Manos: The Hands of Fate


Manos: The Hands of Fate
Manos: The Hands of Fate

Newspaper ad for Gala Premiere in El Paso on November 15, 1966
Directed by Harold P. Warren
Produced by Harold P. Warren
Written by Harold P. Warren
Starring Harold P. Warren
Diane Mahree
Jackie Neyman
Tom Neyman
John Reynolds
Music by Ross Huddleston
Robert Smith Jr.
Cinematography Robert Guidry
Editing by James Sullivan
Studio Sun City Films
Distributed by Emerson Film Enterprises
Release date(s) November 15, 1966
Running time 74 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $19,000

Manos: The Hands of Fate (1966) is an American horror film written, directed, produced by, and starring Harold P. Warren. It is widely recognized to be one of the worst films ever made. In 1993, the television comedy series Mystery Science Theater 3000 (MST3K), a show based on the premise of mocking B movies, featured Manos: The Hands of Fate, giving the film cult status.[1]

The plot of the film revolves primarily around a vacationing family who lose their way on a road trip. After a long drive in the Texas desert, the family is trapped at a lodge maintained by a polygamous pagan cult, and they attempt to escape as the cult's members decide what to do with them. The film is infamous for its technical deficiencies, especially its significant editing and continuity flaws; its soundtrack and visuals not being synchronized; tedious pacing; abysmal acting; and several scenes that are inexplicable or disconnected from the overall plot, such as a couple making out in a car or The Master's wives (clad in oversized girdles) breaking out in catfights.[2]

Harold Warren was an insurance and fertilizer salesman from El Paso, Texas, who produced the film as a result of a bet. He also starred in it, alongside El Paso theater actors Tom Neyman and John Reynolds. Manos was an independent production by a crew that had little or no background or experience in filmmaking and a very limited budget at their disposal. Upon its theatrical debut, the film was poorly received, playing only at the Capri Theater in El Paso and some drive-ins in West Texas and New Mexico. It remained obscure until its Mystery Science Theater appearance, which sparked two DVD releases (the original film and the MST3K episode featuring the film).[3]

Contents

Plot

While on a road trip, Michael (Hal Warren), Margaret (Diane Mahree), their young daughter Debbie (Jackey Neyman Jones) and their dog, Peppy, search for the "Valley Lodge." Michael and his family finally reach a house which is tended by the bizarre, satyr-like Torgo (John Reynolds), who takes care of the house "while the Master is away". Michael and Margaret ask Torgo for directions to Valley Lodge; Torgo simply replies that, "There is no way out of here. It'll be dark soon. There is no way out of here." With this information, Michael asks Torgo to let him and his family stay the night, despite objections from both Torgo and Margaret.

Inside the home, the family sees a disturbing painting of a dark, malevolent-looking man and a black dog with glowing eyes; the man it depicts is The Master. Margaret becomes frightened upon hearing an ominous howl; Michael investigates, retrieving a flashlight and revolver from his car, and finds Peppy lying dead on the ground. Torgo reveals his attraction to Margaret and tells her that, although she is doomed to become yet another bride of The Master, he intends to keep her for himself. Margaret threatens to tell Michael of Torgo's advances, but Torgo convinces her not to say anything to her husband by promising to protect her. Michael returns, unable to start the car. With the revelation that there is no phone in the house, the family reluctantly decides to stay the night.

Michael and Margaret stumble upon "The Master" (Tom Neyman) and several women dressed in translucent nightgowns, later revealed to be his wives, who are asleep. Torgo ties Michael to a pole and The Master suddenly comes to life. His wives also awake, and a short argument over the fate of the family ensues. The Master decides he must sacrifice Torgo and his first wife to the film's mysterious deity and namesake, "Manos." When The Master leaves, his wives engage in further argument that soon degenerates into a fight, and the women wrestle in the sand.

Torgo succumbs to what appears to be a hypnotic spell by The Master. The Master stops the fight, and has his first wife tied to a pole to be sacrificed. Torgo is laid on a stone bed, where he is attacked by The Master's other wives, but this in itself does not prove fatal. Evoking some mysterious power, The Master severs and horribly burns Torgo's left hand. Torgo runs off into the darkness, waving the burning stump that remains. The Master laughs maniacally and goes to look for the family and subsequently sacrifices his first wife.

Michael and his family barricade themselves in one of the rooms of the house, where The Master confronts them. Michael fires several shots into The Master's face at point-blank range, but they have no effect. The screen fades to black, likely indicating that The Master has again applied his hypnotic power.

An undisclosed amount of time later, an entranced Michael (in Torgo's stead) greets two new lost travelers. Margaret and Debbie have become wives of The Master. The film concludes with Michael saying, "I take care of the place while the Master is away." The production credits are superimposed over past scenes from the film with the words: "The End?"

Cast

  • Harold P. Warren - Michael
  • Diane Mahree - Margaret
  • Jackey Neyman - Debbie
  • John Reynolds - Torgo
  • Tom Neyman - The Master
  • Stephanie Nielson - Master's Wife
  • Sherry Proctor - Master's Wife
  • Robin Redd - Master's Wife
  • Jay Hall - Master's Wife
  • Bettie Burns - Master's Wife
  • Lelanie Hansard - Master's Wife
  • Bernie Rosenblum - Teenage Boy
  • Joyce Molleur - Teenage Girl
  • William Bryan Jennings - Cop
  • George Cavender - Cop
  • Pat Coburn - Girl in Convertible
  • Pat Sullivan - Girl in Convertible

Production

Still film image showing a bearded man wearing a jacket, shirt, and pants bulging at the thighs, with apparently normal leather shoes, carrying a walking staff
The character of Torgo was intended to be a satyrand actor John Reynolds wore backwards metal rigging under his trousers.

Warren was very active in the theater scene in El Paso, Texas, and once appeared as a walk-on for the television series Route 66, where he met screenwriter Stirling Silliphant. While chatting with Silliphant in a local coffee shop, Warren claimed that it was not difficult to make a film, and bet Silliphant that he could make an entire film on his own. After placing the bet, Warren began the first outline of his script on a napkin, right inside the coffee shop.[2] To finance the film, Warren accumulated a substantial, but nevertheless insufficient, sum of cash, reportedly $19,000 ($128,582 in 2011), and hired a group of actors from a local theater and modeling agency.[2] Because he was unable to pay the cast and crew wages, Warren promised them a share in the film's profits.[4][5]

Under the working title The Lodge of Sins, the movie was filmed in mid-1966. Filming mainly took place on the ranch of Colbert Coldwell, a former judge of El Paso County. Most of the equipment used for production was rented, so Warren had to rush through as many shots as possible to complete filming before the deadline for returning the equipment.[6] Footage was shot with a 16 mm Bell & Howell camera which had to be wound by hand and thus could only take 32 seconds of footage at a time.[4] This has been suggested as a possible explanation for the many editing problems present in the final cut.[7] The Bell & Howell camera was incapable of double-system recording, and thus all sound effects and dialogue were dubbed later in post-production, reportedly by only three or four people, including Warren, Neyman, and Diane Mahree.[4][8] Later during production, Warren renamed the film from its working title to Manos: The Hands of Fate.[4] Reportedly, Warren's small crew became so bemused by his amateurishness and irascibility that they derisively called the movie Mangos: The Cans of Fruit behind his back.[4][6]

Early in production, one of the actresses playing a wife of the Master broke her leg. Warren rewrote her role to have her make out in a car with an actor during the events of the entire film, as the modeling agency that had loaned her and her castmates out to Warren would have sued had she been fired.[citation needed] The couple appears in the beginning of the film interspersed with the opening credits and shots of the main characters driving through the Texas desert. Despite events in the film portraying police officers ordering them to leave, they are seen again later in the film while the events transpire at night, still embracing in the same location. The inclusion of these characters has been the focus of criticism[by whom?] for having no apparent connection to the main plot of the film.[4][9]

Several film clips animated to show a man and woman kissing in a convertible sports car; the clapperboard is visible in the last frames
This animated screenshot of the "make-out couple", a subplot inexplicably disconnected from and superfluous to the central plot, shows the evident failure to edit out the clapboard. It is momentarily visible on the right side of the image.

To portray his character Torgo as a satyr, John Reynolds wore what would best be described as a metallic rigging under his trousers, made out of wire coat hangers and foam by costar Tom Neyman.[4][6] Reynolds unintentionally wore them backwards, meaning the effect conveyed made him look nothing like a satyr and more like a man with oversized knees who had difficulty walking.[10][11] No one ever corrected Reynolds' mistake on-set, so the device damaged Reynolds' kneecaps, causing him chronic pain in the months before his death; reportedly, Reynolds attempted to overcome the pain by self-medicating with drugs, visibly affecting his performance in the film.[12] Fake cloven hooves should also have been part of Reynolds' satyr costume, but he is instead clearly shown wearing boots in several scenes, which can even be seen in the Mystery Science Theater 3000 version that superimposes the silhouettes of theater seats and three of the show's characters over the bottom of all the films they feature. In any event, the film's dialogue never mentions Torgo's satyr nature, and none of the characters seem to notice anything unusual about his appearance.[4]

Warren decided to shoot night-for-night scenes which proved to be difficult for both the cast and crew who also held day jobs.[5] In many of the night scenes, the camera and lights attracted swarms of moths, which can be seen in the film's final production.[13] In the scene in which the cops "investigate" Mike's gunfire, they could walk only a few feet forward, because there was not enough light to illuminate the scenery for a panning shot,[4] creating the unintentionally amusing impression that the officers hear the gunfire, step out of their car, consider investigating but then give up and leave before making a proper check of the scene.

Post-production efforts were reportedly minimal, despite promises by Warren that any problems in the film would be fixed in later editing.[4][6][14] One of the more visible examples of this is a brief moment at the beginning of the film in which the clapperboard is visible after a cut to the "make-out couple".[10][11] It is rumored[by whom?] that the entire opening sequence, which consisted of the main characters driving around looking for their hotel for minutes on end with minimal dialogue or effect on the plot, was the result of such neglect: Warren had intended to include opening credits at this stage of the film, but forgot or was unable to add them.[citation needed]

John Reynolds, the actor who played Torgo, committed suicide by shooting himself in the head with a shotgun on October 16, 1966,[15] a month before the film was to premiere, although the incident reportedly has no connection to Manos.[4] Reynolds was 25; Manos would be his first (and only) film appearance.[citation needed]

Reception

The film premiered at the Capri Theater in Warren's hometown of El Paso, Texas on November 15, 1966.[16] Warren arranged for a searchlight to be used at the cinema,[4] and for the cast to be brought to the premiere by a limousine, in order to enhance the Hollywood feel of the event. Warren could afford only a single limousine, however, and so the driver had to drop off one group, then drive around the block and pick up another.[17] The premiere was attended by numerous local dignitaries, including the mayor and local sheriff. Shortly after the film began, the audience began laughing at its poor quality and redundant dialogue. Humiliated, Warren and the rest of his cast made a hasty exit.[citation needed] The film ended with the crowd throwing their shoes toward the screen.[citation needed] The following day, a review of the film was featured in the El Paso Herald-Post, which described the film as a "brave experiment", although it criticized some elements such as the attempted murder of Torgo by being "massaged to death" by The Master's wives, and Margaret's claim of "It's getting dark", while she stands in front of a bright midday sun.[16]

Following the premiere, Warren claimed that he felt Manos was the worst film ever made, even though he was proud of it,[3] and he suggested that it might make a passable comedy if it were to be redubbed.[4] The film was briefly distributed by the Emerson Releasing Corporation. Following its debut, the film had a brief theatrical run at the Capri Theater, as well as a few screenings at various drive-in theaters in West Texas and New Mexico towns, including Las Cruces.[18] Reports that the only crew members who were compensated for their work in the film were Jackey Neyman and her family's dog, who received a bicycle and a large quantity of dog food, respectively, would seem to indicate that even with its extremely low budget, the film failed to break even financially.[4][14] Official box office figures for the film are now unknown, if indeed they ever existed. Although the film received poor reception, Warren did win his bet against Stirling Silliphant, proving that he was capable of creating an entire film on his own.[8]

The majority of the cast and crew never appeared in another movie after Manos. Harold P. Warren attempted to pitch another script he had written called Wild Desert Bikers, but with the failure of Manos, no one he approached showed any interest in producing it.[6] Attempts to turn the screenplay into a novel were equally unsuccessful.[3]

Obscurity

Following these few local screenings, Manos was almost entirely forgotten. When Jackey Neyman attended University of California, Berkeley, her friends unsuccessfully made an effort to track down a copy of the film.[14] A 1981 newspaper article by cinematographer Bob Guidry's ex-wife Pat Ellis Taylor[6] reports the film may have appeared on a local television station, and that it was "listed at the bottom of a page in a film catalogue for rent for $20."[18] The film re-surfaced through a 16 mm print, presumably from this television package, which was introduced into the home video collecting market by a number of public domain film suppliers. One of these suppliers was ultimately the one that offered the film to Comedy Central, after which it found its way into a box of films sent to Frank Conniff in 1992, when he chose Manos as one of the films to be shown on Mystery Science Theater 3000.[8]

Mystery Science Theater 3000

Photo of a man in giving a presentation to an audience in front of a theatrical curtain
Frank Conniff chose Manos to be featured on Mystery Science Theater 3000 in 1992.

The film was featured in the final episode of season four of Mystery Science Theater 3000 (MST3K) on January 30, 1993, preceded by the second half of the short Chevrolet training film Hired! The "bots" (Tom Servo and Crow) used the long uneventful drive at the beginning of the movie to repeat the title of the movie numerous times, as there was yet to be any action to mock. During the host segment breaks, Joel and the "bots" mocked the film's opening sequence, debated whether Torgo should be considered a monster, and impersonated "The Master" and his dog. At one point during their sketches, both the bots broke down sobbing due to the poor quality of the movie, which was beyond even their attempts at making it interesting. After the film had finished, the slow-moving Torgo, played by Mike Nelson (John Reynolds, the original Torgo, died in 1966), appeared at the lair of Dr. Clayton Forrester and TV's Frank to deliver a pizza two hours after it was ordered.[19] Torgo would also be featured in the later episodes Operation Double 007 (where he finally brings the Mr. Pibbs that Dr. Clayton Forrester and TV's Frank had ordered in this episode), Village of the Giants, Danger!! Death Ray, and Samson Vs. The Vampire Women, when he appeared as "Torgo the White" to bring Frank to "Second Banana Heaven" [20][21] Both Forrester and Frank were shown apologizing for showing the film, which they admitted was abysmal and went beyond acceptable limits.[19]

In the MST3K episode guide, the show's team of writers stated that they still feel Manos is the worst movie they ever covered, and that the film subsequently "became the standard by which all others are measured." During a Q&A session at the 2008 San Diego Comic-Con International, a question was put to the cast and writers of MST3K about any movie they passed on that was worse than Manos, and many cited the film Child Bride.[22]

Manos has been described as one of the best episodes of the series by Entertainment Weekly.[3] TV.com grades the episode 9.6/10, garnering "superb" status, while separate pages on Rotten Tomatoes and the Internet Movie Database for the MST3K cut give it an 80% "fresh" ranking and a 9.3/10 ranking respectively.[23][24][25]

Popularity as a cult film

The MST3K episode featuring the film was released on DVD on its own in 2001,and in the Mystery Science Theater 3000 Essentials collection in 2004.[26][27] A DVD of the original version of Manos has also been made available through Alpha Video,[28] which also released original versions of other "MST-ed" films including Teenagers from Outer Space.[29] In attempting to explain the film's appeal, the Los Angeles Times hypothesized, "After screening Manos for probably the 10th time, I've concluded it has to do with intimacy. Because it is such a pure slice of Warren's brain — he wrote, directed, produced and starred, and brooked no collaboration — Manos amounts to the man's cinematically transfigured subconscious."[30] Manos buff Bobby Thompson put it more succinctly: "It's like a train wreck; you just can't take your eyes off it."[3] Shout! Factory released a special edition of the film which includes both the MST3K and uncut versions called Manos y Manos [sic]. [31]

Manos holds a rare 0% rating on Rotten Tomatoes.[32] The book Hollywood's Most Wanted lists Manos as the #2 in the list of "The Worst Movies Ever Made", following Plan 9 from Outer Space.[33] The June 10, 2005 issue of Entertainment Weekly contained an in-depth article which proclaimed Manos "The Worst Movie Ever Made".[2] The scene in which Debbie is dressed as one of the Master's wives has also attracted the attention of observers due to the implications of paedophilia.[11] The crew of Mystery Science Theater 3000 later included the scene in a list of the most disgusting things they had seen.[34]

Three comedy stage adaptations of the film have been made. The first, by Last Rites Productions, was given in Portland, Oregon in early 2006.[35] The second, a musical titled Manos: Rock Opera of Fate by the New Millennium Theatre Company, was launched in Chicago in October 2007.[36] The third, a puppet musical titled Manos - The Hands of Felt, was performed by Puppet This in Seattle in April 2011.[37]

In March 2008, the How I Met Your Mother episode "Ten Sessions" featured main character Ted Mosby arguing that Manos is the worst movie ever made, even when compared to Plan 9 from Outer Space. The show featured a brief discussion of the film, and an ultra-condensed 12-second screening of the film as part of a two-minute date.[38]

In November 2008, a 27-minute documentary film about Manos was released on DVD, titled Hotel Torgo.[39]

Additionally, two indie games based on the film have been released to this date: Manos: The Hands of Fate, an electronic roleplaying game made using the RPG Maker engine that loosely retells the story of the film;[40] and a side scrolling action game called Manos: The Revenge of Torgo which is a parodic sequel to the events of the movie.[41]

In 2011, the original 16mm Ektachrome camera elements of Manos: The Hands of Fate were rediscovered. The film will be restored and remastered in High Definition for a new video release. [42]

See also

References

  1. ^ Rotten Tomatos: Mystery Science Theater 3000 - Manos: Hands of Fate (1992)
  2. ^ a b c d Ross, Dalton (June 6, 2005). "The Worst Movie Ever Made". Entertainment Weekly: p. 1. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1068572,00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-04. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Ross, Dalton (June 6, 2005). "The Worst Movie Ever Made". Entertainment Weekly: p. 5. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1068572_5,00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-04. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Brandt, Richard (May 1996). "The Hand That Time Forgot". Mimosa: pp. 35–38. http://www.jophan.org/mimosa/m18/brandt.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-17. 
  5. ^ a b Ross, Dalton (June 6, 2005). "The Worst Movie Ever Made". Entertainment Weekly: p. 2. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1068572_2,00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-04. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "424 – Manos, The Hands of Fate". Daddy-O's Drive-In Dirt. http://www.mst3kinfo.com/daddyo/di_424.html. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  7. ^ Walker, Albert (August 25, 2002). "'Manos' The Hands of Fate (1966) Recap". The Agony Booth: p. 1. http://www.agonybooth.com/recaps/_Manos__The_Hands_of_Fate_1966.aspx. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  8. ^ a b c Ross, Dalton (June 6, 2005). "The Worst Movie Ever Made". Entertainment Weekly: p. 4. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1068572_4,00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-04. 
  9. ^ Walker, Albert (2002-08-25). "'Manos' The Hands of Fate (1966) Recap". The Agony Booth: p. 5. http://www.agonybooth.com/recaps/_Manos__The_Hands_of_Fate_1966.aspx?Page=5. Retrieved 2007-04-24. [unreliable source?]
  10. ^ a b Walker, Albert (2009-09-13). "'Manos' The Hands of Fate (1966) Recap". The Agony Booth. p. 2. http://www.agonybooth.com/recaps/_Manos__The_Hands_of_Fate_1966.aspx?Page=2. Retrieved 2007-04-24. [unreliable source?]
  11. ^ a b c "'Manos' The Hands of Fate". I-Mockery.com. http://www.i-mockery.com/minimocks/manos/default.php. Retrieved 2007-04-24. [unreliable source?]
  12. ^ Ross, Dalton (2005-06-10). "The Worst Movie Ever Made". Entertainment Weekly. 
  13. ^ "Manos, The Hands of Fate". BadMovies.org. March 30, 2003. http://www.badmovies.org/movies/manos/. Retrieved 2007-04-24. [unreliable source?]
  14. ^ a b c Brandt, Richard (August 2003). "Growing Up 'Manos'". Mimosa: pp. 42–43. http://www.jophan.org/mimosa/m30/brandt.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  15. ^ John M. Reynolds, Jr. certificate of death, Texas state file #72646
  16. ^ a b Pierce, Betty (November 11, 1966). "Hero Massaged to Death in 'Manos—The Hands of Fate'". El Paso Herald-Post. http://www.mst3ktemple.com/images/manos_review-post-x.jpg. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  17. ^ Ross, Dalton (June 6, 2005). "The Worst Movie Ever Made". Entertainment Weekly: p. 3. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,1068572_3,00.html. Retrieved 2006-11-04. 
  18. ^ a b Taylor, Pat Ellis. "The Story of Manos, The Hands of Fate". Horror Fan Zine. http://horrorfanzine.com/manos-the-hands-of-fate/. Retrieved 2009-08-03. [unreliable source?]
  19. ^ a b "SEASON FOUR: 1992–1993". Satellite News. http://www.mst3kinfo.com/episodes/epfour.html. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  20. ^ "SEASON FIVE: 1993–1994". Satellite News. http://www.mst3kinfo.com/episodes/epfive.html. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  21. ^ "SEASON SIX: 1994–1995". Satellite News. http://www.mst3kinfo.com/episodes/epsix.html. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  22. ^ Conaton, Chris (August 7, 2008). "Comic-Con 2008: Bigger Than Ever, But Does That Mean Better?". PopMatters. http://www.popmatters.com/pm/feature/comic-con-2008-bigger-than-ever-but-does-that-mean-better. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  23. ^ Manos, The Hands of Fate. TV.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  24. ^ Mystery Science Theater 3000 – Manos: Hands of Fate (1992). Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved on 2007-05-01.
  25. ^ "Mystery Science Theater 3000" – 'Manos' the Hands of Fate. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  26. ^ "Mystery Science Theater 3000: Manos, The Hands Of Fate". DVDreview.com. November 19, 2001. http://www.dvdreview.com/quickpeek/collect/580.shtml. Retrieved 2007-04-25. 
  27. ^ Henderson, Eric (August 21, 2004). "Mystery Science Theater 3000: The Essentials". Slant Magazine. http://www.slantmagazine.com/dvd/dvd_review.asp?ID=425. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  28. ^ "Manos The Hands of Fate". Oldies.com. http://www.oldies.com/product-view/4251D.html. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  29. ^ "Teenagers From Outer Space". Oldies.com. http://www.oldies.com/product-view/4112D.html. Retrieved 2006-11-01. 
  30. ^ Neil, Dan (August 7, 2005). "Why We Love Bad Movies". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/2005/aug/07/magazine/tm-neil32. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  31. ^ "Mstie Mall". http://www.mst3k.com/. http://www.mst3k.com/store/product.php?productid=90&cat=1&page=1. Retrieved 9-26-2011. 
  32. ^ "Manos, The Hands of Fate (1966)". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/manos_the_hands_of_fate/. Retrieved 2007-04-24. 
  33. ^ Connor, Floyd (2002). Hollywood's Most Wanted: The Top 10 Book of Lucky Breaks, Prima Donnas, Box Office Bombs, and Other Oddities. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's, Inc.. p. 221. 
  34. ^ Beaulieu, Trace; et al (1996). The Mystery Science Theater 3000 Amazing Colossal Episode Guide. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-37783-3. 
  35. ^ Hallett, Alison (January 26, 2006). ""Manos" The Hands of Fate". The Portland Mercury. http://www.portlandmercury.com/portland/Content?oid=36294&category=22143. Retrieved 2006-10-31. 
  36. ^ Lowery, Tim (October 11, 2007). "Manos: Rock Opera of Fate". Time Out Chicago. http://chicago.timeout.com/articles/theater/23187/manos-rock-opera-of-fate. Retrieved 2009-09-13. 
  37. ^ Irwin, Jay (April 3, 2011). "BWW Reviews: MANOS – THE HANDS OF FELT". Broadway World dot com Seattle. http://seattle.broadwayworld.com/article/BWW_Reviews_MANOS_THE_HANDS_OF_FELT_from_Puppet_This_and_Eclectic_Theater_Company_20010101. Retrieved 2011-04-24. 
  38. ^ Cain, Tim (2008-03-24). "How I Met Your Britney". Herald & Review (Decatur, Illinois). http://www.herald-review.com/blogs/timcain/?p=1013. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  39. ^ "Hotel Torgo". Amazon.com. http://www.amazon.com/dp/B001LF363Q. Retrieved 2009-09-11. 
  40. ^ "Manos: The Hands of Fate". http://playthisthing.com/manos-hands-fate. Retrieved 2011-04-13. 
  41. ^ "'Manos' The Revenge of Torgo". http://acidocinza.wordpress.com/manos-the-revenge-of-torgo/. 
  42. ^ "About 'Manos' in HD". ManosinHD.com. http://www.manosinhd.com/?page_id=2. Retrieved 2011-11-13. 

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