Vought F-8 Crusader


Vought F-8 Crusader
F-8 (F8U) Crusader
An F-8E from VMF(AW)-212 in 1965
Role Fighter aircraft
National origin United States
Manufacturer Vought
First flight 25 March 1955
Introduction March 1957
Retired 19 December 1999
Status Retired
Primary users United States Navy
United States Marine Corps
French Navy
Philippine Air Force
Number built 1,219[1]
Developed into Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III
LTV A-7 Corsair II

The Vought F-8 Crusader (originally F8U) was a single-engine, supersonic, carrier-based air superiority jet aircraft[2] built by Vought for the United States Navy and the U.S. Marine Corps, replacing the Vought F7U Cutlass. After the Navy's disappointing experience with the F7U, the F8U was referred to by some as "Vought's Last Chance." The first F-8 prototype was ready for flight in February 1955, and was the last American fighter with guns as the primary weapon, principally serving in the Vietnam War.[3] The RF-8 Crusader was a photo-reconnaissance development and operated longer in U.S. service than any of the fighter versions. RF-8s played a crucial role in the Cuban Missile Crisis, providing essential low-level photographs impossible to acquire by other means.[3] US Naval Reserve units continued to operate the RF-8 until 1987.

Contents

Design and development

F-8 pilots insignia
F8U-1 Crusader BuNo 141435 and Commander "Duke" Windsor depart China Lake for a successful speed record attempt, 21 August 1956.

In September 1952, United States Navy announced a requirement for a new fighter. It was to have a top speed of Mach 1.2 at 30,000 ft (9,144.0 m) with a climb rate of 25,000 ft/min (127.0 m/s), and a landing speed of no more than 100 mph (160 km/h).[4] Korean War experience had demonstrated that 0.50 inch (12.7 mm) machine guns were no longer sufficient and as the result the new fighter was to carry a 20 mm (0.79 in) cannon. In response, the Vought team led by John Russell Clark, created the V-383. Unusual for a fighter, the aircraft had a high-mounted wing which allowed for short and light landing gear.

The most innovative aspect of the design was the variable-incidence wing which pivoted by 7° out of the fuselage on takeoff and landing (not to be confused with variable-sweep wing). This afforded increased lift due to a greater angle of attack without compromising forward visibility because the fuselage stayed level.[3][4] Simultaneously, the lift was augmented by leading-edge slats drooping by 25° and inboard flaps extending to 30°. The rest of the aircraft took advantage of contemporary aerodynamic innovations with area ruled fuselage, all-moving stabilators, dog-tooth notching at the wing folds for improved yaw stability, and liberal use of titanium in the airframe. Power came from the Pratt & Whitney J57 afterburning turbojet. The armament, as specified by the Navy, consisted primarily of four 20 mm (.79 in) autocannon; the Crusader happened to be the last U.S. fighter designed with guns as its primary weapon.[3] They were supplemented with a retractable tray with 32 unguided Mk 4/Mk 40 Folding-Fin Aerial Rocket (Mighty Mouse FFARs), and cheek pylons for two guided AIM-9 Sidewinder air-to-air missiles.[4] Vought also presented a tactical reconnaissance version of the aircraft called the V-382.

Major competition came from the Grumman F-11 Tiger, the upgraded twin-engine McDonnell F3H Demon (which would eventually become the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II), and lastly, the North American F-100 Super Sabre adopted for carrier use and dubbed the "Super Fury".

In May 1953, the Vought design was declared a winner and in June, Vought received an order for three XF8U-1 prototypes (after adoption of the unified designation system in September 1962, the F8U became the F-8). The first prototype flew on 25 March 1955 with John Konrad at the controls. The aircraft exceeded the speed of sound during its maiden flight.[3] The development was so trouble-free that the second prototype, along with the first production F8U-1, flew on the same day, 30 September 1955. On 4 April 1956, the F8U-1 performed its first catapult launch from USS Forrestal.

Crusader III

In parallel with the F8U-1s and -2s, the Crusader design team was also working on a larger aircraft with ever greater performance, internally designated as the V-401. Although the Vought XF8U-3 Crusader III was externally similar to the Crusader and sharing with it such design elements as the variable incidence wing, the new fighter was significantly larger and shared few components.

Operational history

Two Crusaders prepare to launch from USS Midway; their variable-incidence wings are in the "up" position.

Prototype XF8U-1s were evaluated by VX-3 beginning in late 1956, with few problems noted. Weapons development was conducted at Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake and a China Lake F8U-1 set a U.S. National speed record in August 1956. Commander "Duke" Windsor set, broke, and set a new Level Flight Speed Record of 1,015.428 mph (1,634.173 km/h) on 21 August 1956 beating the previous record of 822 mph (1,323 km/h) set by a USAF F-100, however, the world speed record of 1,132 mph (1,822 km/h), set by the British Fairey Delta 2, on 10 March 1956, was not broken.[5]

An early F8U-1 was modified as a photo-reconnaissance aircraft, becoming the first F8U-1P, subsequently the RF-8A equipped with cameras rather than guns and missiles.

First fleet operators

The first fleet squadron to fly the Crusader was VF-32 at NAS Cecil Field, Florida, in 1957, deploying to the Mediterranean late that year on USS Saratoga. VF-32 renamed the squadron the "Swordsmen" in keeping with the Crusader theme. The Pacific Fleet received the first Crusaders at NAS Moffett Field in Northern California and the VF-154 "Grandslammers" (named in honor of the new 1,000 mph jets and subsequently renamed the "Black Knights") began their F-8 operations. Later in 1957, in San Diego VMF-122 accepted the first Marine Corps Crusaders.

In 1962, the Defense Department standardized military aircraft designations generally along Air Force lines. Consequently, the F8U became the F-8, with the original F8U-1 redesignated F-8A.

An F-8 of USS Oriskany intercepts a Tu-95 'Bear-B'.

Fleet service

The Crusader became the ultimate "day fighter" operating off the aircraft carriers. At the time, U.S. Navy carrier air wings had gone through a series of day and night fighter aircraft due to rapid advances in engines and avionics. Some squadrons operated aircraft for very short periods before being equipped with a newer higher performance aircraft. The Crusader was the first post-Korean War aircraft to have a relatively long tenure with the fleet and like the USAF Republic F-105 Thunderchief, a contemporary design, might have stayed in service longer if not for the Vietnam war and resulting attrition from combat and operational losses.

Cuban Missile Crisis

The unarmed photo Crusader was operated aboard carriers as a detachment (Det) from either VFP-62 or VFP-63 to provide photo reconnaissance capability as RF-8A proved ideal for the task of getting low altitude detailed photographs.[6] During the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, RF-8As flew extremely hazardous low-level photo reconnaissance missions over Cuba with overflights beginning on 23 October 1962. This was the first true operational flights of the F-8 Crusader. Flights of RF-8As, operating in several pairs of aircraft, with each pair assigned a different target, left Key West twice each day, to fly over Cuba at low level, then return to Jacksonville, where the film was offloaded and developed, to be rushed north to the Pentagon.[7]

These flights confirmed beyond all doubt that the Soviet Union was in fact setting up IRBMs in Cuba. The RF-8As also monitored the withdrawal of the Soviet missiles. To keep score after an overflight, each aircraft was given a stencil of a dead chicken. The overflights went on for about six weeks and returned a total of 160,000 images. The pilots who flew the missions all received Distinguished Flying Crosses, while VFP-62 received the prestigious Navy Unit Commendation.[8]

Mishap rate

Ejection out of a VFP-62 RF-8A in 1963.

The Crusader was not an easy aircraft to fly, and often unforgiving in carrier landings where it suffered from yaw instability and the castered nose wheel. It earned a reputation as an "ensign killer" during its early service introduction.[9] The nozzle and air intake were so low when the aircraft was on the ground or the flight deck that the crews called the plane "the Gator." Not surprisingly, the Crusader's mishap rate was relatively high compared to its contemporaries, the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk and the F-4 Phantom II. However, the aircraft did possess some amazing capabilities, as proved when several Crusader pilots took off with the wings folded. One of these episodes took place on 23 August 1960; a Crusader with the wings folded took off from Napoli Capodichino in full afterburner, climbed to 5,000 ft (1,500 m) and then returned to land successfully. The pilot, absent minded but evidently a good "stick man," complained that the control forces were higher than normal. The Crusader was capable of flying in this state, though the pilot would be required to reduce aircraft weight by ejecting stores and fuel prior to landing.[3]

Vietnam service

When conflict erupted in the skies over North Vietnam, it was U.S. Navy Crusaders that first tangled with Vietnam People's Air Force (North Vietnamese Air Force) MiG-17s on 3 April 1965.[10] Although the MiGs claimed the downing of a Crusader,[11] all aircraft returned safely. At the time, the Crusader was the best dogfighter the United States had against the nimble North Vietnamese MiGs. The Navy had evolved its "night fighter" role in the air wing to an all-weather interceptor, the F-4 Phantom II, equipped to engage incoming bombers at long range with missiles such as Sparrow as their sole air-to-air weapons, and maneuverability was not emphasized in their design. Some experts believed that the era of the dogfight was over as air-to-air missiles would knock down adversaries well before they could get close enough to engage in dogfighting. As aerial combat ensued over North Vietnam from 1965 to 1968, it became apparent that the dogfight was not over and the F-8 Crusader and a community trained to prevail in air-to-air combat was a key ingredient to success.

An F-8E of VMF(AW)-235 at Da Nang, in April 1966.

Despite the "last gunfighter" moniker, the F-8s achieved only four victories with their cannon; the remainder were accomplished with AIM-9 Sidewinder missiles,[12] partly due to the propensity of the 20 mm (.79 in) Colt Mk 12 cannons' feeding mechanism to jam under G-loading during high-speed dogfighting maneuvers.[13] Between June and July 1966, during 12 engagements over North Vietnam, Crusaders shot down four MiG-17s for two losses.[14] The Crusader would be credited with the best kill ratio of any American type in the Vietnam War, 19:3.[3] Of the 19 aircraft shot down during aerial combat, 16 were MiG-17s and three were MiG-21s.[12] But the NVAF claimed 11 F-8s were shot down.[15][16] Approximately 170 F-8 Crusaders would be lost to all causes during the war.[17]

The Crusader also became a bomb truck in war, with both ship-based U.S. Navy units and land-based U.S. Marine Corps squadrons attacking communist forces in both North and South Vietnam.[9]

USMC Crusaders flew only in the South, and U.S. Navy Crusaders flew only from the small Essex class carriers; there weren't many F-8s. Marine Crusaders also operated in Close Air Support missions.

F-8 pilots credited with shooting down North Vietnamese aircraft[9]
A VF-24 F-8J returning to the USS Hancock in the Gulf of Tonkin.
Name Squadron Aircraft Date
CDR Harold L. Marr VF-211 MiG-17 12 June 1966
LT Eugene J. Chancy VF-211 MiG-17 21 June 1966
LTJG Philip V. Vampatella VF-211 MiG-17 21 June 1966
CDR Richard M. Bellinger VF-162 MiG-21 9 October 1966
CDR Marshall O. Wright VF-211 MiG-17 1 May 1967
CDR Paul H. Speer VF-211 MiG-17 19 May 1967
LTJG Joseph M. Shea VF-211 MiG-17 19 May 1967
LCDR Bobby C. Lee VF-24 MiG-17 19 May 1967
LT Phillip R. Wood VF-24 MiG-17 19 May 1967
LCDR Marion H. Isaacks VF-24 MiG-17 21 July 1967
LCDR Robert L. Kirkwood VF-24 MiG-17 21 July 1967
LCDR Ray G. Hubbard, Jr. VF-211 MiG-17 21 July 1967
LT Richard E. Wyman VF-162 MiG-17 14 December 1967
CDR Lowell R. Myers VF-51 MiG-21 26 June 1968
LCDR John B. Nichols VF-191 MiG-17 9 July 1968
CDR Guy Cane VF-53 MiG-17 29 July 1968
LT Norman K. McCoy, Jr. VF-51 MiG-21 1 August 1968
LT Anthony J. Nargi VF-111 MiG-21 19 September 1968
LT Gerald D. Tucker VF-211 MiG-17 22 April 1972

Twilight service with U.S. Navy

A section of VFP-206 RF-8G Crusaders in late 1986 when they were last F-8s in U.S. Naval service.

LTV built and delivered the 1,219th (and last) U. S. Navy Crusader to VF-124 at NAS Miramar on 3 September 1964.[1]

The last active duty Navy Crusader fighter variants were retired from VF-191 and VF-194 aboard USS Oriskany in 1976 after almost two decades of service, setting a first for a Navy fighter. The photo reconnaissance variant continued to serve for yet another 11 years with VFP-63 flying RF-8Gs up to 1982 and the Naval Reserve flying their RF-8s in two squadrons (VFP-206 and VFP-306) until disestablishment of VFP-306 in 1984 and VFP-206 on 29 March 1987 when the last operational Crusader was turned over to the National Air and Space Museum.[18]

The F-8 Crusader is the only aircraft to have used the AIM-9C which is a radar-guided Sidewinder. When the Crusader retired, these missiles were converted to the AGM-122 Sidearm anti-radiation missiles used by United States attack helicopters to knock out enemy radars.

NASA

NASA TF-8A supercritical wing testbed

Several modified F-8s were used by NASA in the early 1970s, proving the viability of both digital fly-by-wire and supercritical wings.

French Navy

When the French Navy's air arm, the Aéronavale, required a carrier based fighter in the early 1960s for use aboard the new carriers Clemenceau and Foch, the Phantom II turned out to be too large for the small French carriers. Following carrier trials aboard the Clemenceau on 16 March 1962 by two VF-32 F-8s from the American carrier Saratoga, the Crusader was chosen and 42 F-8E(FN)s were ordered, the last Crusader produced.

The French Crusaders were based on the F-8E, but were modified in order to allow operations from the small French carriers, with the maximum angle of incidence of the aircraft's wing increased from five to seven degrees and blown flaps fitted. The aircraft's weapon system was modified to carry two French Matra R.530 radar or infra-red missiles as an alternative to Sidewinders, although the ability to carry the American missile was retained.[19] Deliveries started in October 1964 and continued until February 1965, with the Aéronavale's first squadron, Flotille 12F reactivated on 1 October 1964.[19] To replace the old Corsairs, Flotille 14.F received its Crusaders on 1 March 1965.[20][21]

In October 1974, (on the Clemenceau) and June 1977 (on the Foch), Crusaders from 14.F squadron participated in the Saphir missions over Djibouti. On 7 May 1977, two Crusaders went separately on patrol against supposedly French Air Force (4/11 Jura squadron) F-100 Super Sabres stationed at Djibouti. The leader intercepted two fighters and engaged a dogfight (supposed to be a training exercise) but quickly called his wingman for help as he had actually engaged two Yemeni MiG-21 Fishbeds. The two French fighters switched their master armament to "on" but, ultimately, everyone returned to their bases. This was the only combat interception by French Crusaders.

An F-8E(FN) landing aboard USS Eisenhower, 1983.

The Aéronavale Crusaders flew combat missions over Lebanon in 1983 escorting Super Etendard strike aircraft. In October 1984, France sent the Foch for Operation Mirmillon off the coast of Libya, intended to calm Colonel Ghaddafi down, with 12.F squadron. The escalation of the situation in the Persian Gulf, due to the Iran-Iraq conflict, triggered the deployment of the Clemenceau task force and its air wing, including 12.F squadron. 1993 saw the beginning of the missions over ex-Yugoslavia. Crusaders were launched from both carriers cruising in the Adriatic Sea. These missions ceased in June 1999 with Operation Trident over Kosovo.

The French Crusaders were subject to a series of modifications throughout their life, being fitted with new F-8J-type wings in 1969 and having modified afterburners fitted in 1979.[22] Armament was enhanced by the addition of R550 Magic infra-red guided missiles in 1973, with the improved, all-aspect Magic 2 fitted from 1988. The obsolete R.530 was withdrawn from use in 1989, leaving the Crusaders without a radar-guided missile.[23] In 1989, when it was realised that the Crusader would not be replaced for several years, it was decided to refurbish the Crusaders to extend their operating life. The aircraft were rewired and had their hydraulic system refubished, while the airframe was strengthened to extend fatigue life. Avionics were improved, with a modified navigation suite and a new radar-warning receiver.[24][25] The 17 refurbished aircraft were redesignated as F-8P (P used for "Prolongé" -extended- and not to be confused with Philippine F-8P).[26] Although the French Navy participated in combat operations in 1991 during Operation Desert Storm and over Kosovo in 1999, the Crusaders stayed behind and were eventually replaced by the Rafale M in 2000 as the last of the breed in military service.

Philippine Air Force

In late 1977, the Philippine government purchased 35 ex-U.S. Navy F-8Hs that were stored at Davis-Monthan AFB in Arizona. Twenty-five of them were refurbished by Vought and the remaining 10 were used for spare parts. As part of the deal, the U.S. would train Philippine pilots in using the TF-8A. The F-8s were grounded in 1988 and were finally withdrawn from service in 1991 after they were badly damaged by the Mount Pinatubo eruption and have since been offered for sale as scrap.

Variants

A VF-32 F8U-1 in 1958.
The single XF8U-1T in 1962.
NASA's F-8C digital fly-by-wire testbed
An F-8H from VF-202 landing aboard JFK, in 1971.
  • XF8U-1 (XF-8A) – the two original unarmed prototypes - V-383.
  • F8U-1 (F-8A) – first production version, J57-P-12 engine replaced with more powerful J57-P-4A starting with 31st production aircraft, 318 built.
  • YF8U-1 (YF-8A) – one F8U-1 fighter used for development testing.
  • YF8U-1E (YF-8B) – one F8U-1 converted to serve as an F8U-1E prototype.
  • F8U-1E (F-8B) – added a limited all-weather capability thanks to the AN/APS-67 radar, the unguided rocket tray was sealed shut because it was never used operationally, first flight: 3 September 1958, 130 built.
  • XF8U-1T – one XF8U-2NE used for evaluation as a two-seat trainer.
  • F8U-1T (TF-8A) – two-seat trainer version based on F8U-2NE, fuselage stretched 2 ft (0.61 m), internal armament reduced to two cannon, J57-P-20 engine, first flight 6 February 1962. The Royal Navy was initially interested in the Rolls-Royce Spey-powered version of TF-8A but chose the Phantom II instead. Only one TF-8A was built, although several retired F-8As were converted to similar two-seat trainers - V-408.
  • YF8U-2 (YF-8C) – two F8U-1s used for flight testing the J57-P-16 turbojet engine.
  • F8U-2 (F-8C) – J57-P-16 engine with 16,900 lbf (75 kN) of afterburning thrust, ventral fins added under the rear fuselage in an attempt to rectify yaw instability, Y-shaped chin pylons allowing two Sidewinder missiles on each side of the fuselage, AN/APQ-83 radar retrofitted during later upgrades. First flight 20 August 1957, 187 built. This variant was sometimes referred to as Crusader II.[27]
  • F8U-2N (F-8D) – all-weather version, unguided rocket pack replaced with an additional fuel tank, J57-P-20 engine with 18,000 lbf (80 kN) of afterburning thrust, landing system which automatically maintained present airspeed during approach, incorporation of AN/APQ-84 radar. First flight 16 February 1960, 152 built.
  • YF8U-2N (YF-8D) – one aircraft used in the development of the F8U-2N.
  • YF8U-2NE – one F8U-1 converted to serve as an F8U-2NE prototype.
  • F8U-2NE (F-8E) – J57-P-20A engine, AN/APQ-94 radar in a larger nose cone, dorsal hump between the wings containing electronics for the AGM-12 Bullpup missile, payload increased to 5,000 lb (2,270 kg), Martin-Baker ejection seat, AN/APQ-94 radar replaced AN/APQ-84 radar in earlier F-8D. First flight 30 June 1961, 286 built.
  • F-8E(FN) – air superiority fighter version for the French Navy, significantly increased wing lift due to greater slat and flap deflection and the addition of a boundary layer control system, enlarged stabilators, incorporated AN/APQ-104 radar, an upgraded version of AN/APQ-94. A total of 42 built.
  • F-8H – upgraded F-8D with strengthened airframe and landing gear, with AN/APQ-124 radar. A total of 89 rebuilt.
  • F-8J – upgraded F-8E, similar to F-8D but with wing modifications and BLC like on F-8E(FN), "wet" pylons for external fuel tanks, J57-P-20A engine, with AN/APQ-125 radar. A total of 136 rebuilt.
  • F-8K – upgraded F-8C with Bullpup capability and J57-P-20A engines, with AN/APQ-135 radar. A total of 87 rebuilt.
  • F-8L – F-8B upgraded with underwing hardpoints, with AN/APQ-149 radar. A total of 61 rebuilt.
  • F-8P – 17 F-8E(FN) of the Aéronavale underwent a significant overhaul at the end of the 1980s to stretch their service life another 10 years. They were retired in 1999.[28]
  • F8U-1D (DF-8A) – several retired F-8A modified to controller aircraft for testing of the SSM-N-8 Regulus cruise missile. DF-8A was also modified as drone (F-9 Cougar) control which were used extensively by VC-8, NS Roosevelt Rds, PR; Atlantic Fleet Missile Range.
  • DF-8F – retired F-8A modified for target tug duty.
  • F8U-1KU (QF-8A) – retired F-8A modified into remote-controlled target drones
  • YF8U-1P (YRF-8A) – prototypes used in the development of the F8U-1P photo-reconnaissance aircraft - V-392.
  • F8U-1P (RF-8A) – unarmed photo-reconnaissance version of F8U-1E, 144 built.
  • RF-8G – modernized RF-8As.
  • LTV V-100 – revised "low-cost" development based on the earlier F-8 variants, created in 1970 to compete against the F-4E Phantom II, Lockheed CL-1200 and F-5-21 in a tender for U.S. Military Assistance Program (MAP) funding. The unsuccessful design was ultimately only a "paper exercise."[29]
  • XF8U-3 Crusader III – new design loosely based on the earlier F-8 variants, created to compete against the F-4 Phantom II; J75-P-5A engine with 29,500 lbf (131 kN) of afterburning thrust, first flight 2 June 1958, attained Mach 2.6 in test flights, canceled after five aircraft were constructed because the Phantom II won the Navy contract - V-401.

Operators

VF-33 F-8Es on the USS Enterprise, in 1964.
 France
 Philippines
 United States
RF-8G BuNo 146860 at National Air and Space Museum.
A French F-8P on display at Toulouse.
A Philippine Air Force F-8 at PAF Museum.
France
  • An F-8P, French Navy side number 19, is on display at the Musée des Ailes Anciennes in Toulouse, France
Philippines
  • BuNo 148696 F-8H/F-8P Philippine Air Force serial number 48696/311 is on display outdoors at Quezon Avenue, Philippine Military Academy, Baguio. Aircraft is at 16° 21' 37.60" N 120° 37' 09.30" E.
  • BuNo 147056 F-8H/F-8P Philippine Air Force serial number 47056/313 is on display outdoors at Philippine Air Force Museum, Pasay City, Philippines.
  • F-8H/F-8P Philippine Air Force serial number 48661/301 is on display outdoors at Clark Air Base, Pampanga, Philippines.
United States

Specifications (F-8E)

Line drawings for the F-8E.

Data from The Great Book of Fighters[35] and Quest for Performance[36] Combat Aircraft since 1945[37]

General characteristics

Performance

Side-view of two Sidewinder AAMs mounted on the unique Y-pylon
Two AIM-9D Sidewinders mounted on the Y-pylons of the F-8 Crusader
Weapons loadout of an F-8 Crusader

Armament

Avionics

See also

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ a b United States Naval Institute Proceedings, January 1965, p. 136.
  2. ^ Michel 2007, p. 11.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Tillman 1990
  4. ^ a b c Goebel, Greg. "The Vought F-8 Crusader." Air Vectors. Retrieved: 7 March 2006.
  5. ^ "Records." cloudnet.com. Retrieved: 28 December 2009.
  6. ^ Cosby, Samuel. "Cuban crisis era jet at Open Cockpit Day in Atwater". Modesto Bee, 27 May 2011. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
  7. ^ Mersky 1986, p. 25.
  8. ^ Mersky 1986, pp. 25–26.
  9. ^ a b c Back side and table in Appendix B in Peter Mersky:F-8 Crusader Units of the Vietnam War
  10. ^ Anderton 1987, p. 71.
  11. ^ Toperczer 2001, pp. 27–29, 88.
  12. ^ a b Grossnick and Armstrong 1997
  13. ^ "Crusader In Action." faqs.org. Retrieved: 28 December 2009.
  14. ^ Michel 2007, p. 51,
  15. ^ "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 1." Acig.org. Retrieved: 7 March 2011.
  16. ^ "Vietnamese Air-to-Air Victories, Part 2." Acig.org. Retrieved: 7 March 2011.
  17. ^ Hobson 2001
  18. ^ Baugher, Joe. "Crusader in Navy/Marine Corps Service." F8 Crusader: US Navy Fighter Aircraft, 6 August 2003. Retrieved: 11 June 2011.
  19. ^ a b Stijger Air International October 1993, p. 192.
  20. ^ Stijger Air International October 1993, pp. 192–193.
  21. ^ Rochotte, Léon C., Ramon Josa and Alexandre Gannier. "Capitaine de Frégate (H): Les Corsair français." NetMarine.net, 1999. Retrieved: 14 July 2009.
  22. ^ Stijgers Air International October 1993, p. 195.
  23. ^ Stijgers Air International October 1993, p. 194.
  24. ^ Stijgers Air International October 1993, pp. 195–196.
  25. ^ Michell 1993, p. 58.
  26. ^ Mersky Wings of Fame 1996, p. 83.
  27. ^ Pike, J. "F8U-3 Crusader III." GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved: 9 July 2009.
  28. ^ Winchester 2006, p. 242.
  29. ^ "Low-Cost US Fighter." Air Pictorial, Volume 32, No. 3, March 1970.
  30. ^ "F-8A Aircraft, Bureau Number 145347." National Museum of Naval Aviation. Retrieved: 13 May 2011.
  31. ^ "Vought F-8U-1P (RF-8G) 'Crusader'." Flying Leatherneck Aviation Museum and Historical Foundation. Retrieved: 7 March 2011.,
  32. ^ "Aviation Heritage Park: Vought F-8E 'Crusader'." Aero-web.org. Retrieved: 7 March 2011.
  33. ^ a b "Preserved US Military Aircraft: Chance-Vought F-8 Crusader." Coastcomp.com. Retrieved: 7 March 2011.
  34. ^ "Exhibit: 144427 - Vought F-8A Crusader." Aero-web.org, 30 September 1955. Retrieved: 7 March 2011.
  35. ^ Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing. 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
  36. ^ Loftin, L.K. Jr. Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft. NASA SP-468 Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
  37. ^ Wilson 2000, p. 141.
Bibliography
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Look at other dictionaries:

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