- National Mall
National MallFacing east across the Mall towards the Capitol in 2008
Location: Between Independence and Constitution Avenues from the Capitol to the Lincoln Memorial Architect: Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant; McMillan Commission Governing body: National Park Service NRHP Reference#: 66000031 Added to NRHP: October 15, 1966
The National Mall is an open-area national park in downtown Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. The National Mall is a unit of the National Park Service (NPS), and is administered by the National Mall and Memorial Parks unit. The term National Mall commonly includes areas that are officially part of West Potomac Park and Constitution Gardens to the west, and often is taken to refer to the entire area between the Lincoln Memorial and the United States Capitol, with the Washington Monument providing a division slightly west of the center. The National Mall receives approximately 24 million visitors each year.
In his 1791 plan for the future city of Washington, D.C., Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant envisioned a garden-lined "grand avenue" approximately 1 mile (1.6 km) in length and 400 feet (120 m) wide, in an area that would lie between the Capitol building and an equestrian statue of George Washington to be placed directly south of the White House. The National Mall occupies the site of this planned "grand avenue", which was never constructed. The Washington Monument stands near the planned site of its namesake's equestrian statue. Mathew Carey's 1802 map is reported to be the first to name the area as "The Mall."
During the early 1850s, architect and horticulturist Andrew Jackson Downing designed a landscape plan for the Mall. Over the next half century, federal agencies developed several naturalistic parks within the Mall in accordance with Downing's plan. In addition, railroad tracks crossed the Mall on 6th Street, west of the Capitol. Near the tracks, a large market (Central Market) and a railroad station rose on the north side of the Mall. Greenhouses belonging to the U.S. Botanic Garden appeared near the east end of the Mall.
In 1901, the McMillan Commission's plan, which was partially inspired by the City Beautiful Movement and which purportedly extended L'Enfant's plan, called for a radical redesign of the Mall that would replace its greenhouses, gardens, trees and commercial/industrial facilities with an open space. The plan differed from L’Enfant’s by replacing the 400 feet (120 m) wide "grand avenue" with a 300 feet (91 m) wide vista containing a long and broad expanse of grass. Four rows of American elm (Ulmus americana) trees planted fifty feet apart between two paths or streets would line each side of the vista. Buildings housing cultural and educational institutions constructed in the Beaux-Arts style would line each outer path or street, on the opposite side of the path or street from the elms.
In subsequent years, the vision of the McMillan plan was generally followed with the planting of American elms and the layout of four boulevards down the Mall, two on either side of a wide lawn. In accordance with a plan that it completed in 1976, the NPS converted the two innermost boulevards (Washington and Adams Drives) into gravel walking paths. The two outermost boulevards (Jefferson Drive Southwest (SW) and Madison Drive Northwest (NW)) remain paved and open to vehicular traffic.
In 1918, contractors for the United States Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks constructed the "Main Navy" and "Munitions" Buildings along nearly a third of a mile of the south side of Constitution Avenue (then known as B Street), from 17th Street NW to 21st Street NW. Although the Navy intended the buildings to provide temporary quarters for the United States military during World War I, the reinforced concrete structures remained in place until 1970. Much of the buildings' area then became Constitution Gardens, which was dedicated in 1976.
On October 15, 1966, the National Mall was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1981, the NPS prepared a National Register nomination form that documented the Mall's historical significance. More recently, the 108th United States Congress enacted the Commemorative Works Clarification and Revision Act of 2003, which prohibits the siting of new commemorative works and visitor centers in a designated reserve area within the cross-axis of the Mall.
- From the Capitol steps to the Lincoln Memorial, the Mall runs 1.9 miles (3.0 km).
- From the steps to the Washington Monument, the Mall spans 1.2 miles (1.8 km).
- From Ulysses S. Grant Memorial to Lincoln Memorial, the Mall covers 309.2 acres (125.13 ha).
Boundaries of the National Mall
The official boundaries of the National Mall (National Mall proper) are Constitution and Pennsylvania Avenues on the north, 1st Street NW on the east, Independence and Maryland Avenues on the south, and 14th Street NW on the west, with the exception of the section of land bordered by Jefferson Drive on the north, Independence Avenue on the south, and by 12th and 14th Streets respectively on the east and west, which the U.S. Department of Agriculture administers and which contains the Jamie L. Whitten Building (U.S. Department of Agriculture Administration Building). However, people often consider areas outside of these boundaries to be part of the Mall.
Purposes of the National Mall
The National Park Service states that the purposes of the National Mall are to:
- Provide a monumental, dignified,and symbolic setting for the governmental structures, museums and national memorials as first delineated by the L’Enfant plan and further outlined in the McMillan plan.
- Maintain and provide for the use of the National Mall with its public promenades as a completed work of civic art, a designed historic landscape providing extraordinary vistas to symbols of the nation.
- Maintain National Mall commemorative works (memorials, monuments, statues, sites, gardens) that honor presidential legacies, distinguished public figures, ideas, events, and military and civilian sacrifices and contributions.
- Forever retain the West Potomac Park section of the National Mall as a public park for recreation and enjoyment of the people.
- Maintain the National Mall in the heart of the nation’s capital as a stage for national events and a preeminent national civic space for public gatherings because it is here that the constitutional rights of speech and peaceful assembly find their fullest expression.
- Maintain the National Mall as an area free of commercial advertising while retaining the ability to recognize sponsors.
Landmarks, museums and other features
2. National Museum of American History
3. National Museum of Natural History
4. National Gallery of Art Sculpture Garden
5. West Building of the National Gallery of Art
6. East Building of the National Gallery of Art
8. Ulysses S. Grant Memorial
10. National Museum of the American Indian
11. National Air and Space Museum
12. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
13. Arts and Industries Building
14. Smithsonian Institution Building ("The Castle")
15. Freer Gallery of Art
16. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery
17. National Museum of African Art
Capitol Reflecting Pool (see United States Capitol Complex)
James A. Garfield Monument
Andrew Jackson Downing Memorial Urn
With the exception of the National Gallery of Art, all of the museums on the National Mall (proper) are part of the Smithsonian Institution. The Smithsonian maintains a number of gardens near its museums. These gardens include:
Victory Garden at the National Museum of American History
Heirloom Garden at the National Museum of American History, Behring Center
Native Landscape at the National Museum of the American Indian
Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden
As popularly understood, the Mall also contains landmarks and features that are east of 1st Street, such as the United States Capitol and its grounds (#7 on image) and some that are south of Maryland Avenue, such as the United States Botanic Garden (#9 on image). Many people also believe that the Mall contains landmarks and features that are west of 14th Street NW, including the Washington Monument (#1 on image), the Monument's grounds and the following:
The Smithsonian Institution is planning to construct the National Museum of African American History and Culture on a 5 acres (2.0 ha) site between the grounds of the Washington Monument and the National Museum of American History. The boundaries of the museum site are Constitution Avenue on the north, Madison Drive on the south, 14th Street NW on the east, and 15th Street NW on the west. Construction is expected to begin in 2012.
The population of American elm trees planted on the Mall and its surrounding areas in accordance with the McMillan Plan has remained intact for the past 70 years because of disease management and immediate tree replacement. Dutch elm disease (DED) first appeared on the Mall during the 1950s and reached a peak in the 1970s. The NPS has used a number of methods to control this fungal epidemic, including sanitation, pruning, injecting trees with fungicide, replanting with DED-resistant American elm cultivars and combatting the disease's local insect vector, the smaller European elm bark beetle (Scolytus multistriatus), by trapping and by spraying with insecticides. Soil compaction and root damage by crowds and construction projects also adversely affect the elms.
Other nearby attractions
Other attractions within walking distance of the National Mall include the Library of Congress and the United States Supreme Court Building east of the Capitol; the White House (on a line directly north of the Washington Monument), the National Archives, the Freedom Forum's Newseum, the Old Post Office Pavilion, the National Theatre, Ford's Theatre, and the Albert Einstein Memorial to the north; the National Postal Museum and Union Station to the northeast; and the Jefferson Memorial, the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial, the George Mason Memorial, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, and the Bureau of Engraving and Printing to the south.
Usage of the National Mall
The National Mall, in combination with the other attractions in the Washington Metropolitan Area, makes the nation's capital city one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. However, it has uses other than as a tourist focal point.
Protests and rallies
The National Mall's status as a wide, open expanse at the heart of the capital makes it an attractive site for protests and rallies of all types. One notable example is the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, a political rally for African American civil rights, at which Martin Luther King, Jr. gave his famous "I Have a Dream" speech.
The largest officially recorded rally was the Vietnam War Moratorium Rally on October 15, 1969. However, in 1995, the NPS issued a crowd estimate for the Million Man March with which an organizer of the event, Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan, disagreed. The next year, a committee of the 104th United States Congress provided no funds for NPS crowd counting activities in Washington, D.C. when it prepared legislation making 1997 appropriations for the U.S. Department of the Interior. As of 2009, the NPS had not provided any further official crowd estimates for Mall events.
On April 25, 2004, the March for Women's Lives filled the Mall. On January 27, 2007, tens of thousands of protesters opposed to the Iraq War converged on the Mall (see: January 27, 2007 anti-war protest), drawing comparisons by participants to the Vietnam War protest.
During presidential inaugurations, people without official tickets gather at the National Mall. Normally, the Mall between 7th and 14th Streets NW is used as a staging ground for the parade. On December 4, 2008, the Presidential Inaugural Committee (see United States presidential inauguration#Organizers) announced that "for the first time, the entire length of the National Mall will be opened to the public so that more people than ever before will be able to witness the swearing-in of the President from a vantage point in sight of the Capitol." The Committee made this arrangement because of the massive attendance – projected to be as many as 2 million people – that it expected for the inauguration of Barack Obama on January 20, 2009. Despite the arrangement, a throng of people seeking access to the event climbed and then removed temporary protective fences around the Smithsonian's Mary Livingston Ripley Garden, six blocks from the site at which Obama took his inaugural oath. Hordes then trampled the garden's vegetation and elevated plant beds when entering and leaving the event. Others could not find a way to enter the Mall in time to view the ceremony. More than a thousand people with tickets missed the event while being stranded in the I-395 Third Street Tunnel beneath the Mall after police directed them there (see Purple Tunnel of Doom). The Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies subsequently announced that ticket holders that were not admitted would receive copies of the swearing-in invitation and program, photos of Obama and Vice President Joe Biden, and a color print of the ceremony.
Other events and recreational activities
The National Mall has long served as a spot for jogging, picnics, and light recreation for the Washington population. The Smithsonian Carousel, located on the Mall in front of the Arts and Industry Building, is a popular attraction that operates seasonally. The carousel was constructed in Gwynn Oak Park near Baltimore, Maryland, in 1947 and was moved to the Mall in 1975.
A number of large free events recur annually on the Mall. A kite festival, formerly named the "Smithsonian Kite Festival" and now named the "Blossom Kite Festival", usually takes place each year on the Washington Monument grounds during the last weekend of March (the first weekend of the National Cherry Blossom Festival). The 2011 Blossom Kite Festival took place on Sunday, April 10, 2011.
An Earth Day celebration takes place on the Mall each year around April 22. A week-long series of rallies, exhibits, observances and performances occurred on the Mall from April 17 to April 25, 2010 to commemorate Earth Day's 40th anniversary. The final day's events featured performances by Sting, Mavis Staples, The Roots, John Legend, Jimmy Cliff and others. In 2011, the United States Environmental Protection Agency sponsored a two-day Earth Day event on the Mall that featured more than 40 interactive exhibits and activities.
A four-day exhibition usually takes place each year on the Mall during Public Service Recognition Week (the first full week of May). Government agencies participating in the event sponsor exhibits that display the works of public employees and that enable visitors to learn about government programs and initiatives, discuss employee benefits, and interact with agency representatives. However, the 2011 United States federal budget (Public Law 112-10), which was belatedly enacted on April 15, 2011, contained no funding for that year's event, forcing the event's cancellation.
The National Symphony Orchestra presents each year its National Memorial Day Concert on the west lawn of the United States Capitol during the evening of the Sunday before Memorial Day (the last Monday of May). The National Gallery of Art hosts a Jazz in the Garden series each year in the museum's Sculpture Garden on Friday evenings from late May through mid-September.
Components of the United States Navy Band, the United States Air Force Band, the United States Marine Band and the United States Army Band perform on the west steps of the United States Capitol on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday evenings, respectively, during June, July and August. The Marine Band repeats each Wednesday Capitol performance on the following evening (Thursday) at the Sylvan Theater on the grounds of the Washington Monument. Components of U.S. military bands also provide evening concerts at the National World War II Memorial from May through August.
The Smithsonian Folklife Festival takes place on the Mall each year for two weeks around Independence Day (July 4). On that holiday, the A Capitol Fourth concert takes place in the late afternoon and early evening on the west lawn of the Capitol. This and other Independence Day celebrations on and near the Mall end after sunset with a fireworks display between the Washington Monument and the Lincoln Memorial.
On Monday nights during July and August, the annual Screen on the Green movie festival takes place on the Mall between 4th and 7th Streets. The free classic movies are projected on large portable screens and typically draw crowds of thousands of people.
The National Symphony Orchestra presents each year its Labor Day Capitol Concert on the west lawn of the United States Capitol during the evening of the Sunday before Labor Day (the first Monday of September). The National Book Festival takes place on the Mall each year in late September or early October.
On Sunday, October 9, 1979, Pope John Paul II celebrated Mass on the National Mall during a visit to Washington. The celebration took place after an appellate court denied a motion for an injunction that atheists Madalyn Murray O'Hair and Jon Garth Murray had filed to prevent the event from occurring.
From 1980 through 1982, The Beach Boys and The Grass Roots performed Independence Day concerts on the Mall, attracting large crowds. However, in April 1983, James G. Watt, President Ronald Reagan's Secretary of the Interior, banned Independence Day concerts on the Mall by such groups. Watt said that "rock bands" that had performed on the Mall on Independence Day in 1981 and 1982 had encouraged drug use and alcoholism and had attracted "the wrong element", who would mug individuals and families attending any similar events in the future. Watt then announced that Las Vegas crooner Wayne Newton, a friend and supporter of President Reagan and a contributor to Republican Party political campaigns, would perform at the Mall's 1983 Independence Day celebration. During the ensuing uproar, Rob Grill, lead singer of The Grass Roots, stated that he felt "highly insulted" by Watt's remarks, which he called "nothing but un-American". The Beach Boys stated that the Soviet Union, which had invited them to perform in Leningrad in 1978, "obviously .... did not feel that the group attracted the wrong element". Vice President George H. W. Bush said of The Beach Boys, "They're my friends and I like their music". When Newton entered an Independence Day stage on the Mall on July 4, 1983, members of his audience booed. Watt apologized to The Beach Boys, First Lady Nancy Reagan apologized for Watt, and in 1984 The Beach Boys gave an Independence Day concert on the Mall to an audience of 750,000 people.
On September 4, 2003, Britney Spears, Mary J. Blige, Aretha Franklin, Aerosmith and others performed in a nationally-televised "NFL Kickoff Live from the National Mall Presented by Pepsi Vanilla" (see National Football League Kickoff game#Pre-game concerts). Preceded by a three-day National Football League "interactive Super Bowl theme park", the event had primarily commercial purposes, unlike earlier major activities on the Mall. Three weeks later, the United States Senate overwhelmingly passed legislation that was intended to limit displays of commercial sponsorship on the Mall.
On July 7, 2007, one leg of Live Earth was held outdoors at the National Museum of the American Indian on the Mall. Former Vice President Al Gore presented, and artists such as Garth Brooks and Trisha Yearwood performed.
On June 12, 2010, Tareq and Michaele Salahi, a couple under investigation for allegedly crashing a White House state dinner for the Prime Minister of India in November 2009 (see: 2009 U.S. state dinner security breaches), hosted an America's Polo Cup match between the United States and India on the Mall. The advertised ticket price for this event was $95 per person. Reports of the event stated that the players who represented India were actually of Pakistani origin and were from Florida. A spokesman for the Embassy of India stated that neither the Embassy nor the government of India had any association with the event. The event's website reportedly identified an Indian company, Kingfisher Beer, as a sponsor. However, Kingfishers' chief executive denied that the company had sponsored the event. Yashpal Singh, the president and chief executive of Mendocino Brewing Company, Kingfisher's parent company, reportedly stated, "We are not sponsoring this event and have informed the people managing this event of that, .... We have sent legal notices to this effect, and he keeps on advertising us as a sponsor. I don't know what world he's living in."
The inaugural USA Science and Engineering Festival Expo took place on the National Mall and surrounding areas on October 23 and 24, 2010. More than 1,500 free interactive exhibits reportedly drew about 500,000 people to the event, which had over 75 performances. The next Expo is scheduled to take place in Washington, D.C., on April 27–29, 2012.
Occurring once every two to three years on the Mall in the early fall from 2002 to 2009, the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon displayed solar-powered houses that competitive collegiate teams designed, constructed and operated. Igniting a controversy, the Department of Energy (DOE) decided to move the 2011 Decathlon off the Mall, claming that this would support an effort to protect, improve and restore the park. Federal officials stated that heavy equipment that had placed two-story houses on the Mall during earlier Decathlons had cracked walkways and killed grass to a greater extent than had most other Mall events. On February 4, 2011, a Washington Post editorial criticized attempts to have President Obama restore the event to the Mall. Nevertheless, by February 12, 2011, at least thirteen U.S. Senators had signed a letter asking the DOE to reconsider its decision. On February 23, 2011, the DOE and the Department of the Interior announced that the 2011 Solar Decathlon would take place in West Potomac Park, along Ohio Drive southeast of the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial. The event took place in the Park from September 23 through October 2, 2011.
National Mall Plan
From 2006 through 2010, the NPS conducted a public process that created a plan for the future of the National Mall. On July 13, 2010, the NPS issued in the Federal Register a notice of availability of a final environmental impact statement (EIS) for the National Mall Plan. The two-volume final EIS responded to comments and incorporated changes to a draft EIS for the Plan. On November 9, 2010, the NPS and the Department of the Interior issued a Record of Decision (ROD) that completed the planning process. The ROD contains a summary of the selected alternative, which is the basis for the Plan, together with mitigation measures developed to minimize environmental harm; other alternatives considered; the basis for the decision in terms of planning objectives and the criteria used to develop the preferred alternative; a finding of no impairment of park resources and values; the environmentally preferable alternative; and the public and agency involvement.
The Plan proposes a number of changes to the Mall. The NPS would construct at the east end of the Mall a wide expanse of paved surface in Union Square to accommodate demonstrations and other events by reducing the size of the Capitol Reflecting Pool or by replacing the pool with a fountain or other small water feature. Additional proposed changes include the replacement of the Sylvan Theater on the Washington Monument grounds with a facility containing offices, restaurants and restrooms.
On December 2, 2010, the National Capital Planning Commission (NCPC) unanimously approved the final National Mall Plan at a public hearing. The NCPC's approval allowed the NPS to move forward with implementation of the Plan's recommendations.
On September 8, 2011, the Trust for the National Mall and the NPS announced an open competition for a redesign of the spaces on the National Mall that Union Square, the Sylvan Theater grounds and the Constitution Gardens Lake now occupy. Former First Lady of the United States Laura Bush has agreed to be the honorary co-chair of a drive to raise funds for the three projects.
The National Mall is accessible via Washington Metro, with the Smithsonian station located on the south side of the Mall, near the Smithsonian Institution Building between the Washington Monument and the United States Capitol. The Federal Triangle, Archives, and Union Station Metro stations are also located near the Mall, to the north. The L'Enfant Plaza, Federal Center Southwest and Capitol South Metro stations are located several blocks south of the Mall. Metrobus and the DC Circulator make scheduled stops around the Mall.
The NPS provides parking facilities for bicycles near each of the major memorials as well as along the National Mall. From March to October, an NPS concessionaire rents out bicycles at the Thompson Boat Center, located near the intersection of Virginia Avenue NW and Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, 1 mile (1.6 km) north of the Lincoln Memorial along the Potomac River-Rock Creek Trail.
Motor vehicle parking
General visitor parking is available along Ohio Drive SW, between the Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson Memorials. Bus parking is available primarily along Ohio Drive, SW, near the Lincoln and Thomas Jefferson Memorials and along Ohio Drive SW, in East Potomac Park. There is limited handicapped parking at the Franklin Delano Roosevelt and World War II Memorials and near the Washington Monument and the Thomas Jefferson, Lincoln, Korean War Veterans, and Vietnam Veterans Memorials; otherwise, parking is extremely scarce in and near the Mall.
Notes and references
- ^ "National Register of Historic Places: NPS Focus". National Park Service. http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov. Retrieved 2010-07-08.
- ^ "National Mall & Memorial Parks". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/nacc/. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- ^ a b c d e f "The National Mall". National Mall Plan. Foundation statement for the National Mall and Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Park. National Park Service. pp. 6–10. http://www.nps.gov/nationalmallplan/Maps/NMMParks_map.pdf. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- ^ "National Mall Frequently Asked Questions". National Park Service. 2008-10-28. http://www.nps.gov/mall/faqs.htm. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
- ^ a b c d Pfanz, Donald C. (1981-02-11). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: National Mall". National Park Service. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Text/66000031.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- ^ "Map 1: The L'Enfant Plan for Washington". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/62wash/62locate1.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
- ^ a b c d e f Sherald, James L (December 2009). Elms for the Monumental Core: History and Management Plan. Washington, D.C.: Center for Urban Ecology, National Capital Region, National Park Service. pp. 2–5. Natural Resource Report NPS/NCR/NRR--2009/001. http://www.nps.gov/nationalmallplan/Documents/Studies/ElmsoftheMonuCore_HistandMgmtPlan_122009.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-14.
- ^ L'Enfant identified himself as "Peter Charles L'Enfant" during most of his life, while residing in the United States. He wrote this name on his "Plan of the city intended for the permanent seat of the government of t(he) United States ...." (Washington, D.C.) and on other legal documents. However, during the early 1900's, a French ambassador to the U.S., Jean Jules Jusserand, popularized the use of L'Enfant's birth name, "Pierre Charles L'Enfant". (See: Bowling, Kenneth R (2002). Peter Charles L'Enfant: vision, honor, and male friendship in the early American Republic. George Washington University, Washington, D.C.) The National Park Service identifies L'Enfant as Major Peter Charles L'Enfant and as Major Pierre (Peter) Charles L'Enfant on its website. The United States Code states in 40 U.S.C. § 3309: "(a) In General.—The purposes of this chapter shall be carried out in the District of Columbia as nearly as may be practicable in harmony with the plan of Peter Charles L'Enfant."
- ^ a b c d e f Hanlon, Mary. "The Mall: The Grand Avenue, The Government, and The People". University of Virginia. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~CAP/MALL/chron.html. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
- ^ a b Moore, Charles (ed) (1902), "The Mall", The Improvement Of The Park System Of The District of Columbia: Report by the United States Congress: Senate Committee on the District of Columbia and District of Columbia Park Commission, Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, pp. 43–46, Fifty-Seventh Congress, First Session, Senate Report No. 166, http://books.google.com/books?id=Ob7PAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=#v=onepage&q&f=false . The McMillan Plan.
- ^ "The Mall". McMillan Plan. Wikimedia Commons. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/7/7c/McMillan_Plan.jpg. Retrieved 2010-11-22.
- ^ "The L'Enfant and McMillan Plans". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/wash/lenfant.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- ^ "Washington, D.C.: A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/travel/wash/. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
- ^ a b c d "A HISTORY OF THE NATIONAL MALL AND PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE NATIONAL HISTORIC PARK". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/nationalmallplan/Documents/mallpaavhistory.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-05.
- ^ "United States Geological Survey satellite imagery of National Mall". Wikimedia Commons. April 26, 2002. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/National_mall_%28east%29_satellite_image.jpg. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
- ^ "Satellite imagery of the National Mall". WikiMapia. http://www.wikimapia.org/#lat=38.89&lon=-77.023611&z=17&l=0&m=b. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
- ^ a b "Main Navy Building: Its Construction and Original Occupants". Naval Historical Foundation. 1970-08-01. http://www.history.navy.mil/library/online/main_navy_bldg.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ United States Bureau of Yards and Docks (1921). Activities of the Bureau of Yards and Docks. Government Printing Office. p. 480. http://www.archive.org/details/activitiesofbure00unit.
- ^ "Constitution Gardens". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/coga. Retrieved 2010-03-16.
- ^ "DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA INVENTORY OF HISTORIC SITES: ALPHABETICAL VERSION". Historic Preservation Office, Office of Planning, Government of the District of Columbia. 2009. http://planning.dc.gov/planning/frames.asp?doc=/planning/lib/planning/preservation/inventory/2009_alpha_version.pdf. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- ^ Commemorative Works Clarification and Revision Act of 2003, in Public Law 108-126, November 17, 2003, Title II (117 Stat. 1349 - 117 Stat. 1353). Retrieved 2010-02-04.
- ^ Milner, John D. (1973-06-22). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: U.S. Department of Agriculture Administration Building". National Park Service. http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NRHP/Text/74002175.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-10.
- ^ Date of image: April 22, 2002.
- ^ Date of image: April 26, 2002.
- ^ Numbers preceding names of landmarks correspond to numbers in 2002 satellite image of the National Mall (proper).
- ^ 2002 satellite image shows construction site of National Museum of the American Indian
- ^ "Union Square Cultural Landscape Inventory". National Mall Plan: History. National Park Service. 2006. http://www.nps.gov/nationalmallplan/History.html. Retrieved 2010-11-10.
- ^ "The Peace Monument". Architect of the Capitol. http://www.aoc.gov/cc/grounds/art_arch/peace.cfm. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- ^ "GARFIELD, James Abram: Memorial west of the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., by John Quincy Adams Ward". dcMemorials.com. http://dcmemorials.com/index_indiv0000280.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- ^ "The Downing Urn in the Enid A. Haupt Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/Haupt/Downing/down.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- ^ "DOWNING, Andrew Jackson: Urn on the east side of the Arts & Industries Bldg in Washington, D.C. by Robert E Launitz, Calvert Vaux". dcMemorials.com. 2008. http://dcmemorials.com/index_indiv0000453.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- ^ "Andrew Jackson Downing marker". HMdb.org: The Historical Marker Database. http://www.hmdb.org/Marker.asp?Marker=13425. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- ^ "Program for dedication ceremony for the Joseph Henry statue". Smithsonian Institution Libraries Digital Library. Smithsonian Institution. 1883-04-19. http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/HistoryCultureCollections/SIL7-154/pdf/SIL007-154.pdf. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- ^ "Joseph Henry statue marker". Markers Attached to Sculpture series. HMdb.org: The Historical Marker Database. http://www.hmdb.org/marker.asp?marker=213. Retrieved 2010-10-27.
- ^ a b "Smithsonian Carousel". National Carousel Association. http://www.nca-usa.org/psp/NationalMall/#. Retrieved 2010-01-22.
- ^ "Smithsonian Gardens". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens1.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- ^ "Mary Livingston Ripley Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/Ripley/ripley1.html. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
- ^ Nesius, Marie (2004). "Mary Livingston Ripley Garden". Kanawha County Master Gardeners, West Virginia. http://wvgardengate.homestead.com/Mary_Livingston_Ripley_Garden.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- ^ "Enid A. Haupt Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/Haupt/hpt_home.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- ^ "Enid A. Haupt Garden". Frommer's Review: Wiley Publishing, Inc.. http://www.frommers.com/destinations/washingtondc/A21275.html. Retrieved 10-03-18.
- ^ "Kathrine Dulin Folger Rose Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/folger/folger1.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- ^ "Butterfly Habitat Garden". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/nmnh/butterfly.html. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
- ^ "Victory Garden at National Museum of American History". Smithsonian Institution. http://www.gardens.si.edu/horticulture/gardens/nmah/victory.htm. Retrieved 2010-03-18.
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African American Civil War Memorial · Constitution Gardens · East Potomac Park · Ford's Theatre National Historic Site · Franklin Delano Roosevelt Memorial · George Mason Memorial · Hains Point · Thomas Jefferson Memorial · John Ericsson National Memorial · Korean War Veterans Memorial · Lincoln Memorial · National Mall · Pennsylvania Avenue National Historic Site · Old Post Office Pavilion · United States Navy Memorial · Vietnam Veterans Memorial · Washington Monument · West Potomac ParkPresident Lincoln and Soldiers' HomeOther areas
National Park Travelers Club Conventions2003: Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area • 2004: Rocky Mountain National Park • 2005: Mammoth Cave National Park • 2006: Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore • 2007: Olympic National Park • 2008: Lowell National Historical Park • 2009: Sequoia National Park • 2010: El Malpais National Monument • 2011: National Mall • 2012 (planned): Apostle Islands National Lakeshore
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