- Seed Herbarium Image Project
=Seed Herbarium Image Project (SHIP)=
The [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/herbarium.html Seed Herbarium Image Project] , or SHIP, is an initiative of the [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/ Arnold Arboretum] of
Harvard Universityto create a web-based repository of high-resolution digital images documenting the morphology of woody plant seeds and selected fruit structures. Headquartered at the Arboretum’s Dana Greenhouse facility and coordinated and photographed by curatorial assistant Julie McIntosh Shapiro, the Seed Herbarium Image Project supports the work of educators and professionals in horticulture and the botanical sciences, particularly in conservation research and management of rare and endangered species. The digitized images of seeds offer an important new aid for teaching seed identification—a fundamental skill in plant propagation, hybridization, and distribution—and serve as a resource for nurserymen, horticulturists, botanical curators, taxonomists, ecologists, and the general public. SHIP also provides an online resource for botanical institutions and nurseries to verify their collections and inventories. SHIP is made possible through the generous support of the Stanley Smith Horticultural Trust, Cabot Family Charitable Trust, and the J. Frank Schmidt Family Charitable Foundation.
The Arnold Arboretum
Arnold Arboretumof Harvard University, founded in 1872, is an arboretumlocated in the Jamaica Plain, and Roslindale sections of Boston, Massachusetts. It was designed by Frederick Law Olmstedand is the second largest "link" in the Emerald Necklace.
:Construction of the Charles Stratton Dana Greenhouses began in May of 1961 and the facility was operational by March of 1962. The project was made possible by a generous donation by Martha Dana, who divided the income of her estate equally between the Arnold Arboretum, the
Boston Symphony Orchestra, and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. The donation to the Arboretum honored her father and his lasting interest in the institution. The four-and-a-half-acre plot contains a main building with four attached glasshouses measuring 17x51 feet each, a cold storage house, a bonsai house containing the Larz Anderson Bonsai Collection, a permanent shade house, and four nurseries. The main building contains work space with potting benches, vulcathane-surfaced tables, stainless steel sinks and computer stations with a thermal transfer printer for label-making, a cold storage room for seed stratification and propagule storage, a laboratory for cytological and morphological research, a conference room, office space, a small library, and a lunch room with complete locker facilities for staff.
The Seed Herbarium
:Beginning in the 1960s, Arnold Arboretum propagator Al Fordham created a seed
herbariumin the Dana Greenhouse. Collecting the seed of several hundred rare and unusual taxa, Fordham envisioned a unique resource for the identification and propagation of woody plants from around the world. Carrying forward Fordham’s vision, Arboretum greenhouse staff continued to collect seed, and today maintain a seed herbarium of more than 2,000 samples, almost a third of which are from accessioned plants in the living collection. The SHIP team installed an on-location archival image library, which holds digital seed herbarium images. Each folder is alphabetically maintained including prints of the actual color photographs of the digital electronic files. SHIP has taken care to produce photographs on archival paper, filed them into acid-free, gov-spec folders to withstand consistent observation, and developed a nondestructive way to observe and diagnose seed identity. "On occasion, seed of rare and endangered species need immediate propagation, limiting our opportunities for studying physical characteristics. With digital imaging now an important protocol at the greenhouse, selected seed will go directly to the SHIP lab for documentation, preserving the integrity of the propagule in digital format. As such, even seed that requires immediate propagation will leave behind a visual record for future study"--Julie McIntosh Shapiro.
[http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/herbarium.html The Seed Herbarium Image Project (SHIP)] began in 2003 and has completed photography for the Arboretum’s six national collections within the [http://www.publicgardens.org/web/2006/06/napcc_home.aspx North American Plant Collections Consortium] (NAPCC): "Acer" (Maples), "Carya" (Hickory), "Fagus" (Beech), "Stewartia", "Syringa" (Lilacs), and "Tsuga" (Hemlock). "Acer", "Stewartia", and "Syringa" were a focus in 2007. Using new protocols and equipment developed for micro-photography, SHIP is presently documenting species within the "Ericaceae" (Heath Family). The Arnold Arboretums’ introductions of "Ericaceae" include "Rhododendron schlippenbachii", "R. vaseyi", and "R. mucronulatum", all plants of importance to ornamental horticulture. The Arnold collection also includes rare and endangered plants such as "Leiophyllum buxifolium" and "Elliottia racemosa". Even early introductions of agricultural crops, such as "Vaccinium angustifolium" and "V. corymbosum" are well represented.SHIP is also working to document seed from our collection of [http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ Center for Plant Conservation (CPC)] plants. All records for the image initiative are catalogued in the arboretum's collections management database, [http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/bg-base/ BG-BASE™] . Search functionality is hosted by the [http://www.rbge.org.uk/ Royal Botanic Garden] , Edinburgh, Scotland, UK.
NAPCC Sample Images
*The Arnold Arboretum's Seed Herbarium collections can be viewed in the [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/herbarium.html online herbarium database] and can be searched by entering the scientific name, family name, or Arboretum accession number. To date, seeds of the following genera are available through this resource: "Abies", "Acacia", "Acer", "Actinidia", "Albizia", "Alnus", "Amorpha", "Andromeda", "Aralia", "Arctostaphylos", "Aronia", "Berberis", "Betula", "Broussonetia", "Buddleia", "Callicarpa", "Calycanthus", "Carpinus", "Carya", "Cedrus", "Celastrus", "Celtis", "Cephalanthus", "Cercidiphyllum", "Ceonothus", "Elliottia", "Enkianthus", "Erica", "Fagus", "Ilex", "Rhododendron", "Stewartia", "Syringa", "Tsuga", "Zabelia". The SHIP team has also compiled a [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/ship/gallery/ship_gallery.html gallery of closely allied species] . The digital format and online availability allows for specimens to be used for study and comparison in new ways by online users all around the world.
Comparison Study Images
Protocol for Measurements and Key to Abbreviations
:Care has been taken to accurately document the overall size of the accessioned seed. In several genera, including "Syringa", images show aspects of the plant parts, in many instances both longitudinal and transverse views.
:Color and size of seed at the time of collection may differ from the time of digital capture. Images often group fruit and seed of species within a genus together, allowing side-by-side comparison. The following diagrammatic images provide key terms and measurement guidelines for select genera.
:On any given image you may see a set of perpendicular lines. This is the delineation line. Within this area you will find an abbreviation. The abbreviation signifies the plant part as follows:
BR - bract SA - samara CAP - capsule SCL - scale CN - cone SD - seed FR - fruit SDMC - seed micro image HSK - husk SG - seedling ND - needle WS - winged seed NT - nut
[http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/aboutus/silva/fall_2006/seed_images.pdf Silva Fall 2006]
[http://arnoldia.arboretum.harvard.edu/pdf/issues/235.pdf Arnoldia Director's Report 2003-07] (see page 22 for information on the SHIP project)
Julie McIntosh Shapiro will be lecturing at the [http://www.ipps.org/ ipps] conference in Denver, CO September 14-17, 2008
Julie McIntosh Shapiro will be giving a talk about the SHIP initiative at the [http://www.huh.harvard.edu/seminar_series/ Harvard University Herbaria seminar series] October 2008
Click [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/visitors/directions.html here] for directions to the Arnold Arboretum.
The Seed Herbarium is located at the Dana Greenhouse and is open, by appointment, Monday through Friday, 10:00 AM – 3:00 PM.
:* [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/index.html The Arnold Arboretum] :* [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/plants/herbarium.html The Arnold Arboretum Online Herbaria] :* [http://www.publicgardens.org/web/2006/06/napcc_home.aspx North American Plant Collections Consortium] :* [http://www.centerforplantconservation.org/ Center for Plant Conservation (CPC)] :* [http://www.ipps.org/ International Plant Propagators Society]
All images Copyright President and Fellows Harvard College.
:* [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/ The Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University] :* [http://arnoldia.arboretum.harvard.edu/pdf/articles/1581.pdf Arnoldia 22:5-6 May 11, 1962] :* [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/aboutus/directors_report.pdf Arnoldia The Director's Report 2003-2007 65:4 p22 Arnoldia (ISSN 004-2633; USPS 866-100] :* [http://www.arboretum.harvard.edu/aboutus/silva/fall_2006/seed_images.pdf Silva - The Newsmagazine of the Arnold Arboretum Fall/Winter 2006-2007] :* [http://www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2008/04.10/06-arboretum.html Harvard University Gazette Online April 10, 2008]
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