddin are remarkable. The town also represents a rich tradition of musical endeavor. Ustad Allauddin Khan, the great musical talent of the sub continent and the father of 'Maihar Gharana' of Classical Indian music, was born in this district in 1862. Others who contributed to the arena of music from Brahmanbaria significantly are: Ustad Fakir (Tapas) Aftab Uddin Khan, Ustad Ayet Ali Khan, Ustad Ali Akbor Khan, Ustad Bahadur Hussain Khan, Ustad Abed Hussain Khan, Ustad Khadem Hussain Khan, Ustad Raja Hussain Khan, Amar Paul, Ustad Khurshid Khan, Subal Das, Syed Abdul Hadi and Ustad Afjalur Rahman. Ustad Ayet Ali Khan established the Alauddin Music College in Brahmanbaria in 1957 and Shilpacharya Zainul Abedin established the Alauddin Sangitayan in 1975. Mohorshee Monomohan Dutta is also a remarkable name for his "Molaya" music. Sachin Dev Burman (better known as SD Burman), the renowned musician of the sub-continent, spent some time in Brahmanbaria. Mr. Umesh Chandra Roy was one of the greatest musicians of Alauddin Music institute.'Titas is a name of river' is one of the greatest novel written in bangla, written by Adyta mallavarman who born in brahmanbaria ghukarna ghat.This book is also a textbook of higher secondary level.

Al Mahmud, one of the leading poets of modern Bengali, was born in Brahmanbaria in 1936.

History

Brahmanbaria was a part of Samatata Janapada of the ancient Bengal. The first and temporary capital of Isa Khan was at Sarail, located at 10 km north of Brahmanbaria Town. Brahmanbaria was made one of the 3 Sub-divisions of Comilla District by the British rulers in 1860. Brahmanbaria Municipality was established in 1868. It became part of East Pakistan in 1947 which eventually became independent Bangladesh in 1971. During the Mughal era, Brahmanbaria was famous for producing quality cloth Muslin.

During the 19th century, Brahmanbaria produced great nationalist leaders like Nawab Syed Shamsul Huda, who became president of All India Muslim League in 1921, and Barrister Abdur Rasul a front ranking leader of Indian National Congress. When the swadeshi movement began in the wake of the partition of Bengal (1905), Brahmanbaria born revolutionary Ullaskar Datta (Aviram) was convicted for throwing bomb and was deported to the Andamans. On 14 December 1931 Suniti Chowdhury, Shanti Ghosh and Gopal Deb killed the then District magistrate CCB Stevens at his residence by gunshot. During the peasant movement in 1930, Congress leader Abdul Hakim asked the peasants to stop payment of taxes. During the no-rent movement, four civilians were killed when the British soldiers indiscriminately fired on civilians.

Upon encouragement of Oli Ahad, a pioneer Language Movement leader who hailed from Brahmanbaria, the movement obtained momentum in this district in 1952. During the War of Independence in 1971, Bir Sreshtho Mostafa Kamal was killed in an encounter at Daruin of Akhaura.Marks of the War of Liberation Mass graves and slaughter places: Places adjacent to Pairtala Railway Bridge, west side of Judge Court, Kautali WAPDA Office, west side of Asuganj Silo, west bank of Gangasagar Dighi (Akhaura), Asuganj IGMN Steamer Ghat, Lalpur Bazar, Shahbajpur Titas Bridge, Lakshmipur (Kasba), Kella Pathar (Kasba); memorial monuments: Shahid Smriti Shaudha (Faruki Park), Shaudha Hiranmaya (Kautali), Shahid Samadi Complex, Bijoy Statue (Asuganj), playground of Sarail Degree College; grave yard of Bir Shreshta Mustafa Kamal (Mogra).

Demography

Predominant occupation of the district is agriculture, though the number of industrial workers, service sector personnel and commercial officials are on the rise.

Gender wise, 49.49% people of the district are male while 50.51% inhabitants are female.

Religious composition of the district is :Muslim - 90.73%, Hindu - 9.07%, Buddhist - 0.05%, Christian - 0.04% and Others - 0.11% [http://amardesh.com/zilla_brahmanbaria.php]

Religious institutions:Mosque 1987, temple 134, church 2, tomb 30 and sacred places 5. Noted religious institutions: Brahmanbaria Jami Mosque, Hatkhola Jami Mosque and Sagardighi Mosque at Sarail, Registry Office Jami Mosque and Shah Saheb Bari Jami Mosque at Nabinagar, Sree Sree Harisava Mandir (Nabinagar), Kalbhairav Mandir (Brahmanbaria), Brahmanbaria Baptist Church, tombs of Kutub Shah, Kala Shah and Ayet Shah (Sarail), tomb of Hazrat Kalla Shahid (Akhaura) and Dayamoye Asram (Sarail)

Newspaper

Locally published newspapers and periodicals Dailiy Brahmanbaria (1992), Daily Pratibedan (1993), Daily Ajker Halchal (1997), Daily Titas Kanth (1999), Daily Samatat Barta (2000), Daily Dindarpan (2000); Weekly Titas, Weekly Penbridg (1999), Fortnightly Charch (1997); Periodicals- Sahitya Academy Patrika, Nasirnagar Barta, Sarail Barta, Muktaprabaha; extinct- Bangabandhu (1875, Kalikachha), Usha (1893), Hira (1894), Sudhakar (nineteenth century), Santan (1913), Palli Pradip (1920, Kalikachha), Al Bushra (1921), Prajabandhu (1920), Chunta Prakash (1926), Tripura Prakash (1301 BS), Rayat Bandhu (1929, Kalikachha), Jayanti (nineteenth century), Sebak (1957), Parichaya (1964), Samaj (1966), Pari (1966), Vhela (1967), Tridhara (1967), Pratinidhi (1970), Pratibedan (1979), Renessa (1988), Belaseshe (1992, Sarail).

Cultural organisations

Club 89, public library 9, cinema hall 16, womem's organisation 80, community centre 8, Shilpakala Academy 1, Shishu Academy 1, Museum 1, theatre stage 1, theatre group 8, opera party (extinct) 20, circus party 1, puppet-show party 10, literary society 20, cooperative society 832 and playground 85. Noted cultural organisations: BGFC Officers' Club, Brahmanbaria Public Library, Brahmanbaria Archives Museum, Town Hall (Ustad Alauddin Khan Municipal Auditorium), Royal Star Circus, Royal Bina Opera, Sahitya Academy; extinct- Lalmohan Library, Swashwata Brahmo-Samaj, Kalyan Sangha (revolutionary organisation), Pabitra Sangha and Sarail-Kalikaschha Club.

Economy

*Main occupations: Agriculture 44.79%, agricultural labourer 15.82%, wage labourer 3.13%, commerce 12.26%, service 6.8%, fishing 2.02% and transport 1.85%, weaving 2.39% and others 10.94%.

*Land Use: Total cultivable land 1,522.80 km²; fallow land 7 km²; single crop 28.38%, double crop 53.95% and triple crop land 17.67%; land under irrigation 55.31%.

*Land Control: Among the peasants 11% are landless, 61% small, 24% intermediate and 4% rich; cultivable land 700 m² per head.

*Value of land: The market value of the land of the first grade is 8000 Taka per 100 m².

*Main crops: Paddy, jute, wheat, mustard seed, potato, onion, garlic, chili, pulses, brinjal, kakrol and patal. Kakrol produced in Mukundopur of this district deserves special mention.

*Extinct or nearly extinct crops are linseed, sesame, tobacco, Chaplaish and Kataktara varieties of paddy, arahar and kaun.

*Main Fruits: Mango, jackfruit, black berry, papaya, coconut, guava, olive, lemon, bilimbi and banana.

*Fisheries/Dairies/Poultries: Poultry 83, fishery 64, dairy 61, hatchery 43, nursery 17 and artificial breeding centre 1.

*Communication Facilities: Roads - pucca (paved) 266 km, semi pucca 86 km and mud road 1629 km; waterways 131- nautical miles; railways- 71 km. Brahmanbaria Station,renovated in 2004, is one of the busiest Railway Stations in the Dhaka-Chittagong and Dhaka-Sylhet line. Akhaura Junction is the biggest railway junction in the eastern part of Bangladesh.

*Manufacturing plants: Fertiliser factory, flour mills, rice mills, ice factory, oil mill, saw mill, welding, etc. Zia Fertilizer, the biggest fertilizer factory of Bangladesh is located by the bank of Meghna at Ashuganj.This(Ashuganj) is the main trade centre of rice in the eastern part of Bangladesh.

*Electric Power: Ashuganj tap bidyut kendra(Power centre) is the biggest power generate centre of bangladesh. located in the bank of Meghna at Ashuganj.Main source is Titas gas.

*Minerals: Titas gas field is located some 100 km away to the direction of northern-east from capital city of Bangladesh, Dhaka. It lies at the skirt of the Brahmanbaria district town. This field was discovered by Pakistan Shell Oil Company in 1962. The structure is an elongate north-south asymmetrical anticline measuring about 19x10 square km with a vertical closure of 500 m. As per latest official re-estimation, total recoverable gas reserve of Titas gas field is convert|4740|Gcuft|km3. Commercial gas production from this field was commenced in 1968 and till August 31, 2006 total convert|2581.162|Gcuft|m3 gas has been produced.Out of total 16 (sixteen) nos. gas wells drilled so far in this field 7 (seven) are vertical wells and the remaining 9 (nine) are deviated wells. The wells are spread (surface location) at 6 (six) different locations stretched over about 8 km distance. At present maximum convert|475|Mcuft|m3 of gas is produced daily from 16 wells of this field and processing through 5 nos. glycol dehydration and 6 nos. Low Temperature Separation (LTS) type process plants and supplied to the transmission pipelines of Titas Gas Transmission & Distribution Co. Ltd. (TGTDCL) and Gas Transmission Company Ltd. (GTCL). Condensate produced (540 bbl per day on an average) with gas as by-product is fractionated into MS (Petrol) and HSD(Diesel) through two fractionation plants and the products are being supplied to Padma Oil Company Ltd. for marketing. Present condensate/gas ratio and water/gas ratio of this field are convert|1.135|oilbbl|m3 and convert|808|kcuft|m3 respectively. Water production rate from well-12 have been observed high since inception while the current ratio is 30 bbl/ million cubic feet.Saldanodi Gas field is another gas field sitiuated in Kasba.It also plays an important contribution in national economy of Bangladesh.This is launched by BAPEX.Meghna Gas Field is another Gas field of Brahmanbaria.

*Cottage Industries: the district is famous for the production of cotton fabrics. In the nineteenth century, Tanjeb, a fine quality muslin, used to be produced in Sarail. Hats, made of cane, are being produced at Radhika from the British period. Since Brahmanbaria has a rich tradition of boat race, boats are being made at Champanagar. Other cottage industries include weaving, bamboo crafts, rattan furniture, handicrafts, goldsmith, blacksmith, woodwork, potteries and tailoring.

Prominent educational institutions

*Brahmanbaria Government College
*Brahmanbaria Women College
*Annada Government High School
*Sabera Sobhan Girls' High School
*Government Model Girls' High School
*Niaz Mohammad High School
*Brahmanbaria High School
*Sarail Annada High School
*Kheora Anandamoyi High School
*Jamsherpur high school, Kasba
*Kalikaccha Pathshala High School
*Akhaura Raiway Government High School
*Kharera M High School
*Kuti Girls High School
*Nabinagar pilot high school
*Nabinagar Government college
*Kazi shafiqul islam degree college, Islampur
*Ram Kani High Academy, Brahmanbaria

Places of Interest

*Deity of Shiva at Kal Bhairab Temple at Medda (Early 19th century)
*Jame Mosque of Sarail (1662)
*Shrine of Kella Shahid at Kharampur (Early 18th century)
*Tomb of Hazrat Syed Kazi Mahmud Shah (R)at Kazipara (Early 19th century)
*Nabinagar Girls High School, Nabinagar
*Tofael-Azam Memorial Tower at the City Centre (1958)
*Anderson Canal (Korolia Khal)
*Sree Sree Anandamoyi Asrom, Kheora, Kashba
*Sree Sree Anandamoyi Kalibari,Haldar Para,B.Baria
*Kullapathor memorial, Kasba
*Tomb of Birsrestha Mustafa kamal, Akhaura
*Dharanti ghat, Sarail
*Bangladesh UK friendship bridge, Ashuganj
*jatio bir Kuddus makhon mukta mancha, Tenker par(Sadar)
*Loknath Dighi ,Tenker par(Sadar)
*Ganga sagar, Akhaura
*Kallayan sagar, Kasba
*Arphail Sagardighi Mosque and Twin Graves (sixteenth century) Sarail
*Arphannesa Mosque (1662) Sarail
*Bhadurghar Shahi Mosque (1084 AH) Sadar
*Satidaha Mandir (Biddakut) Nabinagar
*buddhist viharas (Devgram)
* Kailaghar Jangal, Kasba
*Hatir Pool (elephant bridge) at Baraiura
* Brahmanbaria Archives and Museum
* Anderson Memorial, kautali
* Chandidwar High School, Kasba

ee also

* Districts of Bangladesh
* Chittagong Division

References

*Banglapedia Article on Brahmanbaria District by Shekh Muhammad Sayed Ullah Litu,National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh-BANGLAPEDIA,http://banglapedia.org

* Muhammad Musa, "Brahmanbariar Itibrittya", Shetu Prokashoni, Brahmanbaria 1998 [Improved by Md. Borhan uddin palash,Annada Govt. high school,2003 batch]

External links

* [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/B_0612.htm Banglapedia Article on Brahmanbaria]
* [http://boi-mela.com/Banglapedia/ViewArticle.asp?TopicRef=4671 Samatata]
* [http://www.bcic.gov.bd/zia_fertilizer.asp Zia Fertilizer at Ashuganj, Brahmanbaria]
* [http://www.petrobangla.org.bd/o_co_explo_prod_bgfcl.php Titas Gas & BGFCL]


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