Urgent Call for Unity


Urgent Call for Unity

The "Urgent Call for Unity" (German: Dringender Appell für die Einheit) was an appeal by the Internationaler Sozialistischer Kampfbund (ISK) to defeat the Nazis. It was signed by nearly three dozen well-known German scientists, authors and artists in advance of the German federal election in July 1932.[1]

Contents

Background

The June 1932 appeal called for support of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and the Communist Party (KPD) in the Reichstag election in order to prevent the National Socialists from gaining control of the government. The appeal was unsuccessful and Adolf Hitler was later appointed chancellor, after which the Nazis were able to consolidate power.

The appeal was published in the ISK's newspaper, Der Funke in response to the growing strength of the Nazi Party.[1] Placards were also put up all over Berlin.[2]

Text of the message

U r g e n t    A p p e a l !
The annhiliation
of all personal and political freedom
in Germany is imminent, if there is not success at the last minute,
without prejudice to the principles of opposites, to consolidate
all forces that are united in the rejection of fascism. The next
opportunity for this is July 31st. It is imperative to use this
opportunity and finally take a step toward
Building a united labor front,
which is necessary not just for the parliamentary, rather for
additional defense as well. We're addressing everyone who
shares this conviction with us, to aid in this urgent call to
Coalesce around the SPD
and KPD in this election,
best materializing in the form of joint candidate lists, however,
at least in the form of joint party lists. Not only in the political parties,
but especially in the large labor organizations, it is essential
to exert every conceivable influence. Let us ensure that no
sloth of nature or cowardice of heart allow us sink into barbarism!
Chi-yin Chen / Willi Eichler / Albert Einstein / Karl Emonts / Anton Erkelenz
Hellmuth Falkenfeld / Kurt Großmann[3] / E[mil] J. Gumbel / Walter Hammer
Theodor Hartwig / Vitus Heller / Kurt Hiller / Maria Hodann[note 1] / Hanns-Erich
Kaminski[4] / Erich Kästner / Karl Kollwitz / Käthe Kollwitz / Arthur Kronfeld
E. Lauti / Otto Lehmann-Rußbüldt / Heinrich Mann / Pietro Nenni / Paul
Oestreich / Franz Oppenheimer / Theodor Plivier / Freiherr von Schoenaich
August Siemsen / Minna Specht / Helene Stöcker / Ernst Toller / Graf Emil
Wedel[note 2] / Erich Zeigner / Arnold Zweig

Second attempt

On February 12, 1933,[5] two weeks after Adolf Hitler was named Reichskanzler, the identical appeal was made to rally against Hitler in advance of the German federal election, March 1933. Placards appeared on February 14. This time, there were only 19 signatories, among them, Heinrich Mann and Käthe Kollwitz and her husband, Karl.[6][note 3]

Immediate cultural repercussions

On February 15, 1933, the day after the new placards appeared, both Mann, then head of the poetry department, and Kollwitz were forced to withdraw from the Akademie der Künste, Berlin by Bernhard Rust,[6] a Nazi who became the acting head of the Prussian Ministry of Culture on February 2, 1933, and with that, curator of the Akademie. Rust insisted that their presence endangered the very existence of the Akademie.

Akademie president Max von Schillings called a meeting of the entire Akademie that very evening, at which he announced the departure of Kollwitz and said that Mann would also have to quit, or he would, himself quit. The minutes of the meeting report that there were protests from members because Mann was not present, nor had he been invited.[6] The meeting was interrupted so Mann could be called by telephone, after which the meeting was resumed and Mann's resignation was announced. There were protests, including one from Berlin city planner Martin Wagner, who then walked out. In the following days and months, numerous leading artists quit or were forced out of the institution. Alfons Paquet declared his solidarity in a letter on February 17. In March 1933, Paquet, Alfred Döblin and Thomas Mann, younger brother of Heinrich[7] quit. In April, Ricarda Huch quit. Max Liebermann, Paul Mebes, Otto Dix and Karl Schmidt-Rottluff quit in May 1933,[6] after the Nazi book burnings. In July 1937, Mies van der Rohe, Ernst Barlach and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner quit.

See also

Bibliography

  • Werner Link, "Die Geschichte des Internationalen Jugendbundes (IJB) und des Internationalen Sozialistischen Kampfbundes (ISK)." Hain, Meisenheim (1964) in Marburger Abhandlungen zur Politischen Wissenschaft, Vol. I, edited by Wolfgang Abendroth. (German)

Notes

  1. ^ After her emigration to Great Britain, Maria Hodann took the name Mary Saran.
  2. ^ This is probably the Graf Emil von Wedel from Großenhain mentioned in "Bürgermeisterwahlen 1927 – ein historischer Exkurs". Retrieved July 8, 2010 (German)
  3. ^ The other signatories were Willi Eichler, Karl Emonts, Hellmuth Falkenfeld, Kurt Großmann, E.J. Gumbel, Theodor Hartwig, Maria Hodann, Käthe Kollwitz, Karl Kollwitz, Robert Kuczynski, Otto Lehmann-Rußbüldt, Heinrich Mann, Paul Oestreich, August Siemsen, Minna Specht, Erich Zeigner. In addition, there was Anna Siemsen, sister of August Siemsen, as well as Marie Westphal-Krause and Karl Zwing. Körner lists only the first 16 names (see footnote 11), but the PDF file of Der Funke, Edition No. 321, p. 3 shows the additional three signatories.

References

  1. ^ a b Der Funke, Edition No. 147 A (PDF) Friedrich Ebert Foundation, official website. (June 25, 1932) Dringender Appell on p. 2. Retrieved July 6, 2010 (German)
  2. ^ Scan of placard in article about Arthur Kronfeld Internet Publikation für Allgemeine und Integrative Psychotherapie Retrieved July 6, 2010 (German)
  3. ^ Ursula Langkau-Alex, Deutsche Volksfront – 1932–1939 Book mentioning Grossmann's in the German Resistance. Akademie Verlag (2004) ISBN 3-05-004031-9. (German)
  4. ^ Hanns-Erich Kaminski biography Retrieved July 7, 2010 (German)
  5. ^ Der Funke, Edition No. 321, p. 3 (PDF) Friedrich Ebert Foundation, official website. (June 25, 1932) Retrieved July 6, 2010 (German)
  6. ^ a b c d Dorothea Körner, "Man schweigt in sich hinein – Käthe Kollwitz und die Preußische Akademie der Künste 1933–1945" Berlinische Monatsschrift (2000) Issue 9, pp. 157–166. Retrieved July 8, 2010 (German)
  7. ^ Biography of Heinrich Mann. Retrieved July 8, 2010.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Vote counting for Zimbabwean presidential election, 2008 — This article gives details about the vote counting system for the 2008 Zimbabwe presidential electionIn its preliminary report on March 30, the SADC observer mission gave the election a positive assessment, although it noted some concerns. Jose… …   Wikipedia

  • Alliance for Workers' Liberty — Infobox British Political Party party name = Alliance for Workers Liberty party articletitle = Alliance for Workers Liberty party leader = Cathy Nugent foundation = 1966 / 1993 ideology = Third Camp socialism position = Far left international =… …   Wikipedia

  • Military opposition to the Reconciliation, Tolerance, and Unity Bill (Fiji) — Fiji This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Fiji Government …   Wikipedia

  • People's Alliance for Democracy — Type Pressure group Political group Key people Sondhi Limthongkul Chamlong Srimuang Phiphob Thongchai Somsak Kosaisuuk Somkeit Pongpaibul Area served …   Wikipedia

  • Explanation attempts for the Russian apartment bombings — Many different explanations have been given for the Russian apartment bombings. The Russian apartment bombings were a series of explosions that hit apartment blocks in the Russian cities of Buynaksk, Moscow and Volgodonsk in September 1999,… …   Wikipedia

  • Council for National Security — This article is about the military overthrow of the elected civilian government of Thailand in the 2006 Thai coup d état. For information on the civilian government appointed by the junta, see Thailand 2006 interim civilian government. The… …   Wikipedia

  • Pentateuch — • The name of the first five books of the Old Testament. Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Pentateuch     Pentatuch     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • Judaism — /jooh dee iz euhm, day , deuh /, n. 1. the monotheistic religion of the Jews, having its ethical, ceremonial, and legal foundation in the precepts of the Old Testament and in the teachings and commentaries of the rabbis as found chiefly in the… …   Universalium

  • Samakkhi Witthayakhom School — Infobox School name = Samakkhi Witthayakhom School native name = โรงเรียนสามัคคีวิทยาคม latin name = Rong Rian Samakkhi Witthayakhom imagesize = 100px caption = location = flagicon|Thailand 159, Thanon Banphaprakan, Tambon Wiang, Amphoe Mueang… …   Wikipedia

  • Lebanon — /leb euh neuhn/ or, esp. for 1, / non /, n. 1. a republic at the E end of the Mediterranean, N of Israel. 3,858,736; 3927 sq. mi. (10,170 sq. km). Cap.: Beirut. 2. a city in SE Pennsylvania. 25,711. 3. a city in N central Tennessee. 11,872. 4. a… …   Universalium


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.