Colony Collapse Disorder


Colony Collapse Disorder

Colony Collapse Disorder (or CCD) is a phenomenon in which worker bees from a beehive or Western honey bee colony abruptly disappear. While such disappearances have occurred throughout the history of apiculture, the term "Colony Collapse Disorder" was first applied to a drastic rise in the number of disappearances of Western honey bee colonies in North America in late 2006.cite news
title = Honey Bee Die-Off Alarms Beekeepers, Crop Growers and Researchers
url = http://www.aginfo.psu.edu/News/07Jan/HoneyBees.htm
publisher = Penn State University College of Agricultural Sciences
date = 2007-01-29
] European beekeepers observed similar phenomena in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain, Gaëlle Dupont, [http://www.lemonde.fr/web/article/0,1-0@2-3244,36-948835@51-948933,0.html Les abeilles malades de l'homme] , "Le Monde", 29 August 2007 fr icon] and initial reports have also come in from Switzerland and Germany, albeit to a lesser degree.cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Petra Steinberger
coauthors =
title = Das spurlose Sterben
url = http://www.sueddeutsche.de/,ra13l5/wissen/artikel/352/105247/
format =
work =
publisher = sueddeutsche.de
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-03-12
accessdate =
language = German
quote =
] Possible cases of CCD have also been reported in Taiwan since April 2007.Paul Molga, [http://www.lesechos.fr/info/energie/4611614.htm La mort des abeilles met la planète en danger] , "Les Echos", 20 August 2007 fr icon]

The cause or causes of the syndrome are not yet fully understood, although many authorities attribute the problem to biotic factors such as: "Varroa" mites and insect diseases (i.e., pathogenscite web
title = Colony Collapse Disorder Working Group
url = http://www.ento.psu.edu/MAAREC/pressReleases/ColonyCollapseDisorderWG.html
language =
] including "Nosema apis" and Israel acute paralysis viruscite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Andrew C. Refkin
coauthors =
title = Virus Is Seen as Suspect in Death of Honeybees
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/07/science/07bees.html?hp
format =
work = The New York Times
publisher =
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-09-07
accessdate = 2007-09-07
language =
quote =
] cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = JR Minkel
coauthors =
title = Mysterious Honeybee Disappearance Linked to Rare Virus
url = http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?chanID=sa003&articleID=E0E0362F-E7F2-99DF-3F4F781839D6C879&pageNumber=1&catID=1
format =
work = Science News
publisher = Scientific American
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-09-07
accessdate = 2007-09-07
language =
quote =
] ). Other proposed causes include environmental change-related stresses,cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Amy Sahba
coauthors =
title = The mysterious deaths of the honeybees
url = http://money.cnn.com/2007/03/29/news/honeybees/
format =
work =
publisher = CNN Money
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-03-29
accessdate = 2007-04-04
language =
quote =
] malnutrition and pesticides ("e.g." neonicotinoids such as imidacloprid), and migratory beekeeping. More highly speculative possibilities have included both cell phone radiation and genetically modified (GM) crops with pest control characteristics,cite web
url=http://www.sierraclub.org/biotech/whatsnew/whatsnew_2007-03-21.asp
title="GE and bee Colony Collapse Disorder -- science needed!"
accessdate=2007-03-23
date=2005-03-21
language=
] [cite web
url=http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,473166,00.html
title=Collapsing Colonies: Are GM Crops Killing Bees? - International - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News
publisher=www.spiegel.de
date = 2007-03-22
accessdate=2008-02-24
last=
first=
] though experts point out no evidence exists for either assertion.

Background

From 1971 to 2006, there was a dramatic reduction in the number of feral honeybees in the US (now almost absent);cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Watanabe, M.
coauthors =
title = Pollination worries rise as honey bees decline.
url =
format =
work =
publisher = Science, vol. 265
id =
pages =
page = 1170
date = 1994-08-26
accessdate =
language =
quote =
] and a significant, though somewhat gradual decline in the number of colonies maintained by beekeepers. This decline includes the cumulative losses from all factors such as urbanization, pesticide use, tracheal and "Varroa" mites, and commercial beekeepers retiring and going out of business. However, late in the year 2006 and in early 2007 the rate of attrition was alleged to have reached new proportions, and the term "Colony Collapse Disorder" was proposed to describe this sudden rash of disappearances.

Limited occurrences resembling CCD have been documented as early as 1896 , [cite news
url=http://www.cosmosmagazine.com/node/1087?page=1
title=Mystery of the dying bees
author=Benjamin Lester
publisher=Cosmos Online
date=2007-03-07
language=
] and this set of symptoms has in the past several decades been given many different names ("disappearing disease", "spring dwindle", "May disease", "autumn collapse", and "fall dwindle disease"). [http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.0050168] Oldroyd BP (2007) What's Killing American Honey Bees? PLoS Biology 5(6): e168 doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0050168) Retrieved on 2007-05-17.] Most recently, a similar phenomenon in the winter of 2004/2005 occurred, and was attributed to Varroa mites (the "Vampire Mite" scare), though this was never ultimately confirmed. Nobody has been able to determine the cause of any past appearances of this syndrome. Upon recognition that the syndrome does not seem to be seasonally-restricted, and that it may not be a "disease" in the standard sense — that there may not be a specific causative agent — the syndrome was renamed.cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Dennis vanEngelsdorp, Diana Cox-Foster, Maryann Frazier, Nancy Ostiguy, and Jerry Hayes
coauthors =
title=Colony Collapse Disorder Preliminary Report
url=http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/pressReleases/FallDwindleUpdate0107.pdf
format =
work =
publisher = Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium (MAAREC) - CCD Working Group
id =
pages = pp. 22
page =
date = 2006-01-05
accessdate = 2007-04-24
language =
quote =
]

Symptoms

A colony which has collapsed from CCD is generally characterized by all of these conditions occurring simultaneously [cite web
url=http://honeycouncil.ca/users/news_view.asp?FolderID=3219&NewsID=1146
title=Discussion of phenomenon of Colony disorder collapse
publisher=Canadian Honey Council
date=2007-01-27
language=
] : :* Complete absence of adult bees in colonies, with little or no build-up of dead bees in or around the colonies.:* Presence of capped brood in colonies. Bees normally will not abandon a hive until the capped brood have all hatched.:* Presence of food stores, both honey and bee pollen:::* i. which are not immediately robbed by other bees::* ii. which when attacked by hive pests such as wax moth and small hive beetle, the attack is noticeably delayed.

:Precursor symptoms that may arise before the final colony collapse are: :* Insufficient workforce to maintain the brood that is present:* Workforce seems to be made up of young adult bees:* The Queen is present:* The colony members are reluctant to consume provided feed, such as sugar syrup and protein supplement.

Scale of the disorder

In the U.S., at least 24 different states [http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/pressReleases/CCDMap07FebRev1-.jpg] Map of affected states within the US] as well as portions of Canada [Strange times for bees, The Vancouver Courier.com, http://www.vancourier.com/issues07/033107/news/033107nn9.html] have reported at least one case of CCD. However, in many cases, beekeepers reporting significant losses of bees did not experience CCD, and a major part of the subsequent analysis of the phenomenon hinges upon distinguishing between true CCD losses and non-CCD losses.Van Engelsdorp, D., Underwood, R., Caron, D. Hayes, Jr., J. (2007) An Estimate of Managed Colony Losses in the Winter of 2006 – 2007: A Report Commissioned by the Apiary Inspectors of America. American Bee Journal] In a survey of 384 responding beekeepers from 13 states, reporting the number of hives containing few or no bees in spring, only 23.8% met the specified criteria for CCD (that 50% or more of their dead colonies were found without bees and/or with very few dead bees in the hive or apiary). In the US, despite highly variable anecdotal claims appearing in the media, the best documentation indicates that CCD-suffering operations had a total loss of 45% compared to the total loss of 25% of all colonies experienced by non-CCD suffering beekeepers in 2006-2007; it is further noted that non-CCD winter losses as high as 50% have occurred in some years and regions (e.g., 2000-2001 in Pennsylvania), though "normal" winter losses are typically considered to be in the range of 15-25%.

There are also putative cases reported by the media from India, Brazil [cite news|url=http://cbs11tv.com/consumer/bees.honeybees.dying.2.502236.html|title=Mysterious Honeybee Killer Could Make Meals Bland|publisher=CBS 11/AP|date=2007-05-08|accessdate=2007-12-31] and parts of Europe. [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/are-mobile-phones-wiping-out-our-bees-444768.html Are mobile phones wiping out our bees?] ] Since the beginning of the 1990s, France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Spain, Greece, Slovenia and the Netherlands have been affected by honey bee disappearances, though this is not necessarily associated with CCD; Austria and United Kingdom (where it has been dubbed the "Mary Celeste" phenomenon, after a ship whose crew disappeared in 1872 [BBC [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/highlands_and_islands/7360832.stm Wild bee decline 'catastrophic'] 23 April 2008] ) have also reportedly been affected.Paul Molga, [http://www.lesechos.fr/info/energie/4611614.htm La mort des abeilles met la planète en danger] , "Les Echos", 20 August 2007 fr icon] It is far from certain that all or any of these reported non-US cases are indeed CCD: there has been considerable publicity, but only rarely was the phenomenon described in sufficient detail. In Germany, for example, where some of the first reports of CCD in Europe appeared, and where — according to the German national association of beekeepers — 40% of the honey bee colonies died, there has been no scientific confirmation; as of early May 2007, the German media were reporting that no confirmed CCD cases seemed to have occurred in Germany. [n-tv: [http://www.n-tv.de/801197.html Immer weniger Imker - Deutschen Bienen geht es gut] . Version of May 11, 2007.]

Possible causes and research

The exact mechanisms of CCD are still unknown. One report indicates a strong but possibly non-causal association between the syndrome and the presence of the Israel acute paralysis virus. Other factors may also be involved, however, and several have been proposed as causative agents; malnutrition, pesticides, pathogens, immunodeficiencies, mites, fungus, genetically modified (GM) crops, beekeeping practices (such as the use of antibiotics, or long-distance transportation of beehives) and electromagnetic radiation. Whether any single factor is responsible, or a combination of factors (acting independently in different areas affected by CCD, or acting in tandem), is still unknown. It is likewise still uncertain whether CCD is a genuinely new phenomenon, as opposed to a known phenomenon that previously only had a minor impact.

At present, the primary source of information, and presumed "lead" group investigating the phenomenon, is the Colony Collapse Disorder Working Group, based primarily at Penn State University. Their preliminary report pointed out some patterns, but drew no strong conclusions. A survey of beekeepers early in 2007 indicates that most hobbyist beekeepers believed that starvation was the leading cause of death in their colonies, while commercial beekeepers overwhelmingly believed that invertebrate pests ("Varroa" mites, honey bee tracheal mites, and/or small hive beetles) were the leading cause of colony mortality. A scholarly review in June 2007, similarly addressed numerous theories and possible contributing factors, but left the issue unresolved.

In July 2007, the USDA released its "CCD Action Plan", which outlines a strategy for addressing CCD consisting of four main components: [cite web |title="Colony Collapse Disorder Action Plan" |url=http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/br/ccd/ccd_actionplan.pdf |publisher=USDA |date=2007-06-20|format=PDF]
#survey and data collection;
#analysis of samples;
#hypothesis-driven research; and,
#mitigation and preventative action.

As of late 2007, there is still no consensus of opinion, and no definitive causes have emerged; the schedule of presentations for a planned national symposium on CCD, titled "Colony Collapse Disorder in Honey Bees: Insight Into Status, Potential Causes, and Preventive Measures," which is scheduled for December 11, 2007, at the meeting of the Entomological Society of America in San Diego, California, gives no indication of any major breakthroughs. [http://esa.confex.com/esa/2007/techprogram/session_6417.htm]

Poor nutrition or malnutrition

One of the patterns reported by the group at Penn State was that all producers in a preliminary survey noted a period of "extraordinary stress" affecting the colonies in question prior to their die-off, most commonly involving poor nutrition and/or drought. This is the only factor that "all" of the cases of CCD had in common in this report; accordingly, there is at least some significant possibility that the phenomenon is correlated to nutritional stress, and may not manifest in healthy, well-nourished colonies. This is similar to the findings of a later independent survey, in which small-scale beekeeping operations (up to 500 colonies) in several states reported their belief that malnutrition and/or weak colonies was the factor responsible for their bees dying, in over 50% of the cases, whether the losses were believed to be due to CCD or not.

Some researchers have attributed the syndrome to the practice of feeding high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to supplement winter stores. The variability of HFCS may be relevant to the apparent inconsistencies of results. European commentators have suggested a possible connection with HFCS produced from genetically modified corn. If this were the sole factor involved, however, this should also lead to the exclusive appearance of CCD in wintering colonies being fed HFCS, but many reports of CCD occur in other contexts, with beekeepers who do not use HFCS.

Pathogens and immunodeficiency theories

General

Some researchers have commented that the pathway of propagation functions in the manner of a contagious disease; however, there is some sentiment that the disorder may involve an immunosuppressive mechanism, [cite journal
quotes =
author =
date = 2007-01-23
year = 2007
month = January
title =Colony Collapse Disorder
journal = Penn State University
volume = 26
issue = 1
pages =
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url = http://fruittimes.cas.psu.edu/FT2601.html#Colony Fruit Times
language =
accessdate =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] potentially linked to the aforementioned "stress" leading to a weakened immune system. Specifically, according to researchers at Penn State: "The magnitude of detected infectious agents in the adult bees suggests some type of immunosuppression." These researchers initially suggested a connection between "Varroa destructor" mite infestation and CCD, suggesting that a combination of these bee mites, deformed wing virus (which the mites transmit) and bacteria work together to suppress immunity and may be one cause of CCD.cite web
url=http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/05/050517110843.htm
title=Bee Mites Suppress Bee Immunity, Open Door For Viruses And Bacteria
language=
] This research group is reported to be focusing on a search for possible viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens which may be involved.

When a colony is dying, for whatever cause, and there are other healthy colonies nearby (as is typical in a bee yard), those healthy colonies often enter the dying colony and rob its provisions for their own use. If the dying colony's provisions were contaminated (by natural or man-made toxins), the resulting pattern (of healthy colonies becoming sick when in proximity to a dying colony) might suggest to an observer that a contagious disease is involved. However, it is typical in CCD cases that provisions of dying colonies are not being robbed, suggesting that at least this particular mechanism (toxins being spread via robbing, thereby mimicking a disease) is "not" involved in CCD.

Additional evidence that CCD might be an infectious disease came from the following observation: the hives of colonies that had died from CCD could be reused with a healthy colony only if they were first treated with DNA-destroying radiation.

"Varroa" and Israel Acute Paralysis Virus

According to a 2007 article, the mites "Varroa destructor" remain the world's most destructive honey bee killer due in part to the viruses they carry, including Deformed Wing Virus and Acute bee paralysis virus, which have both been implicated in CCD. Affliction with "Varroa" mites also tends to weaken the immune system of the bees. As such, "Varroa" have been considered as a possible cause of CCD, though not all dying colonies contain these mites. [cite news
url=http://pestalert.ifas.ufl.edu/Colony_Collapse_Disorder.htm
author=Dr. Jamie Ellis
title=Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in Honey Bees
publisher=University of Florida
date=2007-04-16
language=
]

In September 2007, results of a large-scale statistical RNA sequencing study of afflicted and non-afflicted colonies were reported. RNA from all organisms in a colony was sequenced and compared with sequence databases to detect the presence of pathogens. The study used technology from 454 Life Sciences developed for human genome sequencing. All colonies were found to be infected with numerous pathogens, but only the Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) showed a significant association with CCD: the virus was found in 25 of the 30 tested CCD colonies, and only in one of the 21 tested non-CCD colonies. Scientists pointed out that this association was no proof of causation, and other factors may also be involved in the disease or the presence of IAPV may only be a marker signifying afflicted colonies and not the actual causative agent. To prove causation, experiments are planned to deliberately infect colonies with the virus.

The IAPV was discovered in 2004 and belongs to the Dicistroviridae. It causes paralysis in bees which then die outside of the hive. It can be transmitted by the mite "Varroa destructor". These mites, however, were found in only half of the CCD colonies.

The virus was also found in samples of Australian honey bees. Australian honey bees have been imported into the U.S. since 2004 and until recently it was thought possible that this is how the virus originally reached North America. Recent findings, however, reveal the virus has been present in American bees since 2002. [cite news
url=http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2007/071119.htm
title= Imported Bees Not Source of Virus Associated with Colony Collapse Disorder)
author=Kim Kaplan
accessdate=2007-11-29
date=2007-11-19
publisher=USDA
language=
] [ [Originally published in Science Express on 6 September 2007Science 12 October 2007:Vol. 318. no. 5848, pp. 283 - 287DOI: 10.1126/science.1146498] http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/318/5848/283]

"Nosema"

Some have suggested that the syndrome may be an inability by beekeepers to correctly identify known diseases such as European foulbrood or the microsporidian fungus "Nosema". The testing and diagnosis of samples from affected colonies (already performed) makes this highly unlikely, as the symptoms are fairly well-known and differ from what is classified as CCD. A high rate of "Nosema" infection was reported in samples of bees from Pennsylvania, but this pattern was not reported from samples elsewhere.

Mariano Higes, a scientist heading a team at a government-funded apiculture centre in Guadalajara, Spain, has reported that when hives of European honey bees were infected with "Nosema ceranae", a recently described microsporidian fungus, the colonies were wiped out within eight days. [cite journal
quotes =
author = Higes, M., R. Martin, A. Meana
date =
year = 2006
month =
title = "Nosema ceranae", a new microsporidian parasite in honeybees in Europe
journal = Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
volume = 92
issue =
pages = pp. 93–95
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=16574143&dopt=Citation
language =
accessdate =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] Higes has extrapolated from this research to conclude that CCD is caused by "N. ceranae". Higes and his team have worked on this problem since 2000, and claim to have ruled out many other potential causes. [ [http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/43163/story.htm "Asian Parasite Killing Western Bees - Scientist"] , Planet Ark, SPAIN: July 19, 2007] Maria Mancilla, [http://rue89.com/2007/08/29/les-abeilles-sont-elles-en-train-de-disparaitre Les abeilles sont-elles en train de disparaître?] , "Rue 89", 29 August 2007 fr icon] Various areas in Europe have reported this fungus, but no direct link to CCD has yet been established. [cite web
url=http://www.imkerschule-sh.de/index.php?jahr%5B%5D=2006&imk_themen=j&n=28
title="Nosema ceranae" - Asiatischer Nosema-Erreger festgestellt – neu verbreitet oder erst jetzt entdeckt?
author=Dr Wolfgang Ritter
language=German
publisher=Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
] [cite web
url=http://www.moraybeekeepers.co.uk/nosema.htm
title="Nosema ceranae" - Asian Nosema Disease Vector Confirmed – is this a new infestation or only now discovered?
author=Dr Wolfgang Ritter
language=translated into English
publisher=Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
] Highly preliminary evidence of "N. ceranae" was recently reported in a few hives in the Merced Valley area of California (USA). [cite news
url=http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2007/04/26/MNGK7PFOMS1.DTL
title=UCSF scientist tracks down suspect in honeybee deaths
author=Sabin Russell
date=2007-04-26
publisher=San Francisco Chronicle
language=
] [cite news
url=http://sev.prnewswire.com/agriculture/20070425/NEW13725042007-1.html
title=Scientists Identify Pathogens That May Be Causing Global Honeybee Deaths
author=
date=2007-04-25
publisher=PR Newswire
language=
] The researcher did not, however, believe this was conclusive evidence of a link to CCD; "We don't want to give anybody the impression that this thing has been solved." [cite news
url=http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-sci-bees26apr26,0,896792.story?coll=la-home-headlines
title=Experts may have found what's bugging the bees
author=Jia-Rui Chong and Thomas H. Maugh II
date=2007-04-26
publisher=Los Angeles Times
language=
] A USDA bee scientist has similarly stated, "while the parasite "Nosema ceranae" may be a factor, it cannot be the sole cause. The fungus has been seen before, sometimes in colonies that were healthy." [cite news
url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070502/ap_on_sc/honeybee_die_off
title= Honeybee Die-Off Threatens Food Supply, The Associated Press (5/2/2007)
author=Seth Borenstein
accessdate=2007-05-07
date=2007-05-02
publisher=The Associated Press
language=
] Likewise, a Washington State beekeeper familiar with "N. ceranae" in his own hives discounts it as being the cause of CCD. [cite news
url=http://www.whidbeynewstimes.com/portals-code/list.cgi?paper=84&cat=23&id=970700&more=
title=Whidbey hives collapse
author=Paul Boring
date=2007-04-25
publisher=Whidbey News-Times
language=
] A study reported in September 2007 found that 100% of afflicted and 80% of non-afflicted colonies contained "Nosema ceranae".

The primary antibiotic used against "Nosema" is Fumagillin, which has been used in a German research project to reduce the microsporidian's impact, and is mentioned as a possible remedy by the CCDWG.cite web
url=http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/pdfs/CCDRecommendations.pdf
title=Tentative Recommendations for Hives Experiencing CCD
author=Dennis vanEngelsdorp, M.Frazier, and D. Caron
date=2007-03-01
publisher=Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium
format=PDF
]

Pesticides

One of the more common general hypotheses concerns pesticides (or, more specifically, insecticides), though several studies have found no common environmental factors between unrelated outbreaks studied.

It is particularly difficult to evaluate pesticide contributions to CCD for several reasons. First, the variety of pesticides in use in the different areas reporting CCD makes it difficult to test for all possible pesticides simultaneously. Second, many commercial beekeeping operations are mobile, transporting hives over large geographic distances over the course of a season, potentially exposing the colonies to different pesticides at each location. Third, the bees themselves place pollen and honey into long-term storage, effectively meaning that there may be a delay of anywhere from days to months before contaminated provisions are fed to the colony, negating any attempts to associate the appearance of symptoms with the actual time at which exposure to pesticides occurred. Pesticides used on bee forage are far more likely to enter the colony via the pollen stores rather than via nectar (because pollen is carried externally on the bees, while nectar is carried internally, and may kill the bee if too toxic), though not all potentially lethal chemicals, either natural or man-made, affect the adult bees — many primarily affect the brood, but brood die-off does not appear to be happening in CCD. Most significantly, brood are not fed honey, and adult bees consume relatively little pollen; accordingly, the pattern in CCD suggests that if contaminants or toxins from the environment "are" responsible, it is most likely to be via the honey, as it is the adults that are dying (or leaving), not the brood.

One recently published view is that bees are falling victim to new varieties of nicotine-based pesticides;cite web
author=David Hackenberg (former president of the American Beekeeping Federation))
url=http://www.imkerinnen.at/Hauptseite/Menues/News/Brief%20David%20Hackenberg%20307%20engl.doc
title="Letter from David Hackenberg to American growers from March 14, 2007"
publisher=Plattform Imkerinnen — Austria
accessdate=2007-03-27
date=2007-03-14
language=
format=DOC
] [cite news
author = Matt Wells
title = Vanishing bees threaten US crops
work = www.bbc.co.uk
publisher = "BBC News"
date = 2007-03-11
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/6438373.stm
accessdate = 2007-03-12
language =
] beekeepers in Canada are also losing their bees and are blaming neonicotinoid pesticides. To date, most of the evaluation of possible roles of pesticides in CCD have relied on the use of surveys submitted by beekeepers, but it seems likely that direct testing of samples from affected colonies will be needed, especially given the possible role of "systemic" insecticides such as the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (which are applied to the soil and taken up into the plant's tissues, including pollen and nectar), which may be applied to a crop when the beekeeper is not present. The known effects of imidacloprid on insects, including honey bees, are consistent with the symptoms of CCD; [cite news
url=http://www.cbgnetwork.org/Ubersicht/Zeitschrift_SWB/SWB_2003/SWB_02_2003/Gaucho_02_03/gaucho_02_03.html
title=Französische Regierung verlängert Teilverbot von Gaucho - Bienensterben jetzt auch in Deutschland
author=Philipp Mimkes
date=2003-02
publisher=CGB Network
language=German
] for example, the effects of imidacloprid on termites include apparent failure of the immune system, and disorientation. [cite news
url=http://www.cbgnetwork.org/536.html
author=Sven Preger
title=Verstummtes Summen - Französische Forscher: Insektizid ist Grund für Bienensterben
publisher=CGB Network
date=2003-11-23
language=German
] In Europe the interaction of the phenomenon of "dying bees" with imidacloprid, has been discussed for quite some time now. [cite web
url=http://www.beekeeping.com/articles/us/german_bee_monitoring.htm
title=Betrayed and sold out–German bee monitoring- Walter Haefeker, Deutscher Berufs- und Erwerbsimkerbund
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2000-08-12
language=
] [cite web
url=http://www.beekeeping.com/artikel/imidacloprid_1.htm
title=Schadet Imidacloprid den Bienen - von Eric Zeissloff
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2001
language=German
] [cite web
url=http://www.beekeeping.com/artikel/gaucho_ein_risiko.htm
title=Gaucho – ein Risiko, Studie: Mitschuld des Bayer-Pestizids für Bienensterben (Neues Deutschland)
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2003-11-23
language=German
] It was a study from the "Comité Scientifique et Technique (CST)" which was in the center of discussion recently, which led to a partial ban of imidacloprid in France (known as Gaucho), primarily due to concern over potential effects on honey bees. [cite web
url=http://www.agriculture.gouv.fr/spip/IMG/pdf/rapportfin.pdf
title=Imidaclopride utilisé en enrobage de semences (Gaucho) et troubles des abeilles - Rapport final - 18 septembre 2003
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2003-09-18
language=French
format=PDF
] [cite web
url=http://www.cbgnetwork.org/355.html
title=France: Governmental report claims BAYER's pesticide GAUCHO responsible for bee-deaths Coalition against Bayer-Dangers is calling for a ban
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2003-12
language=
] [cite web
url=http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/sepp/2003/11/26/millions_of_bees_dead_bayers_gaucho_blamed.htm
title=Millions of bees dead - Bayer's Gaucho blamed
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2003-11-26
language=
] Consequently when fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide and in Europe mainly labeled "Regent", was used as a replacement, it was also found to be toxic to bees, and banned partially in France in 2004. [cite web
url=http://www.tierramerica.net/2004/0313/iacentos.shtml
title=Alarm Sounds on Bee-Killing Pesticides (by Julio Godoy)
accessdate=2007-05-06
date=2004
language=
] In February 2007, about forty French deputies, led by UMP member Jacques Remiller, requested the creation of a Parliamentary Investigation Commission on Overmortality of Bees, underlining that the honey production was decreasing by 1,000 tons a year for a decade. As of August 2007, no investigations were yet opened.Maria Mancilla, [http://rue89.com/2007/08/29/les-abeilles-sont-elles-en-train-de-disparaitre Les abeilles sont-elles en train de disparaître?] , "Rue 89", 29 August 2007 fr icon] The imidacloprid pesticide Gaucho was banned, however, in 1999 by the French Minister of Agriculture Jean Glavany. Five other insecticides based on fipronil were also accused of killing bees. However, the scientific committees of the European Union are still of the opinion "that the available monitoring studies were mainly performed in France and EU-member-states should consider the relevance of these studies for the circumstances in their country." [cite web
url=http://www.efsa.europa.eu/etc/medialib/efsa/science/praper/conclusions/1470.Par.0002.File.dat/praper_concl_sr65_fipronil_summary_en_rev12.pdf
title=EFSA Scientific Report (2006) 65, 1-110, Conclusion regarding the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment of the active substance fipronil
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2006-03-03
language=
format=PDF
]

In 2005, a team of scientists led by the National Institute of Beekeeping in Bologna, Italy, found that pollen obtained from seeds dressed with imidacloprid contains significant levels of the insecticide, and suggested that the polluted pollen might cause honey bee colony death. [cite journal
quotes =
author = Bonmatin JM, Marchand PA, Charvet R, Moineau I, Bengsch ER and Colin ME
date = 2005-06-29
year = 2005
month = June
title = Quantification of imidacloprid uptake in maize crops
journal = J Agric Food Chem.
volume = 53
issue = 13
pages = pp. 5336–41
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url =
language =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] Analysis of maize and sunflower crops originating from seeds dressed with imidacloprid suggest that large amounts of the insecticide will be carried back to honey bee colonies. [cite journal
quotes =
author = Rortaisa A, Arnolda G, Halmbm M and Touffet-Briensb F.
date =
year = 2005
month =
title = Modes of honeybees exposure to systemic insecticides: estimated amounts of contaminated pollen and nectar consumed by different categories of bees
journal = Apidologie
volume = 36
issue =
pages = pp. 71–83
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url =
language =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] Sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid in sucrose solution have also been documented to affect homing and foraging activity of honeybees. [cite journal
quotes =
author = Bortolotti L, Monanari R, Marcelino J and Porrini P.
date =
year = 2003
month =
title = Effects of sub-lethal imidacloprid doses on the homing rate and foraging activity of honey bees
journal = Bulletin of Insectology
volume = 56
issue = 1
pages = pp. 63–67
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url =
language =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] Imidacloprid in sucrose solution fed to bees in the laboratory impaired their communication for a few hours. [cite journal
quotes =
author = Medrzycki P, Monntanari L, Bortolotti L, Sabatinin S and Maini S.
date =
year =
month =
title = Effects of imidacloprid administered in sub-lethal doses on honey bee behaviour. Laboratory tests
journal = Bulletin of Insectology
volume = 56
issue = 1
pages = 59–62
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url =
language =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] Sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid in laboratory and field experiment decreased flight activity and olfactory discrimination, and olfactory learning performance was impaired. [cite journal
quotes =
author = Thompson H.
date =
year = 2003
month =
title = Behavior effects of pesticides in bees-their potential for use in risk assessment
journal = Ecotoxicology
volume = 12
issue =
pages = pp. 317–30
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url =
language =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] However, no detailed studies of toxicity or pesticide residue in remaining honey or pollen in CCD-affected colonies have been published so far, so, despite the similarity in symptoms, no connection of neonicotinoids to CCD has yet been confirmed.

Antibiotics and miticides

Most beekeepers affected by CCD report that they use antibiotics and miticides in their colonies, though the lack of uniformity as to which particular chemicals are used makes it seem unlikely that any single such chemical is involved. However, it is possible that not all such chemicals in use have been tested for possible effects on honey bees, and could therefore potentially be contributing to the CCD phenomenon. Some reports indicate that organic beekeepers (who do not use antibiotics or miticides) are not affected by CCD, despite proximity to non-organic beekeepers that "have" been affected.cite news
url=http://www.informationliberation.com/index.php?id=21912
title=No Organic Bee Losses
date=2007-05-10
publisher=information liberation
language=
accessdate=2007-05-17
]

Genetically modified crops (GMO)

Potential effects on honey bees of gathering pollen and nectar from genetically modified (GM) crops that produce "Bacillus thuringiensis" (Bt) toxin have been investigated and there is little evidence of deleterious effects on bees visiting such crops. Corn (maize), the major such crop, is not a preferred plant for honey bees, although beekeepers who keep bees near corn fields state that "corn is an excellent source of pollen when in tassel". Cotton, the second important Bt crop, is highly subject to bee visitation for nectar (pollen is only consumed if there is no other pollen available), [McGregor, S.E. (1976)Insect Pollination of Cultivated Crop Plants. USDA Agriculture Handbook #496. USDA-ARS, Washington DC. 411 pp.] but there is no credible evidence of toxicity of GM cotton, other than that from insecticides used during bloom.

In 2006 the "Committee on Status and Trends of Pollinators" of the United States National Research Council published a report on the "Status of Pollinators in North America". [cite web |url=http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11761&page=R1 |title="Status of Pollinators in North America — Committee on the Status of Pollinators in North America — The National Academies Press Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu; title page |accessdate=2007-03-27 |date=2006] It suggested that GMO, besides other factors, might contribute to pollinator decline because, according to one scientific review of "the small literature on this topic, ... in some cases, there are negative but sublethal effects attributable to consumption of transgenic pollens." The report goes on to say that, "These effects varied with the identity of the transgene and the amount of its expression, but in no case have any effects of transgenic crops on honey bee populations been documented." [cite web |url=http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11761&page=81 |title="Status of Pollinators in North America — Committee on the Status of Pollinators in North America — The National Academies Press Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu; page 81 |accessdate=2007-04-27 |date=2006]

The preliminary report of the Colony Collapse Disorder Working Group concluded that while there is no evidence of any lethal or sub-lethal effects from Bt crops on honey bees, further research should be conducted. On March 28, 2007, the "Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium" [cite web |url=http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/ |title="Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium" |accessdate=2007-03-29 |date=2007-03-28 ] published a new "Summary of Research on the Non-Target Effects of Bt Corn Pollen on Honeybees", which states that according to "a field study… (soon to be published in the bee journal Apidologie) there is no evidence thus far of any lethal or sub-lethal effects of the currently used Bt proteins on honey bees", and, specifically regarding the possible causal connections between Bt pollen and CCD, stated "While this possibility has not been ruled out, the weight of evidence reported here argues strongly that the current use of Bt crops is not associated with CCD." They further noted that CCD cases "have occurred in Europe and areas of Canada where Bt crops were not grown."cite web |url=http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/CCDPpt/NontargeteffectsofBt.pdf |title="Summary Of Research on the Non-Target Effects of Bt Corn Pollen on Honeybees" — Department of Entomology, University of Maryland |accessdate=2007-03-29 |date=2007-03-28 |format=PDF]

Bee rentals and migratory beekeeping

Since US beekeeper Nephi Miller first began moving his hives to different areas of the country for the winter of 1908, migratory beekeeping has become widespread in America.

Bee rental for pollination is a crucial element of US agriculture, which could not produce anywhere near its current levels with native pollinators alone. [cite web | last = Berenbaum | first = Prof. May R. | title = Colony Collapse Disorder and Pollinator Decline | work = Presentation to Subcommittee on Horticulture and Organic Agriculture, U.S. House of Representatives | publisher = The National Academies | date = 2007-03-29 | url = http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ocga/testimony/Colony_Collapse_Disorder_and_Pollinator_Decline.asp | format = | doi = | accessdate = 2007-10-22 , specifically, "Close to 100 crop species in the U.S. rely to some degree on pollination services provided by this one species—collectively, these crops make up approximately 1/3 of the U.S. diet [...] Although economists differ in calculating the exact dollar value of honey bee pollination to American agriculture, virtually all estimates are in the range of billions of dollars."] US beekeepers collectively earn much more from renting their bees out for pollination than they do from honey production.

Researchers are concerned that trucking colonies around the country to pollinate crops, where they intermingle with other bees from all over, helps spread viruses and mites among colonies. Additionally, such continuous movement and re-settlement is considered by some a strain and disruption for the entire hive, possibly rendering it less resistant to all sorts of systemic disorder. [cite news
url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F10B1FF8355A0C748EDDAB0894DF404482
author=Alexi Barrionuevo
title=Honeybees, Gone With the Wind, Leave Crops and Keepers in Peril
publisher=New York Times
date=2007-02-27
language=
]

US bee rental travel extent

One major US beekeeper reports moving his hives from Idaho to California in January, then to apple orchards in Washington in March, to North Dakota two months later, and then back to Idaho by November -- a journey of several thousand kilometres. Others move from Florida to New Hampshire or to Texas; nearly all visit California for the almond bloom in January.

Beekeepers in Europe and Asia are generally far less mobile, with bee populations moving and mingling within a smaller geographic extent (although some keepers do move longer distances, it is much less common).

This wider spread and intermingling in the US has resulted in far greater losses from "Varroa" mite infections in recent years. [cite news
url=http://www.hcn.org/servlets/hcn.Article?article_id=16891&gclid=CIG7z7e2oIwCFSG9SgodQ3MG2w
author=Hannah Nordhaus
title=The Silence of the Bees
publisher=High Country News
date=2007-03-19
language=
]

Climate Change

A few scientists have suggested that climate change can make bee hives more vulnerable to CCD, although it is not implicated as a direct cause of the disorder. "We see plants blooming at different times of the year," says amateur beekeeper Wayne Esaias, a researcher at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, "and that's why the nectar flows are so much earlier now. I need to underscore that I have no evidence that global warming is a key player in colony collapse disorder. But it might be a contributor, and changes like this might be upping the stress level of our bee populations." [cite news
url="http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/opinion/322781_focusbees08.html"
title="Where have all the bees gone? Blame people, not cell phones"
author=Kevin Berger
date=2007-04-06
publisher=Seattlepi.com
]

Electromagnetic radiation

In April 2007, news of a University of Landau study appeared in major media, beginning with an article in "The Independent" that stated that the subject of the study was mobile phones and had related them to CCD. [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/nature/are-mobile-phones-wiping-out-our-bees-444768.html Are mobile phones wiping out our bees?] The Independent] Cellular phones were implicated by other media reports, but were in fact not covered in the study, and the researchers have since emphatically disavowed any connection between their research, cell phones, and CCD, specifically indicating that the "Independent" article had misinterpreted their results and created "a horror story". [cite news
url=http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/04/22/news/wireless23.php
title=Wireless: Case of the disappearing bees creates a buzz about cellphones
author=Eric Sylvers
date=2007-04-22
publisher=International Herald Tribune
] [cite news
title=Researchers: Often-cited study doesn't relate to bee colony collapse
url=http://www.fosters.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/FOSTERS01/104220119/0/CITIZEN
date=2007-04-22
author=Chloe Johnson
publisher="Foster's Online"
] [cite news
title=Cellphone researchers claim data misinterpreted
url=http://colonycollapse.org/content/view/23/33/
author=
publisher=ColonyCollapse.org
]

The 2006 University of Landau pilot study was looking for non-thermal effects of radio frequency ("RF") on honey bees ("Apis mellifera carnica") and suggested that when bee hives have DECT cordless phone base stations embedded in them, the close-range electromagnetic field ("EMF") may reduce the ability of bees to return to their hive; they also noticed a slight reduction in honeycomb weight in treated colonies.cite journal
quotes =
author = Harst, W., Kuhn, J., Stever, H.
date =
year = 2006
month =
title = Can Electromagnetic Exposure Cause a Change in Behaviour? Studying Possible Non-Thermal Influences on Honey Bees – An Approach within the Framework of Educational Informatics
journal = Acta Systemica
volume = 6
issue = 1
pages = pp. 1–6
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url = http://agbi.uni-landau.de/material_download/IAAS_2006.pdf
language =
accessdate =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
] In the course of their study, one half of their colonies broke down, including some of their controls which did not have DECT base stations embedded in them.

The team's 2004 exploratory study on non-thermal effects on learning did not find any change in behavior due to RF exposure from the DECT base station operating at 1880-1900 MHz.cite journal
quotes =
author = Stever, H. J., Kuhn,
date =
year = 2004
month =
title = How Electromagnetic Exposure can influence Learning Process - Modelling Effects of Electromagnetic Exposure on Learning Processes
journal =
volume =
issue =
pages =
issn =
pmid =
doi =
id =
url=http://www.bienenarchiv.de/forschung/2004_lernprozesse/Electromagnetic%20Exposure_Learning%20Processes.doc.pdf
language =
accessdate =
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =
format=PDF
]

Like the links to CCD from variants (herbicides, genetically modified crops, etc), the link of either cordless or cellular phones, cell towers, interference by the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) or Ground Wave Emergency Network (GWEN) to CCD is speculative.

Possible effects

The phenomenon is particularly important for crops such as almond growing in California, where honey bees are the predominant pollinator and the crop value in 2006 was $1.5 billion. In 2000, the total U.S. crop value that was wholly dependent on honey bee pollination was estimated to exceed $15 billion. [Morse, R.A.; Calderone, N.W., The Value of Honey Bees as Pollinators of US Crops in 2000. Cornell University (2000)]

Honey bees are not native to the Americas, therefore their necessity as pollinators in the US is limited to strictly agricultural/ornamental uses, as no native plants require honey bee pollination, except where concentrated in monoculture situations—where the pollination need is so great at bloom time that pollinators must be concentrated beyond the capacity of native bees (with current technology).

They are responsible for pollination of approximately one third of the United States' crop species, including such species as almonds, peaches, soybeans, apples, pears, cherries, raspberries, blackberries, cranberries, watermelons, cantaloupes, cucumbers and strawberries. Many but not all of these plants can be (and often are) pollinated by other insects in small holdings in the U.S., including other kinds of bees, but typically not on a commercial scale. While some farmers of a few kinds of native crops do bring in honey bees to help pollinate, none specifically need them, and when honey bees are absent from a region, there is a presumption that native pollinators may reclaim the niche, typically being better adapted to serve those plants (assuming that the plants normally occur in that specific area).

However, even though on a per-individual basis, many other species are actually more efficient at pollinating, on the 30% of crop types where honey bees are used, most native pollinators cannot be mass-utilized as easily or as effectively as honey bees—in many instances they will not visit the plants at all. Beehives can be moved from crop to crop as needed, and the bees will visit many plants in large numbers, compensating via sheer numbers for what they lack in efficiency. The commercial viability of these crops is therefore strongly tied to the beekeeping industry.

Remedies

As of March 1, 2007 MAAREC offers the following tentative recommendations for beekeepers noticing the symptoms of CCD:cite web
url=http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/pdfs/CCDRecommendations.pdf
title=Tentative Recommendations for Hives Experiencing CCD
author=Dennis vanEngelsdorp, M.Frazier, and D. Caron
date=2007-03-01
publisher=Mid-Atlantic Apiculture Research and Extension Consortium
format=PDF
]
# Do not combine collapsing colonies with strong colonies.
# When a collapsed colony is found, store the equipment where you can use preventive measures to ensure that bees will not have access to it.
# If you feed your bees sugar syrup, use Fumagillin.
# If you are experiencing colony collapse and see a secondary infection, such as European Foulbrood, treat the colonies with Terramycin, not Tylan.

See also

* Bees and toxic chemicals
* Diseases of the honey bee
* Pollinator decline
* Pesticide toxicity to bees
* Imidacloprid effects on bee population (This pesticide, while banned in France, has been rapidly increasing in usage in the USA)

References

External links

Bibliographies

* [http://maarec.cas.psu.edu/ColonyCollapseDisorder.html Colony Collapse Disorder]

Journal articles

* cite journal
quotes =
author =
date = 2007-03-16
year = 2007
month =
title = Mysterious Bee-Havior
journal = Science
volume = 315
issue = 5818
pages = p. 1473
issn =
pmid =
doi = 10.1126/science.315.5818.1473a
id =
url = http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/summary/315/5818/1473a
language =
accessdate = 2007-05-20
laysummary =
laysource =
laydate =
quote =

News articles


* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Kim Flottum
coauthors =
title = 1.1 Million Bee Colonies Dead This Year ... Analysis: What We've Learned to Date About Colony Collapse Disorder
url = http://www.thedailygreen.com/environmental-news/blogs/bees/colony-collapse-disorder-55050302
format =
work =
publisher = The Daily Green
id =
pages = 1
page = 1
date = 2008-05-03
accessdate = 2008-05-04
language = english
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = CBC News
coauthors =
title = Parasite found in every Ontario bee sample
url = http://technology.sympatico.msn.ca/Parasite+found+in+every+Ontario+bee+sample/NewsandOpinions/ContentPosting.aspx?isfa=1&newsitemid=bees-nosema&feedname=CBC-TECH-SCIENCE&show=False&number=0&showbyline=True&subtitle=&detect=&abc=abc&date=False
format =
work =
publisher = MSN
id =
pages = 1
page = 1
date = 2007-11-22
accessdate = 2007-11-22
language = english
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Kevin Berger
coauthors =
title = Who killed the honeybees?
url = http://www.salon.com/news/feature/2007/05/29/missing_bees/index.html
format =
work =
publisher = Salon.com
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-05-29
accessdate = 2007-05-29
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Rick Weinzierl
coauthors =
title = Neonicotinoids and Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder
url = http://www.ipm.uiuc.edu/ifvn/volume13/frveg1305.html#bees
format =
work =
publisher = Illinois Fruit and Vegetable News
id = Vol. 13 , No. 5
pages =
page =
date = 2007-05-10
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author =
coauthors =
title = Mysterious honeybee killer could make dinner bland
url = http://cbs11tv.com/consumer/local_story_128081519.html
format =
work =
publisher = CBS 11
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-05-08
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author =
coauthors =
title = Bees Vanish, and Scientists Race for Reasons
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/24/science/24bees.html?8dpc
format =
work =
publisher = New York Times
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-04-24
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote = subscription required

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Deborah Zabarenko
coauthors =
title = Vanishing honeybees mystify scientists
url = http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSN1930946620070423
format =
work =
publisher = Reuters
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-04-22
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Dan Sorenson
coauthors =
title = 'Killer bees' seem resistant to disorder
url = http://www.azstarnet.com/allheadlines/176000
format =
work =
publisher = Arizona Daily Star
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-03-30
accessdate = 2007-05-03
language =
quote =

*cite web
url=http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,473166,00.html
title=Collapsing Colonies: Are GM Crops Killing Bees? - International - SPIEGEL ONLINE - News
publisher=www.spiegel.de
date = 2007-03-22
accessdate=2008-02-24
last=
first=

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Michael Leidig
coauthors =
title = Honey bees in US facing extinction
url = http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2007/03/14/wbees14.xml
format =
work =
publisher = Telegraph
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-03-03
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author =
coauthors =
title = Bee vanishing act baffles keepers
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6400179.stm
format =
work =
publisher = BBC News
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-02-27
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = Genaro C. Armas
coauthors =
title = Mystery Ailment Strikes Honeybees
url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/02/11/AR2007021100650.html
format =
work =
publisher = Washington Post
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-02-11
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author =
coauthors =
title = Alarm sounded over bee die-off
url = http://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Alarm_sounded_over_US_honey_bee_die-off
format =
work =
publisher = Wikinews
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-02-10
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author = John Finnerty
coauthors =
title = Agriculture: Disease Killing Bees
url = http://www.dailyitem.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070209/NEWS/702090318
format =
work =
publisher = Daily Item
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-02-09
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author =
coauthors =
title = NHB Funds Research for “Colony Collapse Disorder”
url = http://www.honey.com/media/currentnews.asp#ccd
format =
work =
publisher = National Honey Board
id =
pages =
page =
date = 2007-02-05
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

* cite news
first =
last =
authorlink =
author =
coauthors =
title = Wake Up Call, Colony Collapse Disorder
url = http://www.backyardhive.com/Articles_on_Beekeeping/Featured_article/Wake_Up_Call%2C_Colony_Collapse_Disorder/
format =
work =
publisher = Backyard Hive
id =
pages =
page =
date =
accessdate = 2007-05-20
language =
quote =

Podcasts

* cite web
title = Case Studies and Beekeeper Surveys
url = http://podcasts.psu.edu/files/beesincrisis3.m4a
date= 2007-03-19
language =
format = m4a, 6.9 MB

Government reports

* cite news
url=http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL33938.pdf
author=Renée Johnson
title=Recent Honey Bee Colony Decline
publisher=Congressional Research Service Testimony given before 110th Congress
date=2007-03-26
format=PDF

* cite news
url=http://www7.nationalacademies.org/ocga/testimony/Colony_Collapse_Disorder_and_Pollinator_Decline.asp
title=Colony Collapse Disorder and Pollinator Decline
author=May R. Berenbaum
publisher=The National Academies Testimony given before 110th Congress
date=2007-03-29

Web pages

* [http://www.nal.usda.gov/research/bees.shtml CCD - USDA]
* [http://solutionsforyourlife.ufl.edu/hot_topics/agriculture/colony_collapse_disorder.html CCD - University of Florida]
*cite web
url=http://www.i-sis.org.uk/requiemForTheHoneybee.php
title=Requiem for the Honeybee: Neonicotinoid insecticides used both in sprays and seed dressing may be responsible for the collapse of honeybee colonies. By Prof. Joe Cummins
accessdate=2007-04-26
date=2007-04-07
language=
(study by the British non-governmental 'Institute for Science in Society', who published a short review of the scientific literature on the dying of honey bees and neonicotinoids)
* [http://pestalert.ifas.ufl.edu/ CCD, USDA Plans, news releases, videos, audios, etc.] On the Florida Pest Alert site - see entry for 05/06/08


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