Data


Data

The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data (plural of "datum") are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e. unprocessed data, refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices that collect information to convert physical quantities into symbols.

The word data (pronounced /ˈdeɪtə/ day-tə, /ˈdætə/ da-tə, or /ˈdɑːtə/ dah-tə) is the Latin plural of datum, neuter past participle of dare, "to give", hence "something given". In discussions of problems in geometry, mathematics, engineering, and so on, the terms givens and data are used interchangeably. Also, data is a representation of a fact, figure, and idea.[citation needed] Such usage is the origin of data as a concept in computer science: data are numbers, words, images, etc., accepted as they stand.

Contents

Usage in English

In English, the word datum is still used in the general sense of "an item given". In cartography, geography, nuclear magnetic resonance and technical drawing it is often used to refer to a single specific reference datum from which distances to all other data are measured. Any measurement or result is a datum, but data point is more usual,[1] albeit tautological. Both datums (see usage in datum article) and the originally Latin plural data are used as the plural of datum in English, but data is commonly treated as a mass noun and used with a verb in the singular form, especially in day-to-day usage. For example, This is all the data from the experiment. This usage is inconsistent with the rules of Latin grammar and traditional English (These are all the data from the experiment). Even when a very small quantity of data is referenced (One number, for example) the phrase piece of data is often used, as opposed to datum. The debate over appropriate usage is ongoing.

The IEEE Computer Society, allows usage of data as either a mass noun or plural based on author preference.[2] Other professional organizations and style guides[3] require that authors treat data as a plural noun. For example, the Air Force Flight Test Center specifically states that the word data is always plural, never singular.[4]

Data is accepted as a singular mass noun in everyday educated[dubious ] usage.[5][6] Some major newspapers such as The New York Times use it either in the singular or plural. In the New York Times the phrases "the survey data are still being analyzed" and "the first year for which data is available" have appeared within one day.[7] [8] In scientific writing data is often treated as a plural, as in These data do not support the conclusions, but it is also used as a singular mass entity like information. British usage now widely accepts treating data as singular in standard English,[9] including everyday newspaper usage[10] at least in non-scientific use.[11] UK scientific publishing still prefers treating it as a plural.[12] Some UK university style guides recommend using data for both singular and plural use[13] and some recommend treating it only as a singular in connection with computers.[14]

Meaning of data, information and knowledge

The terms information and knowledge are frequently used for overlapping concepts. The main difference is in the level of abstraction being considered. Data is the lowest level of abstraction, information is the next level, and finally, knowledge is the highest level among all three.[citation needed] Data on its own carries no meaning. For data to become information, it must be interpreted and take on a meaning. For example, the height of Mt. Everest is generally considered as "data", a book on Mt. Everest geological characteristics may be considered as "information", and a report containing practical information on the best way to reach Mt. Everest's peak may be considered as "knowledge".

Information as a concept bears a diversity of meanings, from everyday usage to technical settings. Generally speaking, the concept of information is closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, instruction, knowledge, meaning, mental stimulus, pattern, perception, and representation.

Beynon-Davies uses the concept of a sign to distinguish between data and information; data are symbols while information occurs when symbols are used to refer to something.[15] [16]

It is people and computers who collect data and impose patterns on it. These patterns are seen as information which can be used to enhance knowledge. These patterns can be interpreted as truth, and are authorized as aesthetic and ethical criteria. Events that leave behind perceivable physical or virtual remains can be traced back through data. Marks are no longer considered data once the link between the mark and observation is broken.[17]

Raw data refers to a collection of numbers, characters, images or other outputs from devices to convert physical quantities into symbols, that are unprocessed. Such data is typically further processed by a human or input into a computer, stored and processed there, or transmitted (output) to another human or computer (possibly through a data cable). Raw data is a relative term; data processing commonly occurs by stages, and the "processed data" from one stage may be considered the "raw data" of the next.

Mechanical computing devices are classified according to the means by which they represent data. An analog computer represents a datum as a voltage, distance, position, or other physical quantity. A digital computer represents a datum as a sequence of symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet. The most common digital computers use a binary alphabet, that is, an alphabet of two characters, typically denoted "0" and "1". More familiar representations, such as numbers or letters, are then constructed from the binary alphabet.

Some special forms of data are distinguished. A computer program is a collection of data, which can be interpreted as instructions. Most computer languages make a distinction between programs and the other data on which programs operate, but in some languages, notably Lisp and similar languages, programs are essentially indistinguishable from other data. It is also useful to distinguish metadata, that is, a description of other data. A similar yet earlier term for metadata is "ancillary data." The prototypical example of metadata is the library catalog, which is a description of the contents of books.

Experimental data refers to data generated within the context of a scientific investigation by observation and recording. Field data refers to raw data collected in an uncontrolled in situ environment.

See also

References

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL.

  1. ^ Matt Dye (2001). "Writing Reports". University of Bristol. http://www.bris.ac.uk/Depts/DeafStudiesTeaching/dissert/Writing%20Reports.htm. 
  2. ^ "IEEE Computer Society Style Guide, DEF". IEEE Computer Society. http://www.computer.org/portal/web/publications/styleguidedef. 
  3. ^ "WHO Style Guide". Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004. p. 43. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2004/WHO_IMD_PUB_04.1.pdf. [dead link]
  4. ^ The Author's Guide to Writing Air Force Flight Test Center Technical Reports. Air Force Flight Test Center. 
  5. ^ New Oxford Dictionary of English, 1999
  6. ^ "...in educated everyday usage as represented by the Guardian newspaper, it is nowadays most often used as a singular." http://www.eisu2.bham.ac.uk/johnstf/revis006.htm
  7. ^ "When Serving the Lord, Ministers Are Often Found to Neglect Themselves". New York Times. 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/10/us/10religion.html. 
  8. ^ "Investment Tax Cuts Help Mostly the Rich". New York Times. 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/10/business/10charts.html. 
  9. ^ New Oxford Dictionary of English. 1999. 
  10. ^ Tim Johns (1997). "Data: singular or plural?". http://www.eisu2.bham.ac.uk/johnstf/revis006.htm. "...in educated everyday usage as represented by The Guardian newspaper, it is nowadays most often used as a singular." 
  11. ^ "Data". Compact Oxford Dictionary. http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/data?view=uk. 
  12. ^ "Data: singular or plural?". Blair Wisconsin International University. http://www.eisu2.bham.ac.uk/johnstf/revis006.htm. 
  13. ^ "Singular or plural". University of Nottingham Style Book. University of Nottingham. http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/public-affairs/uon-style-book/singular-plural.htm. [dead link]
  14. ^ "Computers and computer systems". OpenLearn. http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource/view.php?id=182902. [dead link]
  15. ^ P. Beynon-Davies (2002). Information Systems: An introduction to informatics in organisations. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-96390-3. 
  16. ^ P. Beynon-Davies (2009). Business information systems. Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave. ISBN 978-0-230-20368-6. 
  17. ^ Sharon Daniel. The Database: An Aesthetics of Dignity. 

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  • data — data …   Dictionnaire des rimes

  • dată — DÁTĂ, date, s.f. I. Timpul precis (exprimat în termeni calendaristici) când s a produs sau urmează să se producă un eveniment. ♦ Indicaţia acestui timp pe un act, pe o scrisoare etc. (pusă la întocmirea lor). II. Fiecare dintre numerele, mărimile …   Dicționar Român

  • data — da‧ta [ˈdeɪtə, ˈdɑːtə] noun [plural, uncountable] 1. STATISTICS information or facts about a particular subject that someone has collected: • We cannot tell you the results until we have looked at all the data. ˌprimary ˈdata MARKETING STATISTICS …   Financial and business terms

  • data — DATÁ, datez, vb. I. 1. tranz. A stabili data exactă a unui eveniment sau a unui fapt din trecut. ♦ A pune data pe o scrisoare, pe un act etc. 2. intranz. (Cu determinări introduse prin prep. de la , de sau din ) A se fi produs, a se fi făcut, a… …   Dicționar Român

  • data — 1. Fowler, writing before the computer age, declared uncompromisingly that ‘data is plural only’, and pointed to the singular datum, which he conceded even then to be comparatively rare. For much of the time, data is used in contexts in which a… …   Modern English usage

  • Data — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Para otros usos de este término, véase Data (desambiguación). Data Personaje de Star Trek Interpretado por Brent Jay Spiner Información Raza …   Wikipedia Español

  • data — (izg. dèjta) ž mn DEFINICIJA 1. inform. podaci u obliku prikladnom za računalnu obradu [ova data] 2. općenito, podaci, utvrđene činjenice SINTAGMA data bank (izg. data bènk) inform. velika količina podataka, pojam širi od baze podataka; banka… …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • data — I noun back up, documents, evidence, facts, grounds, information, logic, papers, proof, specifics II index clue, documentation, dossier, ground, information (f …   Law dictionary

  • data — {{/stl 13}}{{stl 8}}rz. ż Ia, CMc. dacie {{/stl 8}}{{stl 7}} oznaczony czas jakiegoś wydarzenia; dzień, miesiąc i rok jakiegoś wydarzenia : {{/stl 7}}{{stl 10}}Oznaczona, bliska data. Data urodzin, śmierci, ślubu, chrztu. Dzisiejsza data. Zapisać …   Langenscheidt Polski wyjaśnień

  • Data — ambient findability audio mining born digital chief knowledge officer clickprint collabulary cybrarian …   New words

  • data — s.f. [dal lat. mediev. data data , part. pass. di dare ]. 1. [indicazione cronologica di un fatto, sia passato che futuro: d. di nascita e di morte ; la lettera è scritta in d. 16 gennaio ] ▶◀ ⇓ anno, giorno, mese. ▲ Locuz. prep.: burocr., in… …   Enciclopedia Italiana


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