Suhrawardiyya (Arabic: سهروردية ) is the name of a
Sufiorder founded by Iranian Sufi Diya al-din Abu 'n-Najib as-Suhrawardi( 1097– 1168).
He was a murid of Ahmad
al-Ghazali, who was a brother of Imam Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. c. 545 A.H. he was teaching Shafi'ifiqh at Al-Nizamiyya of BaghdadAcademy. His surviving work is called Kitab Adab Al-Muridin.
Many Sufis from all over the Islamic world joined the order under the founder's nephew
Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi( 1145– 1234), who was sent as emissary to the court of Khwarezm Shah in Bukharaby the Khalifain Baghdad. His son is buried in Tashkent. Later the Order spread into Indiathrough Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhariand Hazrat Baha-ud-din Zakariya.
The principal role in the formation of a conservative ‘new piety’ and in the initiation of urban commercial and vocational groups into mysticism was played by the
Suhrawardiyyasilsila. Suhrawardiyya originated in Iraqbut succeeded only in India to take shape as a fraternity with its infrastructure, internal hierarchy of members and cloisters and a single centre in Multan and Uchch. The Suhrawardiyya is a strictly Sunni order, guided by Shafi`i madhab. The Suhrawardiyyatrace their spiritual genealogy to Hazrat Ali ibn Abi Talib(A.S.)through Junayd Baghdadiand al-Ghazali. Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi, took recourse to active life, renounced reclusion and excessive fasting, maintained close contacts with the authorities, and undertook diplomatic missions and political settlement of conflicts. His luxurious cloister in Baghdad, with gardens and bath houses, was specially built for him by Caliph an-Nasir, on whose behalf Abu Hafs travelled as an ambassador to the AyyubidSultan Malik al-Adil Iof Egypt, to Khwarezm-Shah Muhammad of Bukharaand to Kaiqubad I, the Seljukruler of Konya.
Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi, the author of “ Awarif al-Ma’arif”, directed his disciples Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh BukhariShaikh Baha-ud-din Zakariyaof Multan(1182-1262 AD) to make Multan the center of his activity. Iltutmishappointed him as "Shaikhul Islam" after the invasion of Multanand topple its ruler, Qabacha. During the Mongolinvasion he became the peace negotiotor between invaders and muslim army.
Fakharuddin Iraqiburied at Konya, Turkey, received formal initiation into the Sufi way under Shaykh Baha'uddin, the head of the Suhrawardiyya Sufi Order. 'Iraqi lived in Multan for 25 years as one of the Suhrawardis, composing poetry. As Shaykh Baha'uddin was dying, he named Fakhruddin 'Iraqi to be his successor.
When it became known that 'Iraqi had been named head of the Suhrawardi Order, some in the order became jealous and denounced him to the Sultan who sought to have 'Iraqi arrested.
'Iraqi fled the area with a few close companions, and they eventually made their way to
Makkahand Medina. Later they moved north to Konyain Turkey. This was Konya at the time of Rumi. 'Iraqi often listened to Rumi teach and recite poetry, and later attended Rumi's funeral.
Although 'Iraqi was nominally the head (in exile) of a large and respected Sufi order, he humbly became the disciple of another Sufi master -- Sadruddin
Qunawi, who also lived in Konya at the time. Qunawi was the son-in-law of the recently deceased Sufi philosoper Ibn 'Arabi. Although less known in the West today, Qunawi was perhaps the pre-eminent Sufi teacher in Konya at the time, even better known than his neighbor Rumi.
'Iraqi was deeply devoted to Qunawi and to the teachings of Ibn 'Arabi. It was a series of speeches Qunawi delivered on the esoteric meaning of Ibn 'Arabi's great works that inspired 'Iraqi to compose his own masterpiece of commentary and poetry named the
Lama'ator Divine Flashes.
When Fakhruddin 'Iraqi died he was buried near Ibn 'Arabi's tomb.
Baha-ud-din Zakariya’s successor then was his son
Shaikh Sadruddin ‘Arif. His disciple, Amir Husayn, the author of “ Zad- al-Musafirin”, wrote several works on the doctrine Wahdat al-Wujud. Shaikh Arif’s son and caliph, Shaikh Ruknuddin was highly respected by the Delhi Sultans from ‘ Alauddin Khiljito Muhammad Ibn Tughlaq.
After the death of Shaikh Ruknuddin the Suhrawardiyya silsila declined in Multan but became popular in other provinces like
Uch, Gujarat, Punjab, Kashmir and even Delhi. Suharawardiyya order of Sufism became popular in Bengal (Contemporary Relevance of Sufism, 1993, published by Indian Council for Cultural relations).
It was popularised and revitalized by
Hazrat Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhariknown as Makhdum Jahaniyan, the world traveler. He was puritan and strongly objected the Hindu influences to Muslim social and religious practices.
Another contemporary mystic who is worthy of mention was Shaikh Sharfuddin Yahya Manairi (d. 1380 AD). He belonged to the Firdausia order, a branch of Suhrawardiyya. He compiled several books, i.e. “Fawaid al-Muridin”, “Irshadat al-Talibin”,”Rahat al-Qulub”, etc.
Another al-Suhrawardi was the well known
Shihabuddin Yahya as-Suhrawardi( 1153- 1191) who was a shiaand founder of the Illuminationistschool.
ReferencesMuslim Saints of South Asia By: Anna Suvorova RoutledgeCurzon, 2004
Mausoleum of Sheikh Zaynudin
* [http://www.yabahu.com Sarwari Qadri Order]
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