Székelys of Bukovina


Székelys of Bukovina

The Székelys of Bukovina are a minor Hungarian ethnic group with a special history. Today they live in Tolna and Baranya counties of Hungary, in Hunedoara/Hunyad county of Transylvania and in the Serbian province of Vojvodina.

History

In the second half of the 18th century some Székely groups emigrated from Transylvania to the Province of Bukovina, where they established new villages and kept their unique culture and folk traditions until the 20th century. The cause of the emigration was the organisation of the Székely Frontier Zone by the Habsburg Empire that endangered the ancient privileges and rights of the Székelys. The Székelys protested against the forced conscriptions but their gathering in Madéfalva (now Siculeni) was dispersed by the Austrian General Siskovics in 7 January 1764. In the so-called Massacre of Madéfalva or Siculicidium more than 400 Székelys were killed. After that approximately 1000 Székelys emigrated to the neighbouring Bukovina which was then part of Moldavia, a suzerain of the Ottoman Empire.After northern Bukovina was occupied by Austria in 1774 a new wave of migration began. In 1776 100 Székely families settled down in the sparsely populated territory. In 1784 and 1786 more than 200 families arrived with the help of Emperor Joseph II of Austria and Count András Hadik, the Governor of Transylvania. The villages of the Székelys of Bukovina were: Istensegíts ("God help us!", now Ţibeni), Fogadjisten ("Accept God's will!", now Iacobeşti), Józseffalva (now Vornicenii Mari), Hadikfalva (now Dorneşti) and Andrásfalva (Măneuţi).

The number of the Székelys of Bukovina tripled in the 19th century and in 1880 reached 9,887 and until the end of the 1930s 16,000. Because they have only small plots, the standards of living became worse, and many Székelys temporary or finally left their home. The government of Hungary settled down 4,000 impoverished Székelys in 1883 next to the Lower Danube in the new villages of Hertelendyfalva, Sándoregyháza and Székelykeve. This part of the Banat was included in Yugoslavia in 1918. Other Székely families emigrated to Canada, Brazil or to the towns of southern Transylvania.

After 1918 Bukovina became part of Romania, and the Székelys before long felt themselves an oppressed minority without any Hungarian language education. Most of them waited help and solution for the financial problems from the "mother country". After Hungary in 1941 occupied the former Yugoslavian territory of Bácska (Vojvodina) a forced Magyarization began there. The re-settlement of the Székelys of Bukovina was part of this policy. The whole community of 13,200 people left Romania, and according to a treaty between the Hungarian and the Romanian states they lost their Romanian citizenship and their possessions. In exchange they received the confiscated homes and lands of the Serbs in southern Bácska.

On 8 October 1944 Hungary evacuated the territory and the Székelys fled to Transdanubia. Again, they lost all of their property and became homeless emigrants. In 1945-46 the Székelys were resettled again, mostly in the former German villages of Tolna county. Although there were tensions between them and the remaining German population, eventually they formed strong and flourishing communities. The Székelys of Tolna today are proud of their history and folk customs.

Bibliography

* Andrásfalvy Bertalan: A bukovinai székelyek kultúrájáról. In Népi kultúra népi társadalom. A MTA Néprajzi Kutató Csoportjának évkönyve VII, főszerk. Ortutay Gyula. 7-23. o. Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1973.

* Sebestyén Ádám: A bukovinai andrásfalvi székelyek élete és története Madéfalvától napjainkig. Szekszárd: Tolna Megyei Tanács VB. Művelődésügyi Osztálya, 1972

* Sebestyén Ádám: A bukovinai székelység tegnap és ma. Szekszárd: Tolna Megyei Könyvtár, 1989.

See a "complex bibliography" in Hungarian on the discussion page/Reference

ee also

*Székely
*Bukovina
*Székelykeve


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Bukovina — For the Slovakian village, see Bukovina, Liptovský Mikuláš District. Bukovyna redirects here. For the Ukrainian football stadium, see Bukovyna Stadium. See also: Bukowina (disambiguation) die Bukowina Bucovina / Bukovyna …   Wikipedia

  • History of the Székely people — OriginsMythsAt the end of the 13th century, in a chronicle called Gesta Hungarorum, the notary of Hungarian King Béla explained his beliefs about the conquest of Hungary about 280 years earlier. According to this chronicle, the Hungarians and… …   Wikipedia

  • Siculicidium — A monument raised in remembrance of the victims of Siculicidium The Massacre at Madéfalva (Siculicidium in Latin, which means murder of Székelys ) was a mass murder committed against Székelys by the Habsburg army in 1764, under Maria Theresa.… …   Wikipedia

  • Hungarian people — This article is about Hungarian people, their history and achievements. For population data of Hungary, see Demographics of Hungary. For the 1978 film, see Hungarians (film). Hungarians Magyarok Saint Stephen I …   Wikipedia

  • Skorenovac — Скореновац Székelykeve Székelykeve …   Wikipedia

  • Hungarians in Vojvodina — Vajdasági magyarok Total population …   Wikipedia

  • Csangos — Ceangăi / Csángó Total population 1,370 persons declared to be Csangos (2002 census)[1] 119,618 persons declared Catholic faith in Bacău County (2002 census) [2] maximum estimated population of 260,000[3]( …   Wikipedia

  • Székely — Infobox Ethnic group group=Székely György Dózsa • Sándor Csoma • Áron Gábor poptime= Estimated: 665,000 in Romania 180,000 outside Romania popplace=Romania (mostly in the counties of Harghita, Covasna and parts of Mureş), southern Hungary and the …   Wikipedia

  • Skorenovac — Skorenovac. Skorenovac (serbio: Скореновац, Skorenovac, húngaro: Székelykeve, alemán: Skorenowatz) es un pueblo ubicado en el municipio de Kovin, en el distrito Banato del Sur de Serbia, en la provincia autónoma de Vojvodina …   Wikipedia Español

  • Magyarab people — Magyarabs Regions with significant populations  Egypt and  Sudan : 7000 …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.