- Wan Chai
Wan Chai is a metropolitan area situated at the western part of the
Wan Chai Districton the northern shore of Hong Kong Island, in Hong Kong, China. Its other boundaries are Canal Road to the east, Arsenal Streetto the west and Bowen Roadto the south. The area north of Gloucester Road is often called Wan Chai North. Wan Chai is one of the busiest commercial areas in Hong Kong with many small and medium-sized companies. Wan Chai North features office towers, parks, hotels and an international conference and exhibition centre. As one of the first areas developed in Hong Kong, the locale is densely populated yet with noticeable residential zones facing urban decay. Arousing much public concern, the government has undertaken several urban renewalprojects in recent years. There are many unique buildings and skyscrapers, most notably the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre(HKCEC), Central Plaza and Hopewell Centre.
Wan Chai originally began as Ha Wan (下環), literally meaning "a bottom ring" or "lower circuit".Wordie, Jason.
2002(2002) Streets: Exploring Hong Kong Island. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962-2095631] As one of the earliest developed areas in Hong Kong. Central, Sheung Wan, Sai Wanand Wan Chai are collectively known as the "four rings" (四環) by the locals. Wan Chai literally means "a cove" in Cantonese, but the area itself is no longer a cove due to drastic city development and continual land reclamation.
Wan Chai was first home to the many Chinese villagers living along the undisturbed coastlines in proximity to
Hung Shing Temple. Most of them were fishermen, who worked around the area near Hung Shing Temple overlooking the entire harbour. Hung Shing Ye, the God of the Sea, was one of the deities worshiped by the locals. [cite web|url=http://www.thaiworldview.com/hongkong/hkisland/wanchai2.htm|title=Wan Chai|publisher=Thaiworldview|date= 1998-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28]
With the growth of the British Hong Kong administration, centred in old Victoria, modern Central, Wan Chai attracted those on the fringes of society, such as coolies, who came to live on Queen's Road East. A focal point of development was Spring Gardens, a red-light zone. [ [http://www.scmp.com/portal/site/SCMP/menuitem.2af62ecb329d3d7733492d9253a0a0a0/?vgnextoid=7624abf540dcc110VgnVCM100000360a0a0aRCRD&ss=Hong+Kong&s=News 24-site heritage tour for Wan Chai, SCMP, 6 Oct 2008] , quoting Ho Pui-yin, Chinese University historian] By the 1850s the area was already becoming a Chinese residential area. There were dockyards in Ship Street and
McGregor Streetfor building and repairing ships. The edge of Sun Street, Moon Streetand Star Street is the original site of the first power station in Hong Kong, operated by the Hongkong Electric Company, which began supplying power in 1890. [cite web|url=http://www.hec.com.hk/hehWeb/MajorGroupCompanies/TheHongKongElectricCompanyLimited/Generation/Index_en.htm|title=Hong Kong electric company generation|publisher=Hong Kong Electric|date= 2007-07-27|accessdate=2007-08-28] One of the first water-front military hospitals was the Seaman's hospital built in 1843 as part of the Royal Naval Dockyard for the British Royal Navy. It was later revitalized as the Ruttonjee hospital.cite web|url=http://www.pdavis.nl/RN_Hosp.htm|title=Hong Kong royal navy|publisher=private website citing "Harland, Kathleen", "The Royal Navy in Hong Kong since 1841", Maritime Books, Liskeard, Cornwall, undated; and "Melson, Commodore P.J.", "White ensign - red dragon", Edinburgh Financial Publishing, Hong Kong|date= 1997-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28]
The district was home to several well known schools. One of these was established by the famous traditional teacher,
Mo Dunmei(莫敦梅). Started as a " shushu" (書塾) in 1919, the school was renamed Dunmei School(敦梅學校) in 1934.cite web|url=http://www.hku.hk/sociodep/oralhistory/2/18.104.22.168.html|title=Hong Kong Dunmei school history|publisher=Hong Kong university|date= 2007-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28] It taught classical Chinesewritings and Confucian ethics.
During the Japanese occupation in the 1940s, many bombardments took place. Stories of
cannibalism, starvation, tortureand abuses by Japanese soldiers, and child labour were told. Senior residents recall vividly how they survived the hardships.cite web|url=http://www.hku.hk/hkcsp/oral_wanchai.html|title=The Hong Kong Oral History Archives Project|publisher=University of Hong Kong Centre of Cultural studies|date= 2007-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28] The Dunmei school was closed during the Japanese occupation period. After the war, the school continued to provide Chinese education for children from families of higher income.
During the 1950s the pro-Communist underground cell network Hailiushe (海流社) was headquartered in the rooftop of a multi-story house on
Spring Garden Lane. The group was successfully raided by the Hong Kong police. [Fung, Chi Ming,  Reluctant Heroes: Rickshaw Pullers in Hong Kong and Canton, 1874-1954. ISBN 9622097340] Prostitutionis one of the oldest occupations in Wan Chai. There are numerous historical western accounts of women trading sex for western merchandise as soon as sailors got off the trading ships. [Shi, Shuqing. Lin, Sylvia Li-chun. Goldblatt, Howard.  (2005). City of the Queen: A Novel of Colonial Hong Kong. Columbia university press. ISBN 0231134568.] In the 1960s, Wan Chai became legendary for its exotic night life, especially for the US service men resting there during the Vietnam war. Despite rapid changes due to reclamation and redevelopment, the presence of sex workers operating among ordinary residents continues to be a distinct feature of the area. Some of the lifestyle has been illustrated in the past in movies such as "The World of Suzie Wong". [Eric Cavaliero, [http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.asp?pp_cat=&art_id=32891&sid=&con_type=1&d_str=19970703&sear_year=1997Changing face of Wan Chai] , The Standard, July 03, 1997]
Wan Chai's HKCEC was the site of the
Hong Kong handover ceremonyin 1997. The WTO Ministerial Conference in 2005 was also one of the largest international events ever hosted in Hong Kong, with 148 nations participating.
1842to 1997] Wan Chai has been extended outward with a series of land reclamationschemes. Early in 1841, where the earliest coastline was located at Queen's Road East, the first reclamation took place. The project was privately funded and the government did not take part. There was no name associated with the first project.cite web|url=http://www.amo.gov.hk/form/AAB_Paper129_queen_annexb_e.pdf|title=A historical and architectural appraisal of Queen's Pier central|publisher=Amo gov hk|date= 2007-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28] The next reclamation that had an effect on Wan Chai was the Praya East Reclamation Scheme. The coastline was extended to Praya East, that is, today's Johnston Roadand Hennessy Road. The reclamation after World War IIfrom 1965to 1972pulled the coastline out to the areas around Convention Avenueand the Wan Chai Pier. The 1990s Wan Chai Development project added land to where the current HKCEC exists today.
Arts and culture
Wan Chai is a major hub of foreign and Chinese culture in Hong Kong. It is home to
Alliance Francaise, Goethe Institutand the British Council. Near the waterfront are the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Artsand Hong Kong Arts Centre, two of the most popular venues for theatrical and cultural performances in the region. The academy is a convenient venue for drama, mini-concerts, dance, and musicals. Every year there are many Broadway musicals playing in the academy, including Western plays such as "Singin' in the Rain", " Saturday Night Fever", and " Annie". The Arts Centre also houses galleries, rehearsal rooms and a restaurant overlooking the harbour. The Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre(HKCEC), a HK$4.8 billion convention centre extension completed in 1997, covers over 16 acres (65,000 m²) of newly reclaimed land that added an extra 38,000 m² of functional space to the existing convention centre. [cite web|url=http://www.info.gov.hk/gia/general/200506/16/06160199.htm|title=Government gives policy support to TDC's atrium link extension proposal|publisher=HK Government|date= 2005-06-16|accessdate=2007-07-31] [cite web|url=http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr00-01/english/panels/ci/papers/552e04.pdf|title=Letterhead of Hong Kong Exhibition and Convention organiser's and supplier's association|publisher=HK Legislative Council|date= 2001-01-12|accessdate=2007-07-31] It remains a venue for international trade fairs, some of which are the biggest in the world. The July annual Hong Kong Book Fairalong with cosplaycompetitions are also held at the facility.
* Cha chaan teng are local-styled
fast-food restaurants, selling milk tea and Chinese pastry. Many of the restaurants can be found all along Jaffe Road. Numerous tea shops offer cheap Chinese herbal tea, like leong cha ("lit." cool tea) and 24-mei.
Dai pai dong, open-air restaurants in a big tent, is another classic restaurant type that appeared in Wan Chai. Despite the often unclean and uncomfortable eating conditions, many people are attracted to the freshly-made steamed rice roll, congeeand chow meinearly in the morning. Due to urban renewalprojects in recent years, most of these restaurants are fading away.
* Yum cha, is the name associated with having
dim sum. People usually have "one bowl with two pieces" (一盅兩件, meaning a cup of tea with two dim sums) for breakfast. There were three old-styled dims restaurants remaining in Wan Chai, namely "Lung Mun", "Lung To", and "Lung Tuen". "Lung Mun" is the only one still operating. A number of Buddhist cuisine restaurants are also available in the area.
* The 1980s also saw an expansion of Western cuisine restaurants in Wan Chai. Nowadays, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai and Indian restaurants are all very common. There are also many
fast food restaurants serving Cantonese and other Chinese dishes, including the franchised Maxim's and Café de Coral. Jaffe Road and Lockhart Road are famous for pubs.
Southorn Playgroundis a major landmark in Hong Kong, particularly to the senior residents. It is a place associated with entertainment as well as work, with its atmosphere changing throughout the day. In the morning, labourers come together to wait for employment. In the evening, it is altered into an open-air area with people selling food, performing magic and kung fu.
Some of the trademark activities include senior citizens playing Chinese chess. The younger generation would play football and
basketballwith street basketball games attracting flocks of young spectators and players. Occasionally, three-player drill contests and hip hop dancecompetitions are held in the park.
Wan Chai offers a wide range of religion like
Buddhism, Taoism, Catholicism, Protestantism, Christianity, Sikhismand Islam. Despite such great differences, many religious structures are located in close proximity with one another. Hung Shing Temple, for example, is a typically Taoisttemple. Inside, there are Buddhist Kwun Yumchapels next to the main altar. People coming to worship Hung Shing Yecould also burn joss sticks to Kwun Yum as well. Villain hittingis another blended ceremony, combining the disproportional Confucianism, Taoismand even folk religion. Some old female "psychics" perform this ancient ceremony under the Canal Road Flyoverin particular days of a lunar month. The Wan Chai Khalsa Diwan Sikh Templeis the biggest Sikh temple in Hong Kong. [cite web|url=http://www.thaiworldview.com/hongkong/hkisland/wanchai.htm|title=Wan Chai1|publisher=Thaiworldview|date= 1998-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28]
Tourism and landmarks
Wan Chai offers historical conservation spots including
Old Wan Chai Post Office, Hung Shing Templeand Pak Tai Temple. Many of the medium-sized shopping centres are named in numerals, such as Oriental 188, 328, and 298 Computer Centre. The numbers may come from the earlier days when prostitution houses were all numbered, and referred to as "big numbers" (大冧巴, dai lum bah). There are also many commercial complexes and skyscrapers. The HK$4.4 billion 78-story skyscraper Central Plaza currently stand as the second tallest in Hong Kong. [cite web|url=http://courses.arch.hku.hk/IntgBuildTech/cases/centplaz/centplaz.htm|title=Wan Chai central plaza architecture|publisher=Hong Kong university|date= 2007-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28] The apex of Central Plaza is designed as a unique neon tower clock. It consists of four neon spandrelbands, each representing 15 minutes, and the colour changes from top to bottom. When the four bands are of the same colour, an hour has passed. More than an innovative clock, "Lightime" has become a new symbol the same way Eiffel Towerreminds people of Paris. Small but free art exhibitions are on also the second floor year round. Other tourist attractions include Golden Bauhinia Squarefeaturing a flag-raising ceremony held daily outside the Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre. The ceremony is enhanced on July 1 (handover anniversary) and October 1 (National Day).
pergolaexhibit is built opposite to Li Chit Garden. Tai Fat Haufootbridge also holds an art display of 30,000 citizens' fingerprints slated for the " Guinness Book of World Records".cite web|url=http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/1/1/4/n29855.htm|title=天橋畫廊砌出灣仔五十景|publisher=Epochtimes|date= 2001-01-04|accessdate=2007-08-28] The sticker pictures on the 50 poles of the bridge are roughly called the "50 landscapes of Wan Chai" (灣仔五十景).
Lovers' Rock reclines on the hillside of
Bowen Roadnear Shiu Fai Terraceand looks like a stone pen sticking out of a stone base. This special looking rock is said to have granted happy marriages to devoted worshippers. [cite web|url=http://www.gohk.gov.hk/eng/welcome/wc/wc_info_wc10.html|title=Lover's Rock|publisher=Go hk gov|date= 2007-01-01|accessdate=2007-08-28] Many people are attracted by its reputation.
Buildings and constructions
Throughout Wan Chai's history, construction styles have changed according to the architectural movement at the time.
In the 1950s and 1960s, an increasing number of girlie bars and
nightclubs were opened in the red-light districtby Jaffe and Lockhart Road. The establishments entertained visiting sailors landing at Fenwick Pier. Beyond Gloucester Road is the commercial area developed in the late 1970s and 1980s, a time at which Hong Kong underwent economic development at full speed. At the same time, buildings like the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts, HKCEC, and Central Plazawere constructed on the newly reclaimed land.
Urban decay and renewal
Many of Wan Chai's older buildings now face a serious problem of
urban decay. In order to tackle the problem, the government has launched a series of urban renewalprojects to bring new life into the area. Many local residents have relocation worries such as whether the Urban Renewal Authoritycan compensate enough to put them in a new space of equal size. Other concerns involve the loss of building character that make up part of that Hong Kong cultural identity.
* "Demolition of Lee Tung St" - Old buildings on
Lee Tung Streetare scheduled for demolition. Many businesses have shut down or moved out. Today, most stores have signs on their gate proclaiming "This is an Urban Renewal AuthorityProperty".
* "Renovation of Tai Yuen St" - Visitors may gain a distinctive experience of bustling local street-stall shopping in
Tai Yuen Street. Many hucksterstalls sell a wide variety of dried goods, garments, household products, dumplings, and Chinese herbal medicine. This predominantly tourist attraction area is a place where old houses and modern mansions mingle, creating an interesting disparity.
* "Renewal of Southorn Playground" — In partnership with the
Wan Chai District Council, the British Council Hong Kong invited English designer, Thomas Heatherwick, and urban renewal specialist, Fred Manson, to lead a public art project at Southorn Playground.
Central and Wan Chai reclamation
After the completion of the Central and Wan Chai Reclamation Feasibility Study in
1989, the Land Development Policy Committee endorsed the idea of an ongoing series of reclamation.cite web|url=http://www.cedd.gov.hk/eng/about/achievements/regional/regi_central.htm|title=Central and Wan Chai Reclamation|publisher=Hong Kong civil engineering and development department|date= 2007-06-27|accessdate=2007-08-28] The reclamation comprises three district development cells separated by parks, namely, Central, Tamar and Exhibition. Each cell was further divided into five phases.
Geographically, Wan Chai is the midpoint between the west (West Point/Central) and the east (
Causeway Bay/ North Point), linking all points on Hong Kong Island. The transport infrastructure is efficient, convenient and highly accessible.
Star Ferryis the sole ferry operator in the area at Wan Chai Pier. Several lines cross Victoria Harbourfrom HKCEC, Wan Chai. Destinations include Cultural Centrein Tsim Sha Tsuiand Whampoa Gardenin Hung Hom. Even though there are now numerous ways to cross Victoria Harbour, the Star Ferry continues to provide an inexpensive option.
Main roads and tunnels
Wan Chai's Gloucester Road is connected to
Cross-Harbour Tunnel, the first underwater tunnel in Hong Kong. [Bray, Denis.  (2001). Hong Kong Metamorphosis. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 962209550X.] Bridging Hong Kong Islandat Kellet Islandand a reclaimed site at Hung Hom Bayin Kowloon, the tunnel provides a direct link. Prior to the tunnel's opening in 1972, crossing the harbour depended solely on the Star ferries. [Harper, Damian.  (2005). China. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1740596870] Linking the main financial districts on both sides of Victoria Harbour, the tunnel carries 123,000 vehicles daily. [cite web|url=http://www.gov.hk/en/about/abouthk/factsheets/docs/transport.pdf|title=Hong Kong, the Facts transport|publisher=Hong Kong government|date= 2007-04-01|accessdate=2007-08-28] Other roads such as Queen’s Road East have been one of the earliest development spots in the history of Hong Kong. Landmarks such as Hennessy Roadwere named after previous Governors, leaving an impression of its Colonial past.
Mass Transit Railway
MTRrailway is beneath Hennessy Roadin the locality. Due to the large area of Wan Chai, more than 50 entry/exit gates and 8 entrances/exits are set up. One of the entrances/exits is on the footbridge along O'Brien Road, which leads to Immigration Towerin Wan Chai North.
MTR: Island Line — Wan Chai
Tram services are available between
Shau Kei Wanon the east of the island, and Kennedy Townon the west, with a branch circuit in Happy Valley. The route serves Johnston Roadand Hennessy Road.
Most buses travel in Wan Chai from
Admiraltyto Causeway Bayvia Hennessy Road, whereas one would use Johnston Roador Gloucester Road as detours.
New World First Bus: 2, 2A, 2X, 8, 8P, 15, 18, 18P, 19, 23, 23A, 23B, 25, 26, 38, 42, 63, 66, 81, 720, M722
**Citybus: 1, 5, 5B, 6, 6X, 8X, 10, 11, 37A, 37B, 40, 40M, 70, 72, 72A, 76, 77, 85, 90, 92, 96, 97, 260, 592, 780, 788, 789, to and from airport via WHC: A11, A12, E11
*Tunnel buses routes:
Cross-Harbour Tunnel: 101, 102, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116, 117, 170, 171, 182
Eastern Harbour Crossing: 601, 603, 619, 671, 680, 681, 690, 692
Western Harbour Crossing: 905, 914, 960, 961, 962, 968, 969
*There is a bus terminal opposite the Star Ferry Pier.
There are two types of minibus in Wan Chai, green minibus and red minibus. In general, green minibuses operate scheduled service, with fixed routes and fixed fares. Red minibuses run on non-scheduled service, although some routes may in effect become fixed over time.
**Green: 4A, 4B, 4C, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14M, 21A, 21M, 24A, 24M, 25, 28, 30, 31, 35M, 36X, 39M, 40, 56, 69
***West Point —
Causeway Bay( Daimaru) / Shau Kei Wan
Tsuen Wan— Wan Chai
Sheung Shui— Wan Chai
Yuen Long— Wan Chai
Wan Chai District
* [http://www.districtcouncils.gov.hk/wc/english/welcome.htm Wan Chai District Council]
* [http://www.gohk.gov.hk/eng/welcome/wc_intro.html Hong Kong Fun in 18 Districts — Wan Chai]
* [http://www.geocities.com/hkcentre/wanchai.htm A memoir of a Wan Chai District resident] (Traditional Chinese only)
* [http://www.wccoastline.org/ Retracing the Wan Chai Coastline — with oral history interviews with old residents] (Traditional Chinese only)
* [http://www.12hk.com/area/WanChai/WanChai.shtml More pictures of Wan Chai]
* [http://www.grs.gov.hk/ws/online/wanchai/index_tc.htm Display Wan Chai 1841-1997 Government Records Service]
* [http://www.live-arch.net/projects/WanchaiMarket/Wan%20Chai%20Market%20study_final.pdf A Study on Historical and Architectural Context of Wan Chai Market] written by the Hong Kong Institute of Architects. May
2004. ( AdobeAcrobat pdf format)
* [http://www.live-arch.net/projects-wanchai_roadshow_right.html "Wan Chai ‧Today‧Tomorrow and After" Roadshow]
* [http://www.live-arch.net/projects-wanchaiMarket-study_right.html Save Wan Chai Market Action]
* [http://www.live-arch.net/projects-wanchaiMarket-contest_right.html Wan Chai Memory‧Photo and Writing Competition]
* [http://www.takungpao.com/news/2005-3-29/GW-382253.htm Renovation of Southorn Playground] by "
Ta Kung Pao". 29 March 2005.
* [http://www.gohk.gov.hk/eng/welcome/wc_intro.html Hong Kong Fun in 18 Districts — Wan Chai]
* [http://www.hku.hk/hkcsp/oral_wanchai.html Remembering Wanchai – A Community Oral History Project] conducted by the
University of Hong KongCentre of Asian Studies
* [http://www.centamap.com Centamap] , providing information of transport in Wan Chai
Wan Chai District
north = (
Central and Western District
east = Eastern District
Causeway Bay |Happy Valley | Jardine's Lookout | Stubbs Road | Tai Hang |Wan Chai | Wan Chai North | Wong Nai Chung Gap
south = Southern District
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