- Lead shot
Lead shot is a collective term for small balls of
lead. It is used primarily as projectiles in shotguns, but is also used for a variety of other purposes. It was traditionally made using a shot tower.
Lead shot was pioneered by William Watts of
Bristolwho adapted his house on Redcliff Way by adding a three story tower and digging a shaft under the house through the caves underneath to achieve the required drop. The process was patented in 1782.
The process was brought above ground through the building of
Roundness of manufactured shot produced from the shot tower process is graded by forcing the newly-produced shot to roll accurately down inclined planes; unround shot will naturally roll to the side, for collection. The unround was either re-processed in another attempt to make round shot using the shot tower again, or used for applications which did not require round shot (e.g. split shot).
Hardness of lead shot for
shotgun shells is controlled through adding variable amounts of antimony, forming lead-antimony alloys.
Larger lead shot comes in three sizes: B, BB, and BBB. Smaller lead shot is available in shot in sizes 7½, 8, and 9, with applications ranging from
sporting claysand skeet shooting, to non-waterfowl hunting at progressively shorter distances. The larger bird shot sizes (i.e., 6, 5, 4) are more difficult to obtain in lead, having been banned for waterfowl hunting since the 1970s in the United States, although they are still occasionally seen, and remain legal for uses other than for waterfowl hunting. Older shotguns continue to use lead shot, as firing newer, harder, non-lead shot may damage the shotgun, and firing soft metal substitutes for lead shot may not be economically-viable.
Buckshot is simply lead shot formed to larger diameters. Sizes range in ascending order from size B to size 0000.
Below is a chart with diameters per pellet and weight for idealized lead spheres.
Applications outside firearms
Lead shot is also often used as ballast in various situations, especially where a dense pourable weight is required. Generally small shot is best for these applications, as it can be poured more like a liquid. Completely round shot is not required. Examples are:-
* Providing variable weights in strength-of-materials stress-testing systems. Shot pours from a hopper into a basket, which is connected to the test item. When the test item
fractures, the chute closes and the mass of the lead shot in the basket is used to calculate the fracture stress of the item.
Hydrometers also often use a weight made of shot, since the weight has to be poured into a narrow glass vessel.
* Split shot is a larger type of lead shot where each pellet is cut part-way through the diameter, and has been commonly used as a line weight in
angling. Split shot is placed over the line and closed in a crimp using pliers in this application.
* The heads of some
dead blow hammers are filled with shot to minimize rebound off the struck surface.
scuba diving weight belts are nylon webbingpouches filled with shot: see shot belt.
* It can be used to fill speaker stands for additional acoustic
decoupling, as well as stability.
Non lead alternatives
There are various places in the world (e.g.
Wetlandsin Britain) where hunting using lead shot is banned due to the toxic nature of the lead. For these situations, non lead alternatives have been introduced, using materials such as steel, tungsten- nickel- iron, bismuth- tin, and tungsten-polymer.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
lead shot — [led] n. another term for shot I (sense 3) * * * lead shot [lead shot] [ˌled ˈʃɒt] [ˌled ˈʃɑːt] noun = ↑shot (3) … Useful english dictionary
lead shot — noun Small balls of lead, used as projectiles in shotguns, and as a weight in angling etc … Wiktionary
Lead poisoning — Classification and external resources An X ray demonstrating the characteristic finding of lead poisoning, dense metaphyseal lines. ICD 10 T … Wikipedia
shot — Ⅰ. shot  ► NOUN 1) the firing of a gun or cannon. 2) a person with a specified level of ability in shooting: he was an excellent shot. 3) a hit, stroke, or kick of the ball in sports, in particular an attempt to score. 4) informal an attempt… … English terms dictionary
Shot tower — A shot tower is a tower designed for the production of shot balls by freefall of molten lead, which is then caught in a water basin. The shot is used for projectiles in firearms. hot makingProcessIn a shot tower, lead is heated until molten, then … Wikipedia
Shot glass — Three shot glasses of varying shape and size Shot glasses with a var … Wikipedia
Shot Tower (Dubuque) — George W. Rogers Company Shot Tower U.S. National Register of Historic Places … Wikipedia
Shot Tower, Lambeth — The Shot Tower at the Lambeth Lead Works was a shot tower that stood on the South Bank of the River Thames in London, England, between Waterloo Bridge and Hungerford Bridge, on the site of what is now the Queen Elizabeth Hall. It was a prominent… … Wikipedia
lead — 1. v. & n. v. (past and past part. led) 1 tr. cause to go with one, esp. by guiding or showing the way or by going in front and taking a person s hand or an animal s halter etc. 2 tr. a direct the actions or opinions of. b (often foll. by to, or… … Useful english dictionary
shot — shot1 noun 1》 the firing of a gun or cannon. ↘a person with a specified level of ability in shooting: he was an excellent shot. ↘a critical or aggressive remark. 2》 a hit, stroke, or kick of the ball in sports, in particular an attempt to … English new terms dictionary