Hybrid electric bus


Hybrid electric bus
An Eletra hybrid bus in São Paulo, Brazil.
An Orion VII Next Generation hybrid electric bus.
A Nova RTS hybrid electric bus.
A Designline-built gas turbine-electric bus on the QuayLink service in Tyne and Wear, England
Castrosua Tempus hybrid city bus at the 2008 FIAA (International Bus and Coach Fair) in Madrid
A New Flyer Industries DE60LFR hybrid articulated bus.
A Gillig BRT hybrid.
This article deals with hybrid combustion / battery hybrid buses. For alternately powered buses, see dual-mode bus; for fuel cell hybrids see fuel cell bus; for all-electric buses, see electric bus.

A hybrid electric bus combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. These type of buses normally use a diesel-electric powertrain and are also known as hybrid diesel-electric buses.

Contents

Air Pollution and greenhouse gas emissions

A report prepared by Purdue University suggests introducing more hybrid diesel-electric buses and a fuel containing 20 percent biodiesel (BD20) would further reduce greenhouse emissions and petroleum consumption.[1]

Manufacturers

Current manufacturers of diesel-electric hybrid buses include Alexander Dennis Limited (ADL), Azure Dynamics Corporation, Ebus,[2] Eletra (Brazil),[3] New Flyer Industries, Gillig, ISE Corporation[disambiguation needed ],[4] Motor Coach Industries, Orion Bus Industries, North American Bus Industries, Daimler AG's Mitsubishi Fuso, MAN,[5] Designline, BAE Systems, Volvo Buses, Wrightbus, Castrosua[6] and many more.

In 2006, Nova Bus, which had previously marketed the RTS hybrid before that model was discontinued, added a diesel-electric hybrid option for its LFS series as well.

In the United Kingdom, Wrightbus has introduced a development of the London 'Double-Decker', a new interpretation of the traditional red buses that are a feature of the extreme traffic density in London. The Wright Pulsar Gemini HEV bus uses a small diesel engine with electric storage through a lithium ion battery pack. The use of a 1.9-litre diesel instead of the typical 7.0-litre engine in a traditional bus demonstrates the possible advantages of serial hybrids in extremely traffic-dense environments. Based on a London test cycle, a reduction in CO2 emissions of 31% and fuel savings in the range of 40% have been demonstrated, compared with a modern 'Euro-4' compliant bus.

Also in 2005 GE introduced its hybrid electric shifters on the market. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. In May 2003 GM started to tour with hybrid electric buses developed together with Allison. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the US. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino, a Toyota affiliate, in January 2005. Mitsubishi Fuso have developed a diesel engine hybrid bus using lithium batteries in 2002, and this model has since seen limited service in several Japanese cities.

Since 1999, Hybrid electric buses with gas turbine generators have been developed by several manufacturers in the US and New Zealand, with the most successful design being the buses made by Designline of New Zealand. The first model went into commercial service in Christchurch (NZ) since 1999, and later models now operates daily service in Tokyo, Auckland (NZ), Hong Kong, and Newcastle upon Tyne (UK).

New Flyer, Gillig, North American Bus Industries, and Nova Bus produce hybrid electric buses using either ISE Corporation ThunderVolt, BAE System's HybriDrive, or Allison Transmission GM's electric drive system.

The Whispering Wheel bus is another HEV.

Transit

Transit authorities that use hybrid electric buses:[7]

North America

United States

Federal fundings generally comes from the federal Diesel Emissions Reduction Act.

Canada

Asia

China

  • Beijing Public Transport
  • Kunming Bus
  • Shenzhen Bus Group
  • Shenzhen Eastern Bus
  • Shenzhen Western Bus

Japan

Singapore

Europe

Germany

UK

The Green Bus Fund is a fund which is supporting bus companies and local authorities in England to help them buy new electric buses.[15]:

Spain

Other European Countries

Other countries

Tribrid Bus

  • Tribrid buses have been developed by the University of Glamorgan, Wales. They are powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells, batteries and ultracapacitors.[22]

Plug-in hybrid electric bus

The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) announced the selection of Navistar Corporation for a cost-shared award of up to $10 million to develop, test, and deploy plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) school buses. The project aims to deploy 60 vehicles for a three-year period in school bus fleets across the nation. The vehicles will be capable of running in either electric-only or hybrid modes and will be recharged from a standard electrical outlet. Because electricity will be their primary fuel, they will consume less petroleum than standard vehicles. To develop the PHEV school bus, Navistar will examine a range of hybrid architectures and evaluate advanced energy storage devices, with the goal of developing a vehicle with a 40-mile (64 km) electric range. Travel beyond the 40-mile (64 km) range will be facilitated by a clean diesel engine capable of running on renewable fuels. The DOE funding will cover up to half of the project's cost and will be provided over three years, subject to annual appropriations.[23]

Conversions

Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies (HEVT) makes conversions of new and used vehicles (aftermarket and retrofit conversions), from combustion buses and conventional hybrid electric buses into plug-in buses.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Energycurrent.com". Energycurrent.com. http://www.energycurrent.com/?id=3&storyid=12618&email=1. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  2. ^ "Ebus.com". Ebus.com. http://www.ebus.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  3. ^ "Eletra, SBC, Brazil". Eletrabus.com.br. http://www.eletrabus.com.br/. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  4. ^ "ISE". Isecorp.com. http://www.isecorp.com/. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  5. ^ "Munich starts using the first MAN hybrid city bus | Frontier India Aerospace, Land and Marine". Frontierindia.net. 2010-05-25. http://frontierindia.net/alm/munich-starts-using-the-first-man-hybrid-city-bus/1090/. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  6. ^ "Castrosua.com". Castrosua.com. http://www.castrosua.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  7. ^ "Analysis of electric drive technologies for transit applications: Battery-electric, hybrid-electric, and fuel cells" (PDF). 2005. http://www.fta.dot.gov/documents/Electric_Drive_Bus_Analysis.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  8. ^ Jibreel Riley (2010-07-20). "COTA: Hybrid Bus Purchase". Theotherpaper.com. http://www.theotherpaper.com/articles/2010/07/15/front/doc4c3f2bbe88007493930885.txt. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  9. ^ "Citilink: Hybrid Bus Demonstration". Fwcitilink.com. http://fwcitilink.com/news.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  10. ^ "Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority". go Metro. 2009-04-21. http://www.go-metro.com/hybrid.html. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  11. ^ "Hybrid Electric Bus". Transitbc.com. 2005-05-04. http://www.transitbc.com/regions/kel/news/hybrid_electric.cfm. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  12. ^ a b "BUSportal - Viac ako 30 percent nižšie CO2:". Busportal.sk. http://www.busportal.sk/modules.php?name=article&sid=6667. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  13. ^ "Germany: MAN Lion's City Hybrid launches in Munich". Automotive World. 2010-05-27. http://www.automotiveworld.com/news/commercial-vehicles/82233-germany-first-man-lion-city-hybrid-launches-in-munich. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  14. ^ "Hybrid Bus in the City: A Prototype with a Future". Physorg.com. 2007-08-20. http://www.physorg.com/news106841346.html. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  15. ^ "Green Bus Fund". Dft.gov.uk. http://www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/regional/buses/greenbusfund/. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  16. ^ "Hybrid buses". Transport for London. http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/projectsandschemes/2019.aspx. 
  17. ^ "Autobús urbano ecológico y eficiente - 29/09/2009 - Equipamiento para municipios". Interempresas.net. 2009-09-29. http://www.interempresas.net/Equipamiento_Municipal/Articulos/34296-Autobus-urbano-ecologico-y-eficiente.html. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  18. ^ Navarro, Xavier (2009-04-15). "Paris tests a new hybrid bus that uses ultracapacitors — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. http://green.autoblog.com/2009/04/15/paris-tests-a-new-hybrid-bus-that-uses-ultracapacitors/. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  19. ^ "MAN Nutzfahrzeuge - Hybrid drive". Man-mn.com. http://www.man-mn.com/en/Innovation_and_Competence/Alternative_drive_systems/Hybrid_drive.jsp. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  20. ^ Volvo Buses - when productivity counts (2010-04-20). "PostAuto operates the Volvo 7700 Hybrid on rural routes". Volvobuses.com. http://www.volvobuses.com/bus/na/en-us/newsmedia/press%20releases/_layouts/CWP.Internet.VolvoCom/NewsItem.aspx?News.ItemId=81110&News.Language=en-gb. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  21. ^ "First hybrid Postbus". Postauto.ch. http://www.postauto.ch/en/pag-startseite/pag-kundenservice/pag-postauto-in-ihrer-naehe/pag-bern/pag-postauto-in-ihrer-naehe-bern-erstes-hybrid-postauto.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  22. ^ "Green 'tribrid' minibus unveiled". BBC. 2008-06-05. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/7436908.stm. Retrieved 2008-06-05. 
  23. ^ "Energy.gov". Apps1.eere.energy.gov. http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=12463. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 
  24. ^ "Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc (HEVT) | An IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology) Startup in Chicago | Home". HEVT. http://www.hevt.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27. 

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