Kanchipuram


Kanchipuram
Kanchipuram (காஞ்சிபுரம்)
—  town  —
Kanchipuram (காஞ்சிபுரம்)
Location of Kanchipuram (காஞ்சிபுரம்)
in Tamil Nadu and India
Coordinates 12°49′N 79°43′E / 12.82°N 79.71°E / 12.82; 79.71Coordinates: 12°49′N 79°43′E / 12.82°N 79.71°E / 12.82; 79.71
Country India
State Tamil Nadu
District(s) Kanchipuram
Population 152,984 (2001)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Website http://kanchi.tn.nic.in
Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu, India

Kanchipuram(Tamil: காஞ்சிபுரம்), or Kanchi, (formerly known as Conjeevaram) is a temple city and a municipality in Kanchipuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district. In ancient times it was called Kanchi and Kanchiampathi.

Kanchipuram is located on the Palar River, and known for its temples and silk sarees. Kanchipuram is also called as "City of 1000 Temples".[1] Kanchipuram is also famous for its silk sarees,[2][3] which are hand woven.

There are several big temples (including some of the prominent Vishnu Temples and Shiva Temples of Tamil Nadu) like Varadharaja Perumal Temple for Lord Vishnu and Ekambaranatha Temple which is the "earth abode" of Lord Siva. Other abodes include Chidambaram (Sky), Sri Kalahasti (air), Thiruvanaikaval (water) and Tiruvannamalai (fire), Kamakshi Amman Temple, Varadharaja Perumal Temple, Kumara Kottam, Kachapeshwarar Temple, n Kailasanathar Temple.

Contents

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[4] Kanchipuram had a population of 152,984. Males constitute 50% of the population and females 50%. Kanchipuram has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 69%. In Kanchipuram, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Kanchipuram temple, engraved in 1811.

Among seven holy cities of India

Moreover, kanchi is one of seven most holy places for Hindus in India where Varanasi is considered as the holiest of the seven holy cities.

Ayodhyā Mathurā Māyā Kāsi Kāñchī Avantikā I

Purī Dvārāvatī chaiva saptaitā moksadāyikāh II - Garuḍa Purāṇa I XVI .14

A Kṣetra is a sacred ground, a field of active power, a place where Moksha, final release can be obtained. The Garuda Purana enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha, They are Ayodhya, Mathura, Māyā, Kāsi, Kāñchī, Avantikā and Dvārāvatī.[5]

History

The term "nagareshu Kanchi" in the above verse attributed the famous Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa, means that Kanchi was the best amongst the cities of medieval India.[6]

Kanchipuram is one of the oldest cities in South India, and was a city of learning for Tamil, Sanskrit, and Pali and was believed to be visited by Xuanzang (Huan Tsang) also known as Yuan Chwang. It was during the reign of Pallava dynasty, from the 4th to the 9th centuries that Kanchipuram attained its limelight. The city served as the Pallava capital, and many of the known temples were built during their reign. The founder of Zen Buddhism, Bodhidharma was born here, as was the famous Sanskrit writer Dandin who wrote Dashakumaracharita. The Sanskrit poet Bharavi hailed from Kanchi and wrote the famous Kiratarjuniya here under the patronage of the Pallava king Simhavishnu. Great Buddhist scholars such as Dignaga, Buddhaghosa, and Dhammapala lived here too.

The king of Kanchi, Pallava Mahendravarman I was a great scholar and musician, a man of great intelligence and also a great Sanskrit satirist and playwright.

Xuanzang, the great Chinese traveler, visited the city in the 7th century and said that this city was 6 miles in circumference and that its people were famous for bravery and piety as well as for their love of justice and veneration for learning. He further recorded that Buddha had visited the place.

As regards learning, Kanchi stood second in glory only to Banaras. The history of Kanchi can be traced back to several centuries before the advent of the Christian era. The place finds its name in Patanjali's Mahabhashya written in the 2nd century BCE Manimekalai, the famous Tamil classic, and Perumpanatru Padai, a great Tamil poetical work, vividly describe the city as it was at the beginning of the Christian era. Pattupattu, one of the sangam literatures records that the king Thondaiman Ilandirayan ruled this town around 2500 years ago.

The temple tower at a Kanchi temple
Naga-worship next to the Sri Vaigunda Perumal Temple in Kanchipuram

From the 3rd to the 9th century CE Kanchi was the capital of the Pallavas who ruled over the territory extending from the river Krishna in the north to the river Kaveri in the south. The Pallavas fortified the city with ramparts, moats, etc., with wide and well laid out roads and fine temples. They were a great maritime power with contacts with far-off China, Siam, Fiji, etc., through their chief Port Mamallapuram, the modern Mahabalipuram(now renamed again as Mamallapuram). The Cholas ruled this town from 10th century to 13th century. Kings of Vijayanagara dynasty ruled from 14th century to 17th century. The temple tower, 192 feet height in Ekamabaranadhar temple and 100-pillar mandabam (building) in Varadaraja Perumal temple in this town are famous for the architectural techniques of Vijayanagara dynasty.

Robert Clive, of the British East India Company, who played a major role in the establishment of British rule in India, is said to have presented an emerald necklace to the Varadaraja perumal (the Clive makarakandi, still used to decorate the Lord on ceremonial occasions).

Kanchi was a major seat of Tamil, Sanskrit, and Telugu learning as well as an important place of pilgrimage for Buddhists, Jains and Hindus. Once the seat of learning and religious fervour started its climb down from the Mughal invasions followed by three centuries of colonial rule under the British.

Bodhidharma

Bodhidharma (AD 520), who went to China to spread Buddhism, is said to be from Kanchipuram.[7] He stayed at the Shaolin Monastery and preached Buddhist ideologies. At that time he supposedly trained the monks in the art of Varmakkalai.[7] However, historians have proven that he had no historical connection to martial arts.[8]

Kanchi Matha

Kanchipuram is also the seat of the Kanchi maţha, a Hindu institution that became influential and famous under the leadership of Shri Chandrashekarendra Saraswati. This maţha says that Adi Shankara settled in Kanchipuram after establishing four Āmnāya maţhas in the four corners of India and that this gave rise to the Kanchi maţha. However this claim is disputed by other mathas who claim the Kanchi matha is only a branch matha. The followers of Kanchi Math however claim that, due to Muslim invasions, this Matha was temporarily shifted to Kumbakon.

Kanchi silk sarees

Silk Sari Weaving at Kanchipuram

Today, apart from its temples, this small town is also known for its thriving hand loom industry. Kanchipuram town is also known as Silk City since the main profession of the people living in and around is weaving silk sarees, more than 5,000 families are engaged in this industry.

In 1997, research indicated that the number of child laborers in the silk-weaving industry in the district of Kanchipuram exceeded 40,000. This included children who were bonded laborers to loom owners. The Rural Institute for Development Education undertook many activities to improve the situation of child laborers. Working collaboratively, RIDE helped reduce the number of child laborers to less than 4,000 by 2007. In 2010, 'Kancheepuram Silk Sarees' not just received the GI tag but became the first product in India, to implement the security protocol, which includes jail and fine provisions for violators.[9]

In 2008, noted director, Priyadarshan, made Tamil film, Kanchivaram, about silk weavers' of the town, during in the pre-independence period, it won the Best Film Award at the annual National Film Award.

Economy of Kanchipuram

Being near the large industrial estates of Sriperumbudur, the face of the town has changed in recent years. Real estate has picked up well. Traditional industries such as Silk saris and pilgrim visitors are still making significant contributions to the local economy.

Educational institutions

Kanchipuram in history was also been known as the ghatikasthanam or place of learning. Today several educational institutions offer courses in engineering, arts and science, and medicine, in and around Kanchi. Notable among them is Meenakshi Medical College and Research Institute located near Enathur, about 6 km from Kanchipuram. Since the Meenakshi Medical College was established in 2003, it has developed into a respectable institution of medical education. The Meenakshi hospital, which handles over 1000 outpatients every day, was established with modern infrastructure and facilities and provides service to many people in this area.

Kanchi Sri krishna college of Arts and Science is located in Kanchipuram. The Kalsar College Of Engineering is located at the Mannur village. Vallal pachiyappa Mudaliar run school, collages for men and women are located in kanchi from 19th century providing education to needy people. Asia's biggest International Library is located at Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidyalaya (SCSVMV University) which is a part of Kanchi Mutt. This also runs the Sri Sankara Arts and Science college and Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Engineering College. The Aksheyaa College of Engineering[10], Puludivakkam, Madhuranthagam, which is sponsored by Mutthamil Educational Trust, Adyar, Chennai.

Some of the major schools in the City are listed below.

  • Anderson Higher Secondary School
  • Bharathidhasan Matriculation Higher Secondary School
    • Bharathidhasan Matriculation Higher Secondary School. Thiru K.T.S MANI(Founder - Bharathidhasan Matric. Hr. Sec. School. Kanchipuram. Tamil Nadu. India)Hon’ble K.T.S Mani Iyah was born at Pernuagar village in Thriruvannmali District in 1926. He believed in the Gandhiyan way to simple living and high thinking. He is a man of organizing capabilities and commitment to ideology. Later he became a rare politician. Indeed he was an organizer of rare quality. He was the man of action who grew up the ranks in politics. Even our present Chief Minister Thiru Kalingar M.Karunaniyhi had praised K.T.S. Mani Iyah many times for his infinite efforts for the sake of people. Iyah was elected as the president of Municipality, Kancheepuram in the local body election . After he become the president, his contributions to the growth of the people of Kancheepuram was numerous.
    • Thiru M.ARUN KUMAR Correspondant : The Excellency M. ARUN KUMAR is the only son of Thiru K.T.S. MANI IYAH
  • M.L.M Mamallan Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  • Pachaiyappa's Higher Secondary School
  • AKT Municipal High School.
  • Agathiya Matriculation School, Walajabad
  • BMS Government Girls Higher Secondary School, Little Kanchipuram.
  • Government Girls Higher Secondary School, Big Kanchipuram.
  • PTVS Higher Secondary School
  • S.S.K.V Boys Higher Secondary School
  • S.S.K.V Girls Higher Secondary School
  • Infant Jesus Matriculation Higher Secondary School
  • Victoria Matriculation School
  • Sangford Schools
  • Annie Besant Matriculation School
  • Dr P.S.S MPL Higher Secondary School
  • Government Higher Secondary School, Iyyangarkulam
  • Agathiya Nursery & Primary School, Iyyanpettai
  • D.A.V School,Santhavellur,Sunguvarsathiram.
  • Maharishi International Residential School
  • Shri Vani Nilayam
  • C.S.M. Higher Secondary School, Pillaiyar Palayam

C.M.Subbaraya mudaliar higher secondary school List of major colleges

  • Aksheyaa College of Engineering, Puludivakkam, Madhuranthagam
  • Arulmigu Meenakshi Amman College of Engineering
  • Pachaiyappa's College for Men
  • Kanchi Sri Krishna College of Arts and Science
  • Pachaiyappa's College for Women
  • Sri Sankara Arts & Science College
  • Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswathi Engineering College
  • Pallavan College of Engineering
  • Lord Venkateshwara Engineering College
  • Bhaktavatsalam Polytechnic College
  • UPR College of Education
  • Pallavan Polytechic
  • Thirumalai Engineering College
  • SRS college

Universities and Medical Colleges

  • Sri Chandrasekarendra Saraswathi Viswa Maha Vidyalaya (Deemed University)[also known as Kanchi University / Shankara University]
  • Aringar Anna Cancer Institute
  • Meenakshi Medical college
  • Kanchi pallavan engineering college

Special school

  • Aadhuraa Special school

The special school which supports many differently abled children in and around the kancheepuram. They provide services to children with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mentally challenged and other developmental disabilities. 9444318518

List of temples

A gopuram of the Ekambareshwar temple

Kanchipuram is a major temple city of Tamil Nadu. The list gives the consolidated list of temples in and around Kanchipuram revered by the hymns of Alvars as well as Nayanmars.

Kanchipuram is known to be one of the three Shakti Peethas, the other two being Madurai and Kasi. This is because of the principal shrine, the Kamakshi Amman Temple, which is the seat of Goddess Kamakshi Amman. To honor the principality of this temple, the Siva temples in the city do not have an shrine dedicated to Goddess Shakti.

List of Vaishnava temples

  • Varadharaja Perumal Temple
  • Ashtabujakaram - Sri Adhikesava Perumal Temple
  • Tiruvekkaa - Sri Yathothkari Temple
  • Tiruththanka - Sri Deepa prakasa Perumal Temple
  • Tiruvelukkai - Sri Azhagiya Singar Temple
  • Neervalur - Sri Veetrirunda Lakshmi Narayana Perumal Temple
  • Tirukalvanoor - Sri Adi Varaha Swami Temple
  • Tiruoorakam - Sri Ulagalantha Swami Temple
  • Tiruneeragam - Sri Jagadeeshwarar Temple
  • Tirukaaragam - Sri Karunagara Perumal Temple
  • Tirukaarvaanam - Sri Tirukaarvarnar Temple
  • Tiruparamechura Vinnagaram - Sri Vaikunda Perumal Temple
  • Tirupavalavannam - Sri Pavala Vanar Temple
  • Tirupaadagam - Sri Pandava Thoodar Temple
  • Tirunilaaththingalthundam - Sri Nilathingal Thundathan Perumal Temple
  • Tirupputkuzhi - Sri Vijaya Raghava Perumal Temple
  • Parithiyur-Kalyana Varadharaja Perumal Temple
  • Sri Aadhi Kesava Perumal - Kooran [about 8 to 9 km from Kanchipuram]
  • Vamanar temple ( very near to Kamakshi Temple)

List of Shiva temples

  • Kailasnatha Temple
  • Ekambareswarar Temple
  • Dhrmalingeswarar Temple (Kayaar Kulam)
  • Thiru Kayaroganeeswarar Temple
  • Kumarakottam
  • Kachi Metrali
  • Onakanthan Tali
  • Kachi Anekatangapadam
  • Kachi Nerikkaaraikkadu
  • Kuranganilmuttam
  • Tiru Maakaral
  • Tiruvothur
  • Panankattur
  • Sangupani Vinayakar Temple
  • Vazhakarutheeswarar Temple
  • Thirumetrali Temple
  • Satyanadeeswara Temple
  • Adhi Kamakshi Temple
  • Kanaka Durga Temple, Koneri Kuppam
  • Thiruparruthikundram - Jaina Temple
  • Chitragupta Temple (near bus stand)

Muslim Rulers and Architecture

Kanchipuram was ruled by the Nawab of Arcot in early 1700 AD, many Mosques and Islamic Shrines are here which were built by the Nawabs. There are 9 Mosques in Kanchipuram. Nawab Sathathullah Khan Mosque and Vaikunda Perumal Temple are situated very close.

Both the mosque and the Temple share the same tank. It shows the communal harmony in Tamil Nadu and especially in Kanchipuram. The Hameed owliya dargah was also constructed by the Nawab and its a great Architecture.

Politics

  • Kanchipuram is a separate assembly constituency.
  • Tamil nadu ex Chief minister C.N. Annadurai birth place.

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ [2]
  3. ^ [3]
  4. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20040616075334/http://www.censusindia.net/results/town.php?stad=A&state5=999. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  5. ^ The Hindu temple, Volume 1 By Stella Kramrisch, Raymond Burnier p.3
  6. ^ Historical Importance of Kanchipuram
  7. ^ a b Subramaniam Phd., P., (general editors) Dr. Shu Hikosaka, Asst. Prof. Norinaga Shimizu, & Dr. G. John Samuel, (translator) Dr. M. Radhika (1994). Varma Chuttiram வர்ம சுத்திரம்: A Tamil Text on Martial Art from Palm-Leaf Manuscript. Madras: Institute of Asian Studies. pp. 90 & 91. 
  8. ^ Henning, Stan and Tom Green, "Folklore in the Martial Arts" in Green, Thomas A. Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia (Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO, 2001), p. 129.
  9. ^ "GI tag: TN trails Karnataka with 18 products". The Times of India. Aug 29, 2010. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/GI-tag-TN-trails-Karnataka-with-18-products/articleshow/6458268.cms. 
  10. ^ College, Aksheyaa Engineering. "ACE". engineering college. Aksheyaa College of Engineering. http://ace.ac.in. Retrieved 22 November 2011. 

External links


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