Athletics at the Summer Paralympics


Athletics at the Summer Paralympics

Marathon events have been held at the Summer Paralympic Games, for both men and women, since the 1984 Summer Paralympics in Stoke Mandeville and New York.[1] [2]

Since the 1996 Games in Atlanta, marathon events, along with all other track events, have been categorised as follows[3] [4] [5]:

  • Visually impaired athletes compete in categories T11, T12 and T13, based on their level of disability. Totally blind athletes compete in T11 events, and are permitted to run with a sighted guide. (In 1996 only, the categories were named T10, T11 and T12, and blind athletes were thus categorised "T10".) The marathon for visually impaired athletes is held only for men, and in 2008, no marathon was held in categories T11 or T13, leaving the men's T12 marathon as the sole event for visually impaired athletes.
  • Athletes with lower limb amputations, competing with prosthetics, run in categories T42 to T44, depending on their level of disability. In the marathon, athletes in these categories were able to compete only in 1996, when they were grouped together in a single event. The event was held for men only.
  • Athletes with upper limb amputations compete in category T46. The marathon in this category exists only for men. In 1996, they ran mixed with lower limb amputees. In 2000, they were awarded their distinct race, which was cancelled in 2004 and restored in 2008.
  • Wheelchair athletes compete in categories T51 to T54. These are the only categories open to women as well as men for the marathon. In 2008, three marathons were held in these categories: T52 for men, T54 for men and T54 for women.

Heinrich Koeberle of Germany, active from 1984 to 2000, is the most successful Paralympic marathon competitor to date, having won four gold medals and one silver. Among the women, Connie Hansen of Denmark and Jean Driscoll of the United States have each won two Paralympic marathons.[6] [7]

Contents

Results by Games[8] [9]

1984

At the 1984 Games in Stoke Mandeville and New York, seven marathons were held for men, and four for women, all for wheelchair athletes. In the men's event 1A, only three runners started the race: Heinrich Koeberle from West Germany, his compatriot H. Lobbering (full name not recorded), and Rainer Kueschall of Switzerland. Only Koeberle reached the finish line.[10] In women's event 5, there were only two competitors, both from Mexico. Both reached the finish line.[11]

Men's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon 1A
details
 Heinrich Koeberle
West Germany (FRG)
Marathon 1B
details
 J. Matsson
Sweden (SWE)
 Peter Schmid
Switzerland (SUI)
 Ronan Rooney
Ireland (IRL)
Marathon 1C
details
 Alan Dufty
Australia (AUS)
 D. Wallen
United States (USA)
 Eduardo Monsalvo
Mexico (MEX)
Marathon 2
details
 Heinz Frei
Switzerland (SUI)
 Paul Clark
Canada (CAN)
 Graham Condon
New Zealand (NZL)
Marathon 3
details
 André Viger
Canada (CAN)
 Gregor Golombek
West Germany (FRG)
 R. Sampson
Canada (CAN)
Marathon 4
details
 Rick Hansen
Canada (CAN)
 Jean Francois Poitevin
France (FRA)
 R. Minor
Canada (CAN)
Marathon 5
details
 M. Fitzgerald
Canada (CAN)
 B. Hedrick
United States (USA)
 Tom Foran
United States (USA)

Women's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon 2
details
 J. Schiff
United States (USA)
 Patricia Hill
New Zealand (NZL)
 Dora Garcia
Mexico (MEX)
Marathon 3
details
 G. Beyer
West Germany (FRG)
 Julie Russell
Australia (AUS)
 D. Smith
Great Britain (GBR)
Marathon 4
details
 J. Randles
Australia (AUS)
 Kay McShane
Ireland (IRL)
 S. Norman
United States (USA)
Marathon 5
details
 Juana Soto
Mexico (MEX)
 E. Belmont
Mexico (MEX)

1988

The number of events at the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul was expanded to eleven for men, but restricted to three for women (with category 5 being closed).

Men's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon 1A
details
 Heinrich Koeberle
West Germany (FRG)
 Rainer Kueschall
Switzerland (SUI)
 Bart Dodson
United States (USA)
Marathon 1B
details
 Serge Raymond
Canada (CAN)
 Jan-Owe Mattsson
Sweden (SWE)
 Clayton Gerein
Canada (CAN)
Marathon 1C
details
 John Brewer
United States (USA)
 Alan Dufty
Australia (AUS)
 Johann Kastner
West Germany (FRG)
Marathon 2
details
 Marc Quessy
Canada (CAN)
 Paul Clark
Canada (CAN)
 Michael Trujillo
United States (USA)
Marathon 3
details
 André Viger
Canada (CAN)
 Urs Scheidegger
Switzerland (SUI)
 Phil Carpenter
United States (USA)
Marathon 4
details
 Jean Francois Poitevin
France (FRA)
 Farid Amarouche
France (FRA)
 Rafael Ibarra
United States (USA)
Marathon 5-6
details
 Jonathon Puffenberger
United States (USA)
 Tom Foran
United States (USA)
 Georg Schrattenecker
Austria (AUT)
Marathon A1–3/A9/L1–2
details
 Mustapha Badid
France (FRA)
 Philippe Couprie
France (FRA)
 Ted Vince
Canada (CAN)
Marathon B1
details
 Joerund Gaasemyr
Norway (NOR)
 David Jakubovich
Israel (ISR)
 Carlos Roberto Sestrem
Brazil (BRA)
Marathon B2
details
 Stephen Brunt
Great Britain (GBR)
 Paul Collet
France (FRA)
 David Mills
New Zealand (NZL)
Marathon B3
details
 Carlos Talbott
United States (USA)
 Mark Farnell
Great Britain (GBR)
 Wieslaw Miech
Poland (POL)

Women's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon 2
details
 Tami Oothoudt
United States (USA)
 Ann Walters
United States (USA)
 Patricia Hill
New Zealand (NZL)
Marathon 3
details
 Candace Cable-Brooks
United States (USA)
 Sherry Ann Ramsey
United States (USA)
 Itsuko Maeda
Japan (JPN)
Marathon 4
details
 Connie Hansen
Denmark (DEN)
 Tracy Miller
United States (USA)
 Kay McShane
Ireland (IRL)

1992

At the 1992 Games in Barcelona, the number of events for men was cut to six: three for wheelchair athletes, and three for visually impaired athletes. The number of events for women was further reduced, down to one, for wheelchair athletes.

Men's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon B1
details
 Carlo Durante
Italy (ITA)
 Tofiri Kibuuka
Norway (NOR)
 Steve Brooks
Canada (CAN)
Marathon B2
details
 Stephen Brunt
Great Britain (GBR)
 José Ortiz
Spain (ESP)
 Paul Collet
France (FRA)
Marathon B3
details
 Mark Farnell
Great Britain (GBR)
 Anton Sluka
Czechoslovakia (TCH)
 Timo Pulkkinen
Finland (FIN)
Marathon TW1
details
 Heinrich Koeberle
Germany (GER)
 Rainer Kueschall
Switzerland (SUI)
 Giuseppe Forni
Switzerland (SUI)
Marathon TW2
details
 Clayton Gerein
Canada (CAN)
 Christoph Etzlstorfer
Austria (AUT)
 Greg Smith
Australia (AUS)
Marathon TW3–4
details
 Heinz Frei
Switzerland (SUI)
 Claude Issorat
France (FRA)
 Jeddie Schabort
South Africa (RSA)

Women's event

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon TW3–4
details
 Connie Hansen
Denmark (DEN)
 Jennette Jansen
Netherlands (NED)
 Lily Anggreny
Germany (GER)

1996

At the 1996 Summer Paralympics in Atlanta, the current categorisation system was introduced. Seven events were held for men, and one for women.

Men's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T10
details
 Harumi Yanagawa
Japan (JPN)
 Carlo Durante
Italy (ITA)
 Nicolas Ledezma
Mexico (MEX)
Marathon T11
details
 Waldemar Kikolski
Poland (POL)
 Tomasz Chmurzynski
Poland (POL)
 Francisco Perez
Spain (ESP)
Marathon T12
details
 Anton Sluka
Slovakia (SVK)
 Mark Farnell
Great Britain (GBR)
 J. Onofre da Costa
Portugal (POR)
Marathon T42–46
details
 Javier Conde
Spain (ESP)
 Joseba Larrinaga
Spain (ESP)
 Mark Brown
Great Britain (GBR)
Marathon T50
details
 Heinrich Koeberle
Germany (GER)
 Bart Dodson
United States (USA)
 Tim Johansson
Sweden (SWE)
Marathon T51
details
 Brent McMahon
Canada (CAN)
 Clayton Gerein
Canada (CAN)
 Patrick Cottini
United States (USA)
Marathon T52–53
details
 Franz Nietlispach
Switzerland (SUI)
 Kazuya Murozuka
Japan (JPN)
 Heinz Frei
Switzerland (SUI)

Women's event

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T52–53
details
 Jean Driscoll
United States (USA)
 Kazu Hatanaka
Japan (JPN)
 Deanna Sodoma
United States (USA)

2000

The same number of events (seven for men, one for women) were maintained at the 2000 Summer Games in Sydney.

Men's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T11
details
 Carlos Amaral Ferreira
Portugal (POR)
 Robert Matthews
Great Britain (GBR)
 Carlos Durante
Italy (ITA)
Marathon T12
details
 Waldemar Kikolski
Poland (POL)
 Stephen Brunt
Great Britain (GBR)
 Moises Beristain
Mexico (MEX)
Marathon T13
details
 Ildar Pomykalov
Russia (RUS)
 Anton Sluka
Slovakia (SVK)
 Roy Daniell
Australia (AUS)
Marathon T46
details
 Javier Conde
Spain (ESP)
 Mark Brown
Great Britain (GBR)
 Michael Keohane
United States (USA)
Marathon T51
details
 Alvise de Vidi
Italy (ITA)
 Heinrich Koeberle
Germany (GER)
 Thorsten Oppold
Germany (GER)
Marathon T52
details
 Clayton Gerein
Canada (CAN)
 Christoph Etzlstorfer
Austria (AUT)
 Thomas Geierspichler
Austria (AUT)
Marathon T54
details
 Franz Nietlispach
Switzerland (SUI)
 Krige Schabort
South Africa (RSA)
 Heinz Frei
Switzerland (SUI)

Women's event

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T54
details
 Jean Driscoll
United States (USA)
 Kazu Hatanaka
Japan (JPN)
 Wakako Tsuchida
Japan (JPN)

2004

At the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, the number of events for men was reduced to five (one for totally blind athletes, one for visually impaired athletes, and three for wheelchair athletes), while a single wheelchair event was maintained for women.

Men's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T11
details
 Yuichi Takahashi
Japan (JPN)
 Carlos Ferreira
Portugal (POR)
 Andrea Cionna
Italy (ITA)
Marathon T13
details
 Ildar Pomykalov
Russia (RUS)
 Roy Daniell
Australia (AUS)
 Linas Balsys
Lithuania (LTU)
Marathon T51
details
 Alvise De Vidi
Italy (ITA)
 Stefan Strobel
Germany (GER)
 Edgar Navarro
Mexico (MEX)
Marathon T52
details
 Toshihiro Takada
Japan (JPN)
 Thomas Geierspichler
Austria (AUT)
 Clayton Gerein
Canada (CAN)
Marathon T54
details
 Kurt Fearnley
Australia (AUS)
 Kelly Smith
Canada (CAN)
 Tomasz Hamerlak
Poland (POL)

Women's event

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T54
details
 Kazu Hatanaka
Japan (JPN)
 Wakako Tsuchida
Japan (JPN)
 Cheri Blauwet
United States (USA)

2008

At the 2008 Games in Beijing, the number of events for men was again reduced, down to four (one for visually impaired athletes, one for upper limb amputees, two for wheelchair athletes), while a single women's wheelchair event was maintained.

Men's events

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T12
details
 Qi Shun
China (CHN)
 Elkin Serna
Colombia (COL)
 Ildar Pomykalov
Russia (RUS)
Marathon T46
details
 Mario Santillan
Mexico (MEX)
 Tito Sena
Brazil (BRA)
 Walter Endrizzi
Italy (ITA)
Marathon T52
details
 Thomas Geierspichler
Austria (AUT)
 Hirokazu Ueyonabaru
Japan (JPN)
 Toshihiro Takada
Japan (JPN)
Marathon T54
details
 Kurt Fearnley
Australia (AUS)
 Hiroki Sasahara
Japan (JPN)
 Ernst van Dyk
South Africa (RSA)

Women's event

Event Gold Silver Bronze
Marathon T54
details
 Edith Hunkeler
Switzerland (SUI)
 Amanda McGrory
United States (USA)
 Sandra Graf
Switzerland (SUI)

Medal table

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Canada (CAN) 9 4 6 19
2  United States (USA) 8 8 10 26
3  Switzerland (SUI) 5 4 4 13
4  Germany (GER) 5 3 3 11
5  Japan (JPN) 4 6 3 13
6  Australia (AUS) 4 3 2 9
7  Great Britain (GBR) 3 5 2 8
8  Italy (ITA) 3 1 3 7
9  France (FRA) 2 5 1 8
10  Denmark (DEN) 2 4 0 6
11  Spain (ESP) 2 2 1 3
12  Mexico (MEX) 2 1 5 8
13  Poland (POL) 2 1 2 5
14  Russia (RUS) 2 0 1 3
15  Austria (AUT) 1 3 2 6
16  Portugal (POR) 1 1 1 3
16  Sweden (SWE) 1 1 1 3
18  Norway (NOR) 1 1 0 2
18  Slovakia (SVK) 1 1 0 2
20  China (CHN) 1 0 0 1
21  New Zealand (NZL) 0 1 3 4
22  Ireland (IRL) 0 1 2 3
22  South Africa (RSA) 0 1 2 3
24  Brazil (BRA) 0 1 1 2
25  Czechoslovakia (TCH) 0 1 0 1
25  Israel (ISR) 0 1 0 1
25  Netherlands (NED) 0 1 0 1
28  Finland (FIN) 0 0 1 1
28  Lithuania (LTU) 0 0 1 1

Notes



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