Chechen–Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic


Chechen–Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
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Chechen–Ingush ASSR on the map of Soviet Caucasus.

The Chechen–Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, or Chechen–Ingush ASSR (Chechen: Нохч-ГІалгІайн Автономнин Совецки Социалистически Республика; Ingush: Нохч-ГІалгІайн Автономнин Советски Социалистически Республика; Russian: Чече́но-Ингу́шская Чечено-Ингушская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) was an autonomous republic within the Russian SFSR. Its capital was Grozny.

As of 1979 census, its territory was 19,300 km² and population of 1,155,805 (1979 Census):[1] 611,405 being Chechens, 134,744 Ingush, the rest being Russians and other ethnic groups.[1]

Contents

History

Russian Empire

In 1810, the historical Ingushetia voluntarily joined Imperial Russia, and in 1859 the historical Chechnya was annexed to Russia as well, during the long Caucasian war of 1817-1864.

Soviet period

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, on January 20, 1921, Chechnya and Ingushetia joined the Mountain soviet republic. Partition of the Mountain ASSR began shortly after it was formed, and its Chechen District was separated on November 30, 1922 as Chechen Autonomous Oblast. On July 7, 1924, the remains of the Mountain ASSR were split into North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and Ingush Autonomous Oblast. On January 15, 1934, Chechen and Ingush Autonomous Oblasts were joined into Chechen–Ingush Autonomous Oblast, which was elevated in status to that of an ASSR (Chechen–Ingush ASSR) on December 5, 1936.

World War II

During World War II, in 1942–1943, the republic was partly occupied by Nazi Germany while 40,000 Chechens fought in the Red Army. On March 3, 1944, on the orders of Joseph Stalin, the republic was disbanded and its population forcibly deported upon the accusations of collaboration with the invaders and separatism. The territory of the ASSR was divided between Stavropol Krai (where Grozny Okrug was formed), the Dagestan ASSR, the North Ossetian ASSR, and the Georgian SSR.

Post-war period

The republic was restored on January 9, 1957 by Nikita Khrushchev.

In November 1990, the republic issued the declaration of its sovereignty and in May 1991 an independent Chechen-Ingush Republic was pronounced, which was subsequently divided into independent Chechen Republic and Republic of Ingushetia. Today, both are federal subjects of Russia.

Demographics

  • Vital statistics
Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service
Births Deaths Birth rate Death rate
1970 22,651 6,075 21.2 5.7
1975 22,783 6,469 20.4 5.8
1980 24,291 7,711 20.7 6.6
1985 30,745 10,170 25.0 8.3
1990 31,993 11,039 28.2 9.7
1991 31,498 11,081 26.3 9.2
1992 28,875 10,666 23.1 8.5
  • Ethnic groups
1926 census1 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002 census1
Chechens 295,762 (61.4%) 368,446 (52.9%) 243,974 (34.3%) 508,898 (47.8%) 611,405 (52.9%) 734,501 (57.8%) 1,127,050 (71.7%)
Ingushes 70,084 (14.5%) 83,798 (12.0%) 48,273 (6.8%) 113,675 (10.7%) 134,744 (11.7%) 163,762 (12.9%) 363,971 (23.2%)
Russians 78,196 (16.2%) 201,010 (28.8%) 348,343 (49.0%) 366,959 (34.5%) 336,044 (29.1%) 293,771 (23.1%) 46,204 (2.9%)
Others 38,038 (7.9%) 43,761 (6.3%) 69,834 (9.8%) 74,939 (7.0%) 73,612 (6.4%) 78,395 (6.2%) 33,755 (2.1%)
  1. combined results of Chechnya and Ingushetia

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 г. Национальный состав населения по регионам России. (All Union Population Census of 1979. Ethnic composition of the population by regions of Russia.)" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1979 года (All-Union Population Census of 1979). Demoscope Weekly (website of the Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. 1979. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus_nac_79.xls. Retrieved 2008-11-25. 

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