Aceh — Province —
Motto: Pancacita (Sanskrit)
Coordinates: Coordinates: Country Indonesia Capital Banda Aceh Government – Governor Irwandi Yusuf Area – Total 58,375.83 km2 (22,539 sq mi) Population (2010) – Total 4,486,570 – Density 76.9/km2 (199.1/sq mi) Demographics – Ethnic groups Acehnese (79%), Gayo Lut (7%), Gayo Luwes (5%), Alas (4%), Singkil (3%), Simeulue (2%)  – Religion Islam (98.6%), Christianity (0.7%), Hinduism (0.08%), Buddhism (0.55%) – Languages Indonesian (official), Acehnese Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Website acehprov.go.id
Aceh (pronounced [ʔaˈtɕɛh], generally anglicized as /ˈɑːtʃeɪ/) is a special region (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. Its full name is Daerah Istimewa Aceh (1959–2001), Nanggroë Aceh Darussalam (2001–2009) and Aceh (2009–Present). Past spellings of its name include Acheh, Atjeh and Achin. The Aceh province has the highest proportion of Muslims in the country with regional levels of Sharia law.
It is thought to have been in Aceh where Islam was first established in Southeast Asia. In the early seventeenth century the Sultanate of Aceh was the most wealthy, powerful and cultivated state in the Malacca Straits region. Aceh has a history of political independence and fierce resistance to control by outsiders, including the former Dutch colonists and the Indonesian government. Aceh has substantial natural resources, including oil and natural gas - some estimates put Aceh gas reserves as being the largest in the world. Relative to most of Indonesia, it is a religiously conservative area.
Aceh was the closest point of land to the epicenter of the massive 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, which triggered a tsunami that devastated much of the western coast of the region, including part of the capital of Banda Aceh. Approximately 170,000 Indonesians were killed or went missing in the disaster, and approximately 500,000 were left homeless, with almost all the damage occurring in Aceh[verification needed]. This event helped trigger the peace agreement between the government of Indonesia and the Free Aceh Movement (GAM), mediated by former Finnish president Martti Ahtisaari, with the signing of a MoU on August 15, 2005. With the assistance of the European Union through the Aceh monitoring mission as of December 2005, the peace has held. It is close to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India and separated from them by the Andaman Sea.
The first evidence of human habitation in Aceh is from a site near the Tamiang River where shell middens are present. Stone tools and faunal remains were also found on the site. Archeologists believe the site was first occupied around 10,000 BC.
The beginnings of Islam in Southeast Asia
Evidence concerning the initial coming and subsequent establishment of Islam in Southeast Asia is thin and inconclusive, however, it is thought that it was through the Aceh region. When Venetian traveller Marco Polo passed by Sumatra on his way home from China in 1292 he found that Perlak was a Muslim town while nearby 'Basma(n)' and 'Samara' were not. 'Basma(n)' and 'Samara' are often said to be Pasai and Samudra (present-day Syamtalira) but evidence is inconclusive. The gravestone of Sultan Malik as-Salih, the first Muslim ruler of Samudra, has been found and is dated AH 696 (AD 1297). This is the earliest clear evidence of a Muslim dynasty in the Indonesia-Malay area and more gravestones from the thirteenth century show that this region continued under Muslim rule. Ibn Batutah, a Moroccan traveller, passing through on his way to China in 1345 and 1346, found that the ruler of Samudra was a follower of the Shafi’i school of Islam.
The Portuguese apothecary Tome Pires reported in his early sixteenth century book Suma Oriental that most of the kings of Sumatra from Aceh through to Palembang were Muslim. At Pasai, in what is now the North Aceh Regency, there was a thriving international port. Pires attributed the establishment of Islam in Pasai to the 'cunning' of the Muslim merchants. The ruler of Pasai, however, had not been able to convert the people of the interior. The first evidence of human habitation in Aceh is from a site near the Tamiang River
Sultanate of Aceh
The Sultanate of Aceh was established initially as a small Islamic kingdom (in what is now the city of Banda Aceh) during the 15th century. During its golden era, its territory and political influence expanded as far as Satun in southern Thailand, Johor in Malay Peninsula, and Siak in what is today the province of Riau. As was the case with most non-Javan pre-colonial states, Acehnese power expanded outward by sea rather than inland. As it expanded down the Sumatran coast, its main competitors were Johor and Portuguese Malacca on the other side of the Straits of Malacca. It was this seaborne trade focus that saw Aceh rely on rice imports from north Java rather than develop self sufficiency in rice production.
After the Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, many Islamic traders passing the Malacca Straits shifted their trade to Banda Aceh and increased Acehnese rulers' wealth. During the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 17th century, Aceh's influence extended to most of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. Aceh allied itself with the Ottoman Empire and the Dutch East India Company in their struggle against the Portuguese and the Johor Sultanate. Acehnese military power waned gradually thereafter, and Aceh ceded its territory of Pariaman in Sumatra to the Dutch in 18th century.
By the early nineteenth century, however, Aceh had become an increasingly influential power due to its strategic location for controlling regional trade. In the 1820s it was the producer of over half the world's supply of black pepper. The pepper trade produced new wealth for the Sultanate and for the rulers of many smaller nearby ports that had been under Aceh's control, but were now able to assert more independence. These changes initially threatened Aceh's integrity, but a new sultan Tuanku Ibrahim, who controlled the kingdom from 1838 to 1870, reasserted power over nearby ports.
Under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 the British ceded their colonial possessions on Sumatra to the Dutch. In the treaty, the British described Aceh as one of their possessions, although they had no actual control over the Sultanate. Initially, under the agreement the Dutch agreed to respect Aceh's independence. In 1871, however, the British dropped previous opposition to a Dutch invasion of Aceh, possibly to prevent France or the United States from gaining a foothold in the region. Although neither the Dutch nor the British knew the specifics, there had been rumors since the 1850s that Aceh had been in communication with rulers of France and of the Ottoman Empire.
The Dutch colonial government declared war on Aceh on 26 March 1873; the apparent immediate trigger for their invasion was discussions between representatives of Aceh and the U.S. in Singapore during early 1873. An expedition under Major General Johan Harmen Rudolf Köhler was sent out in 1873, which was able to occupy most of the coastal areas. It was the intention of the Dutch to attack and take the Sultan's palace, which would also lead to the occupation of the entire country. The Sultan requested and possibly received military aid from Italy and the United Kingdom in Singapore: in any case the Aceh army was rapidly modernized, and Aceh soldiers managed to kill Köhler (a monument to this achievement has been built inside Grand Mosque of Banda Aceh). Köhler made some grave tactical errors and the reputation of the Dutch was severely harmed. In addition, in recent years in line with expanding international attention to human rights issues and atrocities in war zones, there has been increasing discussion about the some of the recorded acts of cruelty and slaughter committed by Dutch troops during the period of warfare in Aceh.
Hasan Mustafa (1852–1930) was a chief 'penghulu,' or judge, for the colonial government and was stationed in Aceh. He had to balance traditional Muslim justice with Dutch law. To stop the Aceh rebellion, Hasan Mustafa issued a fatwa, telling the Muslims there in 1894, "It is Incumbent upon the Indonesian Muslims to be loyal to the Dutch East Indies Government".
During World War II, Japanese troops occupied Aceh. Religious ulama party gained ascendancy to replace district warlords (uleebalang) party formerly collaborating with the Dutch. Concrete bunkers still line the northern-most beaches.
After World War II, civil war erupted in 1945 between district warlords party, supporting the return of Dutch government and religious ulama party, supporting newly proclaimed Indonesia State. The latter party won, and the area remained free during Indonesian War of Independence. The Dutch military itself never attempted to invade Aceh. The civil war put the religious ulama party leader, Daud Bereueh, as Military Governor of Aceh.
After the transfer of authority from Dutch Government to Indonesian State in 1949, Aceh was amalgamated with the nearby province of North Sumatra, leading to resentment from many Acehnese due to many ethnic-differences between themselves and the mostly Christian Batak people who dominate North Sumatra. This resentment resulted in a rebellion in 1953, under the banner of Islamic State (Darul Islam), led by Daud Bereueh. Putting down the rebellion took years to complete. In 1959 the Indonesian government yielded in part and gave Aceh a "special territory" (daerah istimewa) status, giving it a greater degree of autonomy from the central government in Jakarta than most other regions of Indonesia have. For example, the regional government is empowered to construct a legal system independent of the national government. In 2003, a form of sharia, or Islamic law, was formally introduced in Aceh. In 1963, Daud Bereueh signed a peace agreement, marking the end of Islamic Rebellion.
Free Aceh Movement
During 1970s, under agreement with Indonesian central government, American oil and gas companies began exploitation of Aceh natural resources. Alleged unequal distribution of profit between central government and native people of Aceh induced Hasan di Tiro, former ambassador of Darul Islam, to call for Independent Aceh. He proclaimed Aceh Independence in 1976.
The movement had a small number of followers initially, and Hasan di Tiro himself had to live in exile in Sweden. Meanwhile, the province followed Suharto's policy of economic development and industrialization. During late 80s several security incidents prompted the Indonesian central government to take repressive measures and to send troops to Aceh. Human rights abuse was rampant for the next decade, resulting in many grievances on the part of the Acehnese toward the Indonesian central government.
During late 90s, chaos in Java and an ineffective central government gave an advantage to Free Aceh Movement and resulted in the second phase of the rebellion, this time with large support from the Acehnese people. This support was demonstrated during the 2000 plebiscite in Banda Aceh which was attended by nearly half million people (of four million population of the province). Indonesian central government responded in 2001 by broadening Aceh's autonomy by giving its government the right to apply sharia law more broadly and the right to receive direct foreign investment. This was again accompanied by repressive measures, however and in 2003 an offensive began and a state of emergency was proclaimed in the Province. The war was still going on when the Tsunami Disaster of 2004 struck the province.
Exxon Mobil human rights abuse lawsuit
On June 21, 2001 11 villagers from a Acehen village in the North Aceh Regency used the Alien Tort Claims Act to sue Exxon Mobil in United States federal court for human rights abuses at the Arun natural gas field. The villagers claim they were tortured, raped, or murdered by Indonesian military soldiers. They claimed that Exxon Mobil created barracks and gave the Indonesian military (who were used to guard a natural gas field) heavy equipment to cover mass burials after a clash with separatists. Exxon Mobil reportedly shut down the site because of escalating violence. The villagers need to reveal their identities to receive government protection from Indonesia, but are reluctant due to reprisals from the Indonesian military.
The western coastal areas of Aceh, including the cities of Banda Aceh, Calang, and Meulaboh, were among the areas hardest-hit by the tsunami resulting from the Indian Ocean earthquake on 26 December 2004. While estimates vary, approximately 230,000 people were killed by the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh, and about 500,000 were left homeless. The tragedy of the tsunami was further compounded on March 26 when a second off-shore earthquake measuring 9.1 on the Richter scale struck the sea bed between the islands of Simeulue Island in Aceh and Nias in North Sumatra. This second quake killed a further 905 people on Nias and Simeulue, displaced tens of thousands more and caused the tsunami response to be expanded to include Nias.
The population of Aceh before the December 2004 tsunami was 4,271,000 (2004). The population as of 15 September 2005 was 4,031,589.
As of February 2006, more than a year after the tsunami, a large number of people are still living in barrack-style temporary living centers (TLC) or tents. Reconstruction is visible everywhere, but due to the sheer scale of the disaster, and logistical issues, progress is slow.
The ramifications of the tsunami went beyond the immediate impact to the lives and infrastructure of the Acehnese living on the coast. Since the disaster, the Acehnese rebel movement GAM, which had been fighting for independence against the Indonesian authorities for 29 years, has signed a peace deal (August 15, 2005). The perception that the tsunami was punishment for insufficient piety in this proudly Muslim province is partly behind the increased emphasis on the importance of religion post-tsunami. This has been most obvious in the increased implementation of Sharia law, including the introduction of the controversial 'WH' or Syariah police. As homes are being built and people's basic needs are met, the people are also looking to improve the quality of education, increase tourism, and develop responsible, sustainable industry. Well-qualified educators are in high demand in Aceh.
While parts of Banda Aceh, the capital, were unscathed, the areas closest to the water, especially the areas of Kampung Jawa and Meuraxa, were completely destroyed. Most of the rest of the western coast was severely damaged, and many towns completely disappeared. Other towns on Aceh's west coast hit by the disaster include Lhoknga, Leupung, Lamno, Patek, Calang, Teunom, and the island of Simeulue. Affected or destroyed towns on the region's north & east coast include Pidie Regency, Samalanga, and Lhokseumawe.
The area is slowly being rebuilt after the disaster. The government initially proposed the creation of a two-kilometer buffer zone along low-lying coastal areas, within which permanent construction is not permitted. This proposal was unpopular among some local inhabitants and proved impractical in most situations, especially fishing families that are dependent on living near to the sea.
Indonesian government has built special agency for Aceh reconstruction, called Badan Rehabilitasi dan Rekonstruksi (BRR/Agency of Rehabilitation and Reconstruction) headed by Kuntoro Mangkusubroto, former Indonesian Minister. This agency has ministry level of authority and incorporating officials, professionals and community leaders from all background.
Most of the reconstruction work is being performed by local people using a mix of traditional methods and partial prefabricated structures, with funding coming from many international organizations and individuals, governments, and the people themselves.
The Government of Indonesia estimated in their Preliminary Damage and Losses Assessment that damages amounted to US$4.5 billion (before inflation, and US$6.2 billion including inflation). Three years after the tsunami, reconstruction was still ongoing. The World Bank monitors funding for reconstruction in Aceh and reports that US$7.7 billion was earmarked for the reconstruction, whilst at June 2007, US$5.8 billion had been allocated to specific reconstruction projects, of which US$3.4 billion had actually been spent (58%).
In 2009, the government opened a US$5.6 million museum to commemorate the tsunami with photographs, stories, and a simulation of the earthquake that triggered the tsunami.
The peace agreement and first local elections
The 2004 tsunami helped trigger a peace agreement between the GAM and the Indonesian government  (PDF format). It drew a lot of international attention to the conflict, wiped out many supplies, and killed many personnel from both sides. Earlier efforts had failed, but for a number of reasons, including the tsunami, peace prevailed in 2005 after 29 years of war. Post-Suharto Indonesia and the liberal-democratic reform period, as well as changes in the Indonesian military, helped create an environment more favorable to peace talks. The roles of newly elected President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and Vice President Jusuf Kalla were highly significant. At the same time, the GAM leadership was undergoing changes, and the Indonesian military had arguably inflicted so much damage on the rebel movement that it had no choice but to negotiate with the central government. The peace talks were facilitated by a Finland-based NGO, the Crisis Management Initiative, and led by former Finnish President Martti Ahtisaari. The resulting peace agreement  (PDF format) was signed on August 15, 2005. Under the agreement, Aceh would receive special autonomy and government troops would be withdrawn from the province in exchange for GAM's disarmament. As part of the agreement, the European Union dispatched 300 monitors. Their mission expired on December 15, 2006, following local elections.
Aceh has been granted broader autonomy through Aceh Government Legislation covering special rights agreed upon in 2002 as well as the right of the Acehnese to establish local political parties to represent their interests. Human rights advocates protested that previous human rights violations in the province needed to be addressed, however.
During elections for the provincial governor held in December 2006, the former GAM and national parties participated. The election was won by Irwandi Yusuf, whose base of support consists largely of ex-GAM members.
Within the country, Aceh is governed not as a province but as a special territory (daerah istimewa), an administrative designation intended to give the area increased autonomy from the central government in Jakarta.
Administratively, the province is subdivided into 18 regencies (kabupaten) and 5 cities (kota). The capital and the largest city is Banda Aceh, located on the coast near the northern tip of Sumatra. Some local areas are pushing to create new autonomous areas, usually with the stated goal of enhancing local control over politics and development.
Name Capital Est. Statute Area (km²) Population
Aceh Besar Regency Jantho 1956 UU 24/1956 2,969.00 350,225 West Aceh (Aceh Barat) Regency Meulaboh 1956 UU 24/1956 2,927.95 172,896 Southwest Aceh (Aceh Barat Daya) Regency Blangpidie 2002 UU 4/2002 2,334.01 125,991 Aceh Jaya Regency Calang 2002 UU 4/2002 3,817.00 76,892 South Aceh (Aceh Selatan) Regency Tapaktuan 1956 UU 24/1956 3,851.69 202,003 Aceh Singkil Regency Singkil 1999 UU 14/1999 2,597.00 102,213 Aceh Tamiang Regency Karang Baru 2002 UU 4/2002 1,939.72 250,992 Central Aceh (Aceh Tengah) Regency Takengon 1956 UU 24/1956 4,315.14 175,329 Southeast Aceh (Aceh Tenggara) Regency Kutacane 1974 UU 7/1974 4,189.26 178,852 East Aceh (Aceh Timur) Regency Idi Rayeuk 1956 UU 24/1956 6,040.60 359,280 North Aceh (Aceh Utara) Regency Lhoksukon 1956 UU 24/1956 3,236.86 529,746 Bener Meriah Regency Simpang Tiga Redelong 2003 UU 41/2003 1,457.34 121,870 Bireuen Regency Bireuen 1999 UU 48/1999 1,901.22 389,024 Gayo Lues Regency Blangkejeren 2002 UU 4/2002 5,719.57 79,592 Nagan Raya Regency Suka Makmue 2002 UU 4/2002 3,928.00 138,670 Pidie Regency Sigli 1956 UU 24/1956 2,856.52 378,278 Pidie Jaya Regency Meureudu 2007 UU 7/2007 574.44 132,858 Simeulue Regency Sinabang 1999 UU 48/1999 2,051.48 80,279 Banda Aceh * 1956 UU 24/1956 61.36 224,209 Langsa ** 2001 UU 3/2001 262.41 148,904 Lhokseumawe ** 2001 UU 2/2001 181.06 170,504 Sabang ** 153.00 30,647 Subulussalam ** 2007 UU 8/2007 1,011.00 67,316
- (*) is a city and also the provincial capital and (**) is a city.
- UU is an abbreviation from Undang-Undang (the Indonesia statute of law).
Economy of Aceh
In 2006, economy of Aceh grew by 7.7% after having minimal growth since the devastating tsunami. This growth was primarily driven by the reconstruction effort, with massive growth in the building/construction sector.
The ending of the conflict, and the reconstruction program has resulted in the structure of the economy changing significantly since 2003. Service sectors now play a more dominant role, whilst oil and gas production continues to decline. The economy continues to rely upon depleting oil and gas production and agriculture.
Sector (% Aceh GDP) 2003 2004 2005 2006 Agriculture and fisheries 17.0 20.0 21.4 21.2 Oil, Gas and Mining 36.1 30.4 26.2 24.9 Manufacturing Industries 20.2 18.3 15.9 14.3 Electricity and Water Supply 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 Building / Construction 3.4 3.8 3.5 5.1 Trade, hotels and restaurants 11.2 12.0 14.3 15.0 Transport & Communication 3.3 3.8 4.8 5.2 Banking & other Financial 0.9 1.2 1.2 1.3 Services 7.8 10.4 12.7 12.9
After peaking at 41.5% in December 2005, inflation has continued to decline steadily and was 8.5% in June 2007, close to the national level in Indonesia of 5.7%. Persistent inflation means that Aceh’s consumer price index (CPI) remains the highest in Indonesia. As a result, Aceh’s cost competitiveness has declined as reflected in both inflation and wage data. Although inflation has slowed down, CPI has registered steady increases since the tsunami. Using 2002 as a base, Aceh’s CPI increased to 185.6 (June 2007) while the national CPI increased to 148.2. There have been relatively large nominal wage increases in particular sectors, such as construction where, on average, workers’ nominal wages have risen to almost Rp.60,000 per day, from Rp.29,000 pre-tsunami. This is also reflected in Aceh’s minimum regional wage (UMR, or Upah Minimum Regional), which increased by 55% from Rp.550,000 pre-tsunami to Rp.850,000 in 2007, compared with an increase of 42% in neighboring North Sumatra, from Rp.537,000 to Rp.761,000.
Poverty levels increased slightly in Aceh in 2005 after the tsunami, but by less than expected. The poverty level then fell in 2006 to below the pre-tsunami level, suggesting that the rise in tsunami-related poverty was short lived and reconstruction activities and the end of the conflict most probably facilitated this decline. However, poverty in Aceh remains significantly higher than in the rest of Indonesia and a large number of the Acehnese remain vulnerable, reinforcing the need for a smooth landing after the reconstruction boom ends.
Ethnic and cultural groups
Aceh is a diverse region occupied by several ethnic and language groups. The major ethnic groups are the Acehnese (who are distributed throughout Aceh), Gayo (in central and eastern part), Alas (in southeastern), Tamiang (in Aceh Tamiang Regency), Aneuk Jamee (descendant from Minangkabau, concentrated in southern and southwestern), Kluet (in South Aceh), and Simeulue (on Simeulue Island). There is also a significant population of Chinese, who are influential in the business and financial communities.
The Acehnese language is widely spoken within the Acehnese population. This is a member of the Aceh-Chamic group of languages, whose other representatives are mostly found in Vietnam and Cambodia, and is also closely related to the Malay group of languages. Acehnese also has many words borrowed from Malay and Arabic and traditionally was written using Arabic script. Acehnese is also used as local language in Langkat and Asahan (North Sumatra), and Kedah (Malaysia), and once dominated Penang. Alas and Kluet are closely related languages within the Batak group. The Jamee language originated from Minangkabau language in West Sumatra, with just a few variations and differences.
Aceh was once a meeting point for people from many nations, and among the present day Acehnese can be found some individuals of Arab, Turkish, and Indian descent. Before the tsunami, the region of Meureuhom Daya (Lamno) used to have an unusually high number of people with fair complexions, blue eyes and blond hair, and local traditions attributed to Turkish or Portuguese ancestry.
The population of Aceh was not adequately counted during the Indonesia 2000 census, much of it was estimated due to the insurgency making counting difficult. After the devastating tsunami of 2004, the population also took a large hit. However, according to the 2010 census, the total population of the province is 4,486,570 people.
Pusat Latihan Gajah (Centre for Elephant Training) at Saree, so it called PLG-Saree was set up in 1994 within Tjut Nyak Dien Forest park, about 70 kilometers from Banda Aceh with 6,300 hectares at the foot of Mount Seulawah under the protection of the provincial forestry and plantations office. At May 2011, there are 48 elephants trained by 45 mahot (instructors) for 25 out of 40 instructions given by trainers. Each elephant has its own handler or instructor. Elephants are meek rather than aggressive, except they feel threatened. The elephants are saved from the villagers and vice versa which frequently conflicted between them when they are wild.
Guerrilla Jungle Tracking
Since 2007, Aceh province with ex-GAM guerrillas has developed Guerrilla Jungle Tracking mostly at Pucok Krueng, Aceh Besar regency which near Strait of Malacca with origin forest, monkey, sun bear, eagle and swallow. It attracts many foreign tourists.
- The Black Road, a 2005 Australian documentary..
- ^ Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (Indonesian)
- ^ "INDONESIA: Population and Administrative Divisions" (PDF). The Permanent Committee on Geographical Names. 2003. http://www.pcgn.org.uk/Indonesia-%20Population&AdminDivs-%202003.pdf.
- ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003.
- ^ http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b2/Countries_with_Sharia_rule.png
- ^ How An Escape Artist Became Aceh's Governor, Time Magazine, Feb. 15, 2007
- ^ United Nations. Economic and social survey of Asia and the Pacific 2005. 2005, page 172
- ^ Daniel Perret (24 February 2007). "Aceh as a Field for Ancient History Studies". Asia Research Institute-National University of Singapore. http://www.ari.nus.edu.sg/docs%5CAceh-project%5Cfull-papers%5Caceh_fp_danielperret.pdf. Retrieved 29 January 2010.
- ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 4
- ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 7
- ^ Ricklefs (1991), page 17
- ^ *D. G. E. Hall, A History of South-east Asia. London: Macmillan, 1955.
- ^ a b c Ricklefs, M.C. (2001) A history of modern Indonesia since c.1200. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p185-188.
- ^ Linawati Sidarto, 'Images of a grisly past', The Jakarta Post: Weekender, July 2011 
- ^ Mufti Ali, "A Study of Hasan Mustafa's 'Fatwa: 'It Is Incumbent upon the Indonesian Muslims to be Loyal to the Dutch East Indies Government,'" Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, April 2004, Vol. 52 Issue 2, pp 91-122
- ^ a b *M Nur El-Ibrahimy, Peranan Teungku M. Daud Bereueh dalam Pergolakan di Aceh2001.
- ^ *A.H. Nasution, Seputar Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia, Jilid II,1977
- ^ BBC NEWS | Asia-Pacific | Aceh's Sharia court opens
- ^ Banerjee, Neela (2001-06-21). "Lawsuit Says Exxon Aided Rights Abuses". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9801E5D71F31F932A15755C0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2010-04-23.
- ^ Preliminary Damage and Losses Assessment on web.worldbank.org
- ^ Indonesia - Tsunami & Earthquake Reconstruction[dead link]
- ^ Indonesia Opens Tsunami Museum. The Irrawaddy. March/April 2009. p. 3
- ^ [dead link]
- ^ Asia Times Online :: Southeast Asia news - A happy, peaceful anniversary in Aceh
- ^ http://www.aceh-mm.org/download/english/Helsinki%20MoU.pdf
- ^ Next steps for Aceh after the peace pact | Human Rights Watch
- ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/226271-1176706430507/3681211-1194602678235/aeu_nov2007_en.pdf
- ^ http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTINDONESIA/Resources/Publication/280016-1200376036925/acehpoverty2008_en.pdf
- ^ zaman.com; ari.nus.edu.sg; ari.nus.edu.sg; turkishtime.org[dead link]
- ^ Jumlah penduduk Aceh 4.486.570 jiwa
- ^ Elephant school | The Jakarta Post
- ^ (Indonesian) Guerrilla Jungle Tracking
- Siegel, James T. 2000. The rope of God. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08682-0
- A classic ethnographic and historical study of Aceh, and Islam in the region. Originally published in 1969
- For other ethnographic accounts in English see
- Bowen, J. R. (1991). Sumatran politics and poetics : Gayo history, 1900-1989. New Haven, Yale University Press.
- Bowen, J. R. (2003). Islam, Law, and Equality in Indonesia Cambridge University Press
- Iwabuchi, A. (1994). The people of the Alas Valley : a study of an ethnic group of Northern Sumatra. Oxford, England ; New York, Clarendon Press.
- McCarthy, J. F. (2006). The Fourth Circle. A Political Ecology of Sumatra's Rainforest Frontier, Stanford University Press.
- Miller, Michelle Ann. (2009). Rebellion and Reform in Indonesia. Jakarta's Security and Autonomy Policies in Aceh. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978-0-415-45467-4
Indian Ocean Andaman Sea Malacca Strait Indian Ocean North Sumatra Aceh Indian Ocean Indian Ocean North Sumatra Regencies and Cities of AcehCapital: Banda Aceh Regencies Cities Provinces of Indonesia Sumatra Java Kalimantan Lesser Sunda Sulawesi Maluku Western New GuineaPapua · West Papua
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