- Kingdom of Great Britain
Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Kingdom of Great Britain
common_name = United Kingdom
era = 18th century
year_start = 1707
year_end = 1801
date_start = 1 May
date_end = 31 December
event_start = 1707 Union
event_end = 1801 Union
p1 = Kingdom of England
flag_p1 = Flag of England.svg
p2 = Kingdom of Scotland
flag_p2 = Flag of Scotland.svg
s1 = United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
flag_s1 = Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
symbol_type=Royal coat of arms
image_map_caption = Territory of the Kingdom of Great Britain
national_motto = "
Dieu et mon droit"
(English: "God and my right")1
national_anthem = God Save the King/Queen
capital = London
common_languages = English (throughout)
government_type = Constitutional monarchy
title_leader = Monarch
leader1 = Anne
leader2 = George I
year_leader2 = 1714–1727
leader3 = George II
year_leader3 = 1727–1760
leader4 = George III
title_deputy = Prime Minister
William Pitt the Younger
legislature = Parliament
house1 = House of Lords
house2 = House of Commons
stat_pop1 = 16345646
currency = Pound sterling
footnotes = 1 The Royal motto used in Scotland was _sc. "
In My Defens God Me Defend".The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, [ [http://www.parliament.uk/actofunion/ Welcome] parliament.uk, accessed 7 October, 2008] [, Article 2.] was a statein northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800. It was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Scotlandand the Kingdom of England, under the Acts of Union 1707, to create a single kingdom encompassing the whole of the island of Great Britain. A new single parliament and government, based in Westminster, controlled the new kingdom. The two separate kingdoms of Scotland and England had shared the same monarch since James VI, King of Scots, became King of Englandin 1603 following the death of Queen Elizabeth I.
The Kingdom of Great Britain was superseded by the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Irelandin 1801, when the Kingdom of Irelandwas merged with the kingdom with the enactment of the Act of Union 1800following the suppression of the Irish Rebellion of 1798.
Union of the Crownsin 1603, the whole of the island of Great Britain was ruled by a single monarch with two titles (King of England and King of Scots), and two parliaments, except during the Interregnum and during the joint reign of William and Mary. From 1707, however, the monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain ruled by the power of a single unified Crown of Great Britain, rather than by the power of both crowns of the previously separate Kingdoms, and with one unified parliament. [, Article 1.] The succession to the throne of the new United Kingdom of Great Britain was determined by the English Act of Settlement, rather than the Scottish equivalent, the Act of Security as this was part of the terms agreed in the 1706 Treaty of Union[Treaty of Union 1706, Article 2.] and put into effect with the two Acts of Unionthe following year. The adoption of the Act of Settlement required that the heir to the English throne be a Protestantdescendant of Sophia of Hanover, effecting the future Hanoverian succession.
Legislative power was vested in the
Parliament of Great Britain, which replaced the Parliament of Englandand the Parliament of Scotland. [Act of Union 1707, Article 3.] As with the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Parliament of Great Britain included three elements: the House of Commons, the House of Lords, and the Crown-in-Parliament. Englandand Scotlandwere given seats in both the House of Lords and the House of Commons of the new parliament. Although Scotland's representation in both houses was smaller than its population indicated it should have been, representation in parliament was at that time based not on population but on taxation, and Scotland was given a greater number of seats than its share of taxation warranted. Under the terms of the union, Scotland sent 16 representative peers to the Lords and elected 45 members to the Commons, with the rest being sent from England and Wales. [Act of Union 1707, Article 22.]
Often, the Kingdom of Great Britain is given the alternative name of the "United Kingdom of Great Britain", which is often shortened to "
United Kingdom". There is substantial debate over whether the latter name is acceptable. [ [http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0,,2-2156657.html "Rough guide to British history"] . 29 April 2006. The Times. "URL accessed 13 May 2006".] The Treaty of Union refers in name to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain" in several places; critics argue in rebuttal that the word "united" is only a descriptive word, and not part of the style, citing the subsequent Acts of Union themselves, which state that England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". [Act of Union 1707, Article 1.]
The name "United Kingdom" is sometimes preferred for purposes of continuity, particularly in the military and colonial spheres. At the time of the Act of Union 1800, which unambiguously styled the country as the "United Kingdom", the British were embroiled in the
Great French Warand the British Empirepossessed many colonies in the Americas, India, and Australia. Some who would otherwise prefer the term "Kingdom of Great Britain" thus use "United Kingdom" to avoid using two different names for a single military and colonial power, which may confuse the discussion.
However the name "United Kingdom" became the most popular usage and this was officially recognised at the time of the Act of Union with Ireland which created the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Britain in the 18th century
Peace between England and the Netherlands in 1688 meant that the two countries entered the
Nine Years' Waras allies, but the conflict - waged in Europe and overseas between France, Spain and the Anglo-Dutch alliance - left the English a stronger colonial power than the Dutch, who were forced to devote a larger proportion of their military budget on the costly land war in Europe. [cite book| first =Pagden|last =Anthony |title=The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire |publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1998|pages=441] The 18th century would see England (after 1707, Britain) rise to be the world's dominant colonial power, and France becoming its main rival on the imperial stage. [cite book| first =Pagden|last =Anthony |title=Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present |publisher=Modern Library |year=2003|pages=90]
The death of
Charles II of Spainin 1700 and his bequeathal of Spain and its colonial empire to Philippe of Anjou, a grandson of the King of France, raised the prospect of the unification of France, Spain and their respective colonies, an unacceptable state of affairs for Britain and the other powers of Europe. In 1701, Britain, Portugal and the Netherlands sided with the Holy Roman Empireagainst Spainand Francein the War of the Spanish Succession. The conflict, which France and Spain were to lose, lasted until 1714. At the concluding peace Treaty of Utrecht, Philip renounced his and his descendents' right to the French throne. Spain lost its empire in Europe, and though it kept its empire in the Americas and the Philippines, it was irreversibly weakened as a power. The British Empire was territorially enlarged: from France, Britain gained Newfoundland and Acadia, and from Spain, Gibraltarand Minorca. Gibraltar, which is still a British overseas territoryto this day, became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean.
Deeper political integration of Britain had been a key policy of Queen Anne (reigned 1702–14), the last Stuart monarch of
Englandand Scotlandand the only Stuart monarch of the Kingdom of Great Britain). Under the aegis of the Queen and her advisors a Treaty of Unionwas drawn up, and negotiations between England and Scotland began in earnest in 1706. The Acts of Union received royal assentin 1707, uniting the separate Parliaments and crowns of England and Scotland and forming the Kingdom of Great Britain. Anne became formally the first occupant of the unified British throne and Scotland sent 45 MPs to the new parliament of the United Kingdom.Fact|date=September 2008
Seven Years' War, which began in 1756, was the first war waged on a global scale, fought in Europe, India, North America, the Caribbean, the Philippines and coastal Africa. The signing of the Treaty of Paris (1763)had important consequences for Britain and its empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power there was effectively ended with the ceding of New Franceto Britain (leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control) and Louisiana to Spain. Spain ceded Floridato Britain. In India, the Carnatic War had left France still in control of its enclaves but with military restrictions and an obligation to support British client states, effectively leaving the future of India to Britain. The British victory over France in the Seven Years War therefore left Britain as the world's dominant colonial power. [cite book| first =Pagden|last =Anthony |title=Peoples and Empires: A Short History of European Migration, Exploration, and Conquest, from Greece to the Present |publisher=Modern Library |year=2003|pages=91]
During the 1760s and 1770s, relations between the
Thirteen Coloniesand Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's ability to tax American colonists without their consent. [cite book| first=Ferguson |last =Niall |title=Empire |publisher=Penguin|year=2004|pages=73] Disagreement turned to violence and in 1775 the American Revolutionary Warbegan. The following year, the colonists declared the independence of the United States and with economical and naval assistance from France, would go on to win the war in 1783.
The loss of the United States, at the time Britain's most populous colony, is seen by historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires, [cite book| first =Pagden|last =Anthony |title=The Origins of Empire, The Oxford History of the British Empire |publisher=Oxford University Press|year=1998|pages=92] in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa.
Adam Smith's " Wealth of Nations", published in 1776, had argued that colonies were redundant, and that free tradeshould replace the old mercantilistpolicies that had characterised the first period of colonial expansion, dating back to the protectionism of Spain and Portugal. The growth of trade between the newly independent United States and Britain after 1783 [cite book |last= James |first= Lawrence |title=The Rise and Fall of the British Empire |year=2001 |publisher=Abacus |pages=119] confirmed Smith's view that political control was not necessary for economic success.
During its first century of operation, the focus of the
British East India Companyhad been trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the British East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the "La Compagnie française des Indes orientales", during the Carnatic Warsof the 1740s and 1750s. The Battle of Plassey, which saw the British, led by Robert Clive, defeat the French and their Indian allies, left the Company in control of Bengaland a major military and political power in India. In the following decades it gradually increased the size of the territories under its control, either ruling directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force of the Indian Army, 80% of which was composed of native Indian sepoys.
James Cookhad discovered the eastern coast of Australiawhilst on a scientific voyage to the South Pacific. In 1778, Joseph Banks, Cook's botanist on the voyage, presented evidence to the government on the suitability of Botany Bayfor the establishment of a penal settlement, and in 1787 the first shipment of convicts set sail, arriving in 1788.
At the threshold to the 19th century, Britain was challenged again by France under
Napoleon, in a struggle that, unlike previous wars, represented a contest of ideologies between the two nations. [cite book |last= James |first= Lawrence |title=The Rise and Fall of the British Empire |year=2001 |publisher=Abacus |pages=152] It was not only Britain's position on the world stage that was threatened: Napoleon threatened invasion of Britain itself, and with it, a fate similar to the countries of continental Europe that his armies had overrun. The Napoleonic Warswere therefore ones that Britain invested large amounts of capital and resources to win. French ports were blockaded by the Royal Navy, which won a decisive victory over the French fleet at Trafalgar in 1805.
*Anne (1707–1714), previously
Queen of England, Queen of Scots, and Queen of Irelandsince 1702.
*George I (1714–1727)
*George II (1727–1760)
*George III (1760–1801), continued as King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until 1820.
Early Modern Britain
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