Jerusalem during the Crusader period


Jerusalem during the Crusader period

The Crusader period in the history of Jerusalem began with the conquest of the city by the Crusader army in 1099, during the First Crusade, as it is now known, Jerusalem became the capital of the kingdom for the crusading Christians, these events occurred after 450 years of Muslim rule. The period was turbulent for Jerusalem, historically characterized by frequent conquests, rule of the city crossing between the Crusaders and the Muslim Ayyubid dynasty.

The first violent upheaval after the capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders occurred with its conquest by Saladin's army - Dean in 1187, the opening of the Ayyubid period in the history of Jerusalem, called by the name - the Ayyubid dynasty.The dynastic ruler Ayyubid had been the Muslim sultan who ruled the Middle East during early 12th century,who, At the end of the Sixth Crusade, in 1229, returned to Jerusalem to control crusade that lasted until 1244, when the city was conquered by the raid H. Waarizmeime. Crusader - Job ended with the rise of Mamluk power in Egypt in 1260 and the conquest of Israel by them.

At the end of the Ayyubid period, there were waves of destruction. The city's fortifications were destroyed first and then most of the buildings which, as part of a deliberate policy of "Ayyubidian scorched earth", intended to prevent future Crusades and Crusaders taking foothold in the city and the region.

This period, short-lived relatively but turbulent, was unusual in the history of Jerusalem. First time since the destruction of the city in 70, served as Jerusalem as the capital of an independent political entity, which returned only status during the British Mandate in the twentieth century, and was slated to return to the central position only after the declaration as the capital of Israel in 1948.

The Crusader period in the history of Jerusalem had decisively influenced the history of the Middle East, and radiating beyond the region -into the countries of Islam and Christian Europe. The Crusades brought the name "Jerusalem" a top position in Islam, reinforced fixed its place in the hierarchy of places holy to Islam, but did not become the city center of spiritual or political. Mshneutak the idea of jihad name of Jerusalem at the end of the Ayyubid period, the city sank geo status - political dropped, when she became a secondary city first Mamluk Empire, and then the city field in the Ottoman Empire.

These reversals do not spared the Jewish community of Jerusalem, despite the difficult circumstances in the city clung struggle waves heroic death and destruction and trying to rehabilitate and build.

Contents

History of Jerusalem in the Crusader - Job

Crusader Jerusalem

Crusader conquest of Jerusalem

Release of the Holy Sepulcher of Jerusalem,from the possession of Muslim rule, were among the main objectives of the First Crusade. The journey began on November 27, 1095, in a speech Pope Urban II, which called for a crusade to Israel the Holy Land. European forces gathering place Crusade made his way east through Asia Minor. After the hardships and constant battles of engaging the Islamic emirate the Christian army went to Antioch newly founded, and began an accelerated journey along the coastal plain road without stopping and without attacking forts, a plan determined in order to conquer Jerusalem.

On June 7, 1099 the "Crusaders arrived R. Joy" (Mont Jean E. Montjoie), identified as Nabi Samuel, first saw the walls of Jerusalem. Shows the holy city lowered the Crusaders to their knees and broke into singing anthems of joy. So, after three years of a journey through uncharted countries face the dangers and suffering of the participants (as well as those of ill fortune get in the way) were just the Crusaders to the purpose of the journey - Jerusalem the holiest Christian city, center of the universe and the place where Jesus (Yeshua) Christ lives died [3].

The city was put under siege on 13 June, but the Crusader army was unable to decide by starvation, and by harsh conditions the Crusaders were in danger that they themselves will be decided hunger and thirst. Chosen tactic was to conquest of the city by force, but only on July 14, after lengthy preparations, the Crusaders were an effective attack on the walls while using the siege. The next day, July 15th, the Crusaders were able to promote their siege tower to the walls of the city under a barrage of arrows and bullets. At noon, after incessant fighting, the battle was a turning point - the Crusaders were the Muslim defense wall collapsed. The Crusaders broke into the city and began to slaughter its inhabitants plunder their possessions. Muslim historian Ibn al Kelnysi number of Jews fled the city to the synagogue and burned alive by the Crusaders. [4] Muslim military commander of Jerusalem, Aipticker A - Daul, locked himself in the Tower City Tower of David, and a short negotiation and was surrendered to life Ashkelon.

Much has been written about the massacre carried out by the Crusaders to the residents of Jerusalem, despite differences in the number of victims according to the different versions, there is no doubt that this is a brutal event. Massacre in Jerusalem that the Crusader worldview exceeded acceptable behavior in the Christian world of medieval religious fanaticism linked with blind faith barbarian military doctrine selfish ambition for personal gain. These seemingly contradictory views nicely integrated into the world at the time and place of the Crusader. And so, while still based in the blood of their victims, raise their hands to heaven crusaders gesture of prayer.

Capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem

With the occupation of Jerusalem and many Crusaders returned to their home in Europe and in Israel were a small number of pilgrims who settled in the Holy Land. Remaining great challenges faced, such as determining the center of Jerusalem as the capital resulting Kingdom of Jerusalem religious fervor that drove the Crusaders throughout the Odyssey of the Crusades, leaving the state's center of gravity outside the main trade routes and distant coastal ports.

Crusader massacre in Jerusalem created a dramatic change in the composition of the population. Muslims and Jews were murdered or deported and banned overlooked these sword stay in the city. And William of Tyre [5]: "Gentiles who had almost lost all its residents with the sword after the city was breached by force and if some had escaped by chance, not give them more space in the city live. Leaders who fear the sky seemed blasphemy, which would allow those which were not among the followers of Christianity to be in such esteemed residents. "

Jerusalem after the conquest was empty of inhabitants, many houses were abandoned and the city resembled a ghost community. Latin city's population was very small and concentrated around the Holy Sepulchre and the Tower of David. Number of William of Tyre [6]: "within the walls of cities, in houses, is hardly a safe place, that residents were few and scattered brown ruins were open to attack an enemy. Thieves were attacking at night, breaking into abandoned cities, residents living far from one another . The result was some secret, others openly and were leaving the assets which have acquired for themselves and began returning to their home countries. "

First step to stop the escape was made by law for declaring a person who holds an asset for a year becomes its owner. Real improvement was achieved by occupation of Jerusalem residents who belong to Christian sects Christianity Eastern Catholic. First Christian returned to the city were deported before the siege of the Crusader called by the Crusaders as "Syrians." Crusader authorities also encouraged local Christians to settle in Jerusalem, despite the suspicious relations, different precipitation struggle for dominance and control of the Holy Sepulcher soured the atmosphere. Thus in 1115 the city settled Syrian Christians, who had moved from their dwelling places and created a sequence Jordan populated North side of town, district called after them. Crusader Kings also worked to encourage trade, and in 1120 abolished King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and the caps imposed on goods and food products made in Jerusalem exemption was expanded to all types of trade and Christian and Muslims that led to the agricultural food products Amahinatrlande of the city.

Jerusalem's economy rested in a non typical medieval cities of tourist Christian pilgrims from Europe got another push exemption from tariffs enabled the city to develop markets and sell them imported goods. Importance of this industry grew with the establishment of Jerusalem as a religious shrine on the road traffic safety improvement. Another factor that affected the city's economy was the presence of administrative center - a royal, ecclesiastical and military orders - follow from Jerusalem.

Being a capital city, Jerusalem was the center of the military orders. The oldest of them - the Order of the Hospitallers, was founded, originally, to provide medical help for Christian pilgrims, who sought to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Over time he assumed the role of warfare Order Muslims. Beginning of the Order around the year 1080. Order a compound sign - Today Muristan, near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Built a house here - and patients - a shelter, where pilgrims would find relief rigors of the journey after months of arduous journeys by land and sea. Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela said that the Order is set to fight against the infidels 400 knights on horseback. [7].

The other big competitor Order Crown Shield of faith, Knights Templar (Templars), founded in 1118 as indicated by official role its founders Declaration was to defend the Crusader kingdom in the Holy Land and pilgrims pilgrim to the holy places the kingdom of Jerusalem. Alongside the protection of pilgrims, knights provided a very strong military force that included thousands of soldiers, including several hundred knights defense of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Templars established their center at Al - Aqsa and eventually continued and reinforced compound structures fortifications. Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela said that "300 Horsemen

From "out of Solomon's Temple to fight against the enemies of the Christian faith [8]

Another order was a special features Order of Saint Lazarus, a Christian religious order founded to treat patients with leprosy. A special session was set for them outside the walls of Jerusalem near the new gate place today, and named after St. Lazarus. The lepers gave his name to all the lepers colonies were established all over Europe. [9] Order of Saint Lazarus was out - the side that was composed of lepers healthy people who have held positions of religious and military. Headed by Master was a leper. This phenomenon - a military religious order who takes part in the country shoulder to shoulder with the healthy population, there was no parallel in Europe at that time, a leper could not fulfill state functions.

Ayyubid Jerusalem

Conquest of Jerusalem

After the victory of Muslims Battle of Hattin on 4 July 1187, occupied almost all the towns in the Kingdom of Jerusalem fortress, left without protectors, the victorious Muslim army led by Saladin - Dean. On September 17 the Muslim troops arrived to the walls of Jerusalem, and on 20 September was Saladin - Dean himself at the top of most of his army gave up Jerusalem, which were at that time 30,000 people and about -30 000 Christian refugees from all over the Land of Israel. The siege was relatively short but intense and violent, with both sides feel that the war is the main symbol of their faith and their culture centers. After bitter battles the Muslims were able to undermine the city's fortifications in the area between Damascus Gate Flower Gate, close to where the Crusaders broke into their town in 1099. Defenders realized that their fate was sealed, and that is not possible to save the Christian conquest of Jerusalem. Requested by the Latin Patriarch Hirakelioas, and apparently under pressure from the civilian population pressure fell fighting spirit, decided to Christians to enter into negotiations with Saladin - a conditional surrender law. The only card left by the Crusaders was the threat that if not end the blockade harmed the Islamic holy sites - the Temple Mount where the Dome of the Rock and the al - Aqsa. This threat, combined with pressure from the Muslim battalion commanders to end the fighting, has signed a contract which give the city surrender Saladin - a lawyer, and residents are prisoners of war they can redeem themselves for a fee.

On October 2, given Jerusalem to Saladin - Dean began the exodus of Christians from Latin. Ten City were able to redeem themselves, but the poor and refugees who came to the city with nothing, having already fled their homes, they could not pay the ransom. The church treasures were mostly from the city by the Latin Patriarch, who found it necessary to set aside money from them to maturity prisoners, but passed them with Muslim cavalry purposes. The part of the city's poor actually saved Saladin - Dean, releasing thousands of them free of charge. Among the liberated without ransom was Queen Sybil, wife of Guy de Lizenian, King of Jerusalem captive, was allowed to visit him in his arrest in Nablus. 15,000 destitute Christians remaining in the city after 40 days of the evacuation of the city in convoys of prisoners from Jerusalem went to the Muslim cities such as Damascus and Cairo, where they spent their lives as slaves. Christians who managed to extricate themselves from Jerusalem were from Israel through the Egyptian-controlled ports, such as Ashkelon, and even through Alexandria, where the ships were on their way to Europe and the Italian communes. [10] the fall of Jerusalem and the holy places shocked Europe. The shock would lead to the sudden death of Pope Urban III, leaving the Third Crusade. For Saladin - Din, was the capture of Jerusalem a valuable political achievement, he set him as the defender of religion, legendary military as Commander in Chief, and bought him a special status in the Muslim world.

Muslim Jerusalem

After the conquest of Jerusalem, Saladin - Dean worked to delete the Christian character. Crosses hanging over the Temple Mount holy sites have been removed, and the buildings returned to their positions before the mosques. Al - Aqsa Mosque, in the Crusader was the Templar Order Center, any indication of Christian purity. Crusader building additions were destroyed expensive furniture items brought to. The Dome of the Rock Christian altars were removed and structure photographers returned to a mosque. Great Maria Church building became a hospital (now Muristan area). Church of St. Anne has madressa, other churches were destroyed Waveniane repair damage caused by the blockade. In addition, much attention has been devoted to frantic efforts have been invested in rehabilitating the city's fortifications condensation to prepare a possible future attack Christian.

Crusaders - Latin Christians - were mostly from the city, but local Christians, belonging to the Eastern Church, remained in the city as a sponsor for a fee poll tax (Arabic: C Izia جزية), and in return received permission to live in the city. [11] was transferred to the Holy Sepulcher Church Greek church keys entrusted to two Muslim families. To establish the status of Jerusalem's Muslim and image, created Saladin - Dean endowments to support a system of religious institutions in Jerusalem, such as schools and mosques, by linkage Investment income of lease and rental payments reached, earmarked to finance the continuous operation of the waqf, ongoing maintenance structure, and support the believers.

Christian world's response came quickly, the Third Crusade from Europe in 1190 was to cancel the effects of the defeat of the Battle of Hattin, recapture the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the city of Jerusalem. Battles began with the conquest of Acre, the Crusaders were then under the command of Richard the Lion Heart to Jerusalem. After the military success in Arsuf, the Crusaders came to Jerusalem, but withdrew and decided not to try to capture her various political and tactical considerations. Instead, both parties entered negotiations, during which he declared Salah - Dean that the concept of Jihad and sanctity of Jerusalem to Islam was central to him a new meaning. English king letter he admits that he could not discuss the future of Jerusalem;

"Do not be like the King in his mind that such waiver is possible, do not dare utter a word about it to the Muslims" [12]

Eventually forced Richard the Lionheart and leave out from the Holy Land of Jerusalem by the Muslims, and according to the agreement from -1192 to Christians the freedom to make a pilgrimage to visit holy places.

Destruction of Jerusalem

With the death of Saladin - Dean in 1193 broke up the Ayyubid empire was divided among his sons. Conflict between states Ayyubid the premiere luxury tore the Middle East, and alliances were formed apart. Jerusalem fell from its status as a city of beer and became a Muslim religious center in the province capital city is often centered in Damascus and sometimes Cairo. However, the Crusades came to the shores of Israel to return the city to the Kingdom of Jerusalem left the city as a focus for conflict in the Christian - Muslim. This combination of geopolitical status either on the one hand, and the focus of a struggle between - religion on the other, led to the destruction of the city during the Fifth Crusade.

Ayyubid ruler of Syria, al-Malik al - Moaat Gem, who worked vigorously to the same period restoration of fortifications and buildings of Jerusalem, decided to divert the main Crusader effort Fifth Crusade to Egypt to facilitate that Muslim fighters, and turned its efforts systematic destruction of the Crusader castles in Israel in general Jerusalem in particular. Muslim anger was directed mainly to Jerusalem. Command to destroy the town to the ground, given by the Sultan, seemed so improbable, the actual presence was required to - Moaat, from Jerusalem to carry out. So the city passed two waves of destruction in 1219 and -1220. Total destruction brutal, which destroyed most of the buildings in Jerusalem and destroyed its walls, dragged severe reactions by residents of Jerusalem, who thought that it was Judgement Day. Jerusalem Muslim women cut their hair and put him in mourning the Temple Mount plaza. The vast majority of the population, including the Jewish community, left the city, the city remained standing mainly Citadel Tower of David, Holy Sepulchre, the holy Muslim compound on the Temple Mount.

Jerusalem returns to the Crusaders

Attempt to return Jerusalem to Christian rule and return to the previous battle of Hattin spawned a series of crusades exhausted the power of Europe, but did not bring desired results. Extraordinary efforts of these Christian Sixth Crusade was led by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, he left Italy to the land of Israel in 1228. This campaign was the direct continuation of the Fifth Crusade, but significantly different from all other major crusades to Israel. This journey is not marked by battles between Muslims and Crusaders, but mainly in the negotiations, conclusion of a peace treaty was signed when the Crusaders took control of Jerusalem and other holy places in Israel.

This peace agreement, known as Jaffa agreement, signed for 10 years and passed large areas in Israel to control the Crusader. Under the agreement, given Jerusalem to the Crusaders completely controlled by the emperor. Temple Mount area, where Al - Aqsa and the Dome of the Rock, remains conducted by Muslim soldiers in religious rituals. Townspeople could Christians Pilgrimage Temple Mount. Jurisdiction in civil disputes between Muslims and Christians were given by a Muslim judge. Thus came into Jerusalem and an unprecedented legal situation, which promised freedom of access and freedom of worship in the holy places, are controlled by Muslim [13].

Beavers Muslim historian describes the Muslim exodus from Jerusalem: "Jerusalem was the Muslim declaration of the port while painful and full of resentment over the loss of the holy city and cursing the name of Allachaml." [14]

Kadi Majed A. - Dean wrote a lament for the destruction: "I passed the peace of Jerusalem delegated back of the left of it. My hot tears in memory of glorious past. Here is a barbarian ruler wants to demolish the remains and landing on criminal hand Unholy. Tell him this: drying your right! heavy please this city Loasthopap for those who wish to pray there. it was to buy revenue can I give myself mentally atonement and all Muslims would do the same. "[15]

The end of the Crusader period

Disintegration of the Crusader kingdom reached its peak with the defeat in the maximum held on 17 and 18 October 1244 between the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Muslim allies, and Egypt, not far from the city of Gaza. The Egyptians won the battle, the Crusaders suffered their worst defeat since the Battle of Hattin disaster [16]. Crusaders defeat were among the most serious consequences of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Jerusalem in particular. One of the armies participating in combat, military eighth charisma, appearance in the Middle East was described by writers from catastrophic disaster, moved quickly toward the battle field from Achinosm Syria into Galilee, and on 11 July 1244 were against the walls of Jerusalem.

Although Sahah 'Waarizmym were not prepared to impose a siege on Jerusalem, the local population felt panic After it became clear that the country hosts the new Crusader and their allies are unwilling to deviate from their march to the south and do not intend to remove the threat of siege and occupation over Jerusalem. Residents decided to leave the city on the night of August 21, and the refugees suffered from attacks by local residents. But suddenly turned and some are trying to Jerusalem residents returned from Jerusalem. According to the story of Christian flags spotted fleeing leveraged on the walls of Jerusalem, believing that the Christian army conquered the city. [17] Christians, ill fortune and returned to Jerusalem, had fallen to eighth Waarizmym and slaughtered them all. Churches in Jerusalem within and outside walls were destroyed, special attention has been devoted to the destruction of the Holy Sepulcher.

Among the refugees who fled from Jerusalem were Jews, residents of the city since its occupation in 1187 by Saladin - Dean. This destruction, the last in a series of disasters, resulted in the Jerusalem low. Elimination of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by the Mamluks in the '90s of the 12th century put the Land of Israel and Jerusalem to the Mamluk period, during which the status of Jerusalem fell secondary city without fortifications economically and politically insignificant, besides being the home of Islamic holy sites.

Status and orders of government

Jerusalem, the capital of a feudal kingdom, enjoyed special status in the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Regnum Hierosolymitanum). On the one hand - the seat of Government Center throne lay within its fortress capitals in the north to south, on the other hand senora center of the largest and most important in the kingdom - the property of the King - the most important feudal senor, which means land Centre direct control of the king, who transferred to the baskets of the Crown. King's presence led to crystallization royal court, the constant presence of the local nobles and foreign residents brought an activist-based population. The secular government of the Kingdom of Jerusalem developed in the city and created a hierarchical system of administrative and special governmental capital city, as well as complex legal system is active.

Jerusalem's unique status also derives from being the center of the local Latin Church - because of the presence of the Holy Sepulchre and the right seat of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, who heads the pyramid Ahachancitit. Relationship between these two governmental forces were formed immediately after the conquest of Jerusalem. On 2 February 1100 Godfrey of Bouillon said Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem from Jaffa Easter quarter of that year gave him the city of Jerusalem in exchange for a promise for future distribution range of occupations, but Godfrey of Bouillon, now protector of the Holy Sepulcher, died shortly after agreements have not materialized. Head of the Church had to settle for control of the patriarch in a neighboring district Holy Sepulcher. It was an autonomous district and - procedural - Senora first independent feudal church - in the Royal senora Jerusalem.

Jerusalem were a number of senior officials in the kingdom. Ahssanishal (Seneschal) - King's deputy, Ahkonytabel - commander in chief and his deputy U.S. marshal (Mareschal). Both part of the royal administration sitting Maculah palace.

The city itself was a separate administrative system headed by the commander of the fort (Xtlnum - Castellanus), in charge of military forces in the city itself - the garrison. This role is often merged with the role Huickoms (Vicecomes) - the top civilian official in Jerusalem. Europe's role in a noble servant from the king, served as Jerusalem Kingdom of Jerusalem by the Master Commissioner. This position is not inherited the officer was replaced by Lord's command. Another municipal unique role in Jerusalem was the Mahatasab (Mathessep) was responsible for the existence of routine municipal laws in the city.

Many details about the institutions and authorities in Jerusalem are not clear - since the city palace archives did not survive the ravages of time, and disappeared during the occupation of Jerusalem by Salah Al - Din and then - Acre by the Mamluks in 1291.

Crusader Jerusalem's topography

Marge fortification system roads in the Old City of Jerusalem has not changed significantly at the crossing points between the periods since the founding of Aelia Capitolina until today. Crusader Jerusalem was, at its peak, active city with a glorious impressive fortifications and public buildings no less impressive. Devastation experienced by the end of the city with the beauty leaves the pages of books of the period - Vhisturiugrafim pilgrims writings of the period and schematic maps drawn during the Middle Ages. Archaeological research has difficulty - in light of the findings minority - to paint a full picture of the Crusader city's unique topography.

The city's fortifications

The Tower of David

Main building fortifying Crusader Jerusalem and one of the buildings survived the ravages of time is the Tower of David (Turris David). Fort was built on the basis of a Muslim fort was built on the remains of the Torah towers Ahharodyneit Castle, Tower of David, He was about 35 feet (11 m) and may well dressed enormous stones attached by lead, sat on the tower Phasael Ahharodyini fortification.

The main building was the Crusader fortress in the sixties of the 12th century, when the Crusaders increased the area west and north wall target. This creates a fortress the size of 750 square feet (70 m2) with six towers surrounding a courtyard. Completely separated fortress city area, surrounded by a ditch brown on all sides, and slippery was built utilizing the external side features river fort - a stream of water toward the Valley of Hinnom [18].

The western gate of Jerusalem, now known as the Jaffa Gate is named in the Crusaders named David Gate (Porta David), has moved and copied alongside the Tower of David West to its present location while creating a fortified sequence. Entrance to the castle is set on a wooden bridge that spanned indestructible inner moat. Open more connected, apparently, between the castle with the king's palace (curia Regis) was located in an area known today Achakislo. Fort for the royal garrison commanded by Xttilane (Latin: Castellanus) carried the title Ahxttilane David Tower was probably also responsible for tariffs on goods entering the city gate.

Twenty years after the conquest of the city was the royal palace from the Al - Aqsa building adjacent to the fortress on the ruins of Herod's Palace. Fort, although heavy fighting was saved from destruction and loss, which was established by Salah A. - Dean after the conquest of Jerusalem in 1187 and by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and his representatives in 1229, after the destruction of city walls in 1219.

Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela [19] the number in 1170 that "the name hypocrisy and Kunin that Jews each year from the king who will make no one painting in Jerusalem that if the Jews alone and D. Jews Dream under the Tower of David at the edge of the state"

City walls

As noted, the absolute destruction of the city passed during the Fifth Crusade not left many traces Crusader set of walls of Jerusalem. However you can set that line of wall fortifications Ottoman relatively closely follows the line of the Crusader wall - which was massive and complicated; moat "dry" - about 15 feet (4.6 m) wide and 9 meters high wall around the northern Lions Gate to Damascus Gate way Tower of Tancred, - since this wall was the main weakness of Jerusalem. The city had several goals, along with smaller apertures - Flea (Posterna), but the main ones were David Gate (Jaffa Gate), USD St Stefan (Lions Gate) and the exchange of Jehoshaphat (Lions Gate).

Invested Ayyubid period, Muslims direct command of Salah Al - Din, a supreme effort in rehabilitating and improving the city walls spurring the impending threat of the Third Crusade, its soldiers were besieging Acre. In this context, surrounded by Mount Zion Wall is included in the city. Was an important fortification tower wall Tancred (Turris Tancredi), whose remains are in a building College de France. This massive production for the northwest corner of the wall, on the basis of an earlier tower was named after Prince Crusader, who participated in the conquest of Jerusalem. Excavations in the '70s instead of the 20th century the tower's foundations were built of huge stones. [20] A tower near the street with a width of about 3 m, immediately after the remains of the Crusader city wall about 3 feet (0.91 m) wide along with a width cut a ditch about 19 meters. West tower was built aqueduct leading rainwater from the Russian Compound and through an opening in the wall into the city. [21] [22]

Other remains Crusader Jerusalem wall found at the Damascus Gate [23] called the Crusader period was St. Stephen Gate (Porta S. Stephani). The importance of this rate change with time, but it is clear that the structure of the gate today was part of a gate of the Crusader. Thick brown massive, partially exposed remains, continued from the gate to a distance of 20 meters outside the walls of Jerusalem and created a square where another rate constant. St. Stephen gate with the corresponding street walked the city wall and several feet broke the street at an angle of 90 degrees to the direction the main gate - today's Damascus Gate to break any direct attack on the gate.

Quarters, major streets and sites

Picture reconstructing the image of a Crusader Market Tower of David Museum in Jerusalem

Crusader Jerusalem was divided into quarters are defined, characterized by the national association of residents. These quarters boundaries defined by the topography through the city streets up and down, when they overlap the outline of the Byzantine city's streets - that was saved until today.

Jerusalem's main street stretches guess Crusader St. Stefan (Damascus Gate) to the Zion Gate (Porta Montis Syon) - The street is called St. Stephen Street (V. sancti Stephani) - up to the Holy Sepulcher, where the road divided into three markets covered: covered market, a market bad cooking spices market. These markets were formed during Melisende Crusader queen, queen of Jerusalem divided the western half of the wide Cardo three parallel narrow markets and added a stylish covering every market. She dedicated the stores percent intervals Santa Anna monastery, where she spent her younger sister Agnes. This market system exists to this day, the streets called "Spice Market", "Market butchers" and "market jewelers."

Exit from markets, money changers square, split the street into two - Mount Zion Road (Via Montis Syon) Arch Street Judea (Via Arcus Jude), the name of this street is derived from identifying a Crusader of the spectrum as the suicide of Judas Iscariot. These blocks cover score returned reunited Crusaders, whose location was the east gate of Zion Ottoman. Saint Stephen was suppose another street, street of Spain, went to the southeast to the gate of the tanners, located at the lowest point in Jerusalem, who served as a resort outside the city cleaner. In this region for meat market [24], and next were tanners - Spare skins. West to east across the main street of Jerusalem further called David Street (Via David) route of the present David Street. He started at Jaffa Gate and led to the market area, here renamed Temple Street (Via Templi) and stretches to the gate Magnificent - Chain Gate today.

Patriarch Quarter

Old First Ward was sitting in Jerusalem after its conquest, is roughly parallel the Christian Quarter. District boundaries to start from the Tower of David Tancred tower, where the gate of St. Stephen Street Eastern Cardo Path of Aelia Capitolina to Muristan area. Neighbor Quarter of Jerusalem's main churches close neighbors. The Crusaders built the complex Muristan the Little Church of Mary (Latin) (Ecclesia Sanctae Maria ad latinam minor) Great Mary Church (Ecclesia Sanctae Maria ad latinam major), Sshridiane compound were seen by the end of the 19th century. Compound also built a hospital of the Order of the Knights of St. John Hospital in Jerusalem (Hospitale S. Iohannis). Adjacent neighbor Holy Sepulcher was the spiritual center of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and destination for pilgrims from the Christian world. In addition to these institutions were a large number of district and other churches, which appears a map of Cambrai, which describes in detail the Crusader city. Muristan compound built around a distributed markets according to types of goods sold in them - the fish market, cheese market, market money changers and market chickens which were also sold souvenirs for pilgrims. This quarter web site were attributed to the Crusaders last way of Jesus (Jesus). The research of archaeologist Dan Bahat indicates that the Crusaders have formulated the concept of the Via Dolorosa, but today's stations do not overlap the Crusader stations. [25]

Syrian Quarter

This district bordered to the west and south of St. Stephen Street on the Temple Mount area is now called the Muslim Quarter. Quarter square was known to Jews as the Islamic period it lived in the city's Jewish community. This community, took an active part in protecting the Crusaders during the siege of Jerusalem, was destroyed with the capture of the city, and construction were slaughtered mercilessly. As mentioned below, to expand the population of the city, sat in the Crusaders Christian population - Syrian. District housed a number of churches known to that Church of St. Anne (Ecclesia S. Anne) survived intact. During the Jerusalem Archaeological Survey conducted by Charles Clermont - GNU addresses were found with the name of the Church of frame shops in the market today's perfume (spice market Crusader). These markings indicate that these assets were owned by the church, making a living of their income. These stores were transferred during the Ayyubid rule Alclhiia School Endowment, located in the church.

Temple Mount

This special area is located in East Jerusalem's Old City, and covered since the days of Herod the artificially elevated plaza old flat 140 acres. Byzantine period saw the Temple Mount deserted, abandoned and neglected. Many of the stones were taken for construction and the place also served as the city dump. During the Islamic period buildings were built on the mountain Dome of the Rock, the Al - Aqsa sanctified the site stood in marked contrast to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre which was Abalibutah. Crusader conquest of Jerusalem has changed the status of the Temple Mount from Muslim sacred Christian rituals administrative center. Crusaders attributed the periodic structures on the mountain biblical made holy Dome of the Rock to "Lord" (Templum Domini) and Al - Aqsa to the Hall Solomon "(Templum Solomonis), whose name (1118) later call the Order of Templars, or its full name - Knights Templar, as the Templars believed the al - Aqsa Intifada, their headquarters, the palace of King Solomon. Crusaders identified on the mountain where the sacrifice of Isaac and place of Jacob's Ladder, divide - the place the actions of Jesus as a preacher and proves at the gate.

The Dome of the Rock laid a large golden cross Crusaders, who later became the symbol of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, and later a symbol of the Franciscan Order. South Temple Mount are set to their central headquarters in Israel and the large space mountain southeastern corner called Solomon's Stables. The Crusaders built several buildings on the Temple Mount. Dome of the increase (in Arabic, "occurred while the - Mi'raj") is one of the few who survived the ravages of time. Al-Aqsa mosque west of the Templars built a large building with huge cloister halls, basements, adjacent to a new church was built. This palace was used as the center of the order until the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem, then the Muslims destroyed the Crusader building additions on the mountain, removed the gold cross and dragged him through the city a sign of contempt.

Entrance to the Temple Mount was mainly through the gate or gate magnificent glory (Latin: Porta Speciosa), the name of verse from Acts in the New Testament "temple gate called the gate of glory."

Another entrance to the Temple Mount was possible on holidays and especially Palm Sunday through the Golden Gate, named by the Golden Gate Crusaders (Latin: porta aurea), but the rest of this year the gate was locked. [26]

Southern Quarter

This district bordered to the west of the Temple Mount, to the south - the southern wall of the city, and north - Temple Street. St. Germans in the eastern part of the quarter was their center of pilgrims from Germany, who had gathered around the Church of Santa Maria of the Knights (St. Maria Alemannorum), built in 1143 according basilica by the movement of German knights. It was built in the area where the hostel hospital. Remains of the church are today's Jewish Quarter, near the stairs leading Quarter Western Wall plaza. [27] West German neighborhood, which lies in today's Armenian Quarter, as the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem - a closed community and special bound the fate the fate of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Was rebuilt during the Crusader period St. James Cathedral and next to a hostel for pilgrims was built.

Water supply

Jerusalem is known from time immemorial lacks sufficient water resources. During the Crusader period was the water supply system of the Second Temple period was the Crusaders destroyed enough knowledge to rebuild it. Water supply relied on small cisterns hewn in every home and used for collecting rain water, and reservoirs within the city walls - including swimming pools Hezekiah and sheep (Probatica). Other pools were outside the city walls. Was the largest reservoir Lacus Germani now known as Sultan 's Pool, built in 1176. Another pond, used for watering livestock for agricultural purposes, was swimming Patriarch (Lai del Patriarch) - Today, pool anyway. The Crusaders also have increased and deepened the Siloam Pool, (Siloe) fed by the Gihon spring through Siloam tunnel.

Crusader sites outside the city walls

Mount of Olives

Mount of Olives is located east of Jerusalem's Old City. Mountain sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims, many traditions associated with it. Height of observation is specified from the Old City of Jerusalem Temple Mount caused the most realistic maps of ancient Jerusalem and the illustrations were made from the angle of standing on the mountain. Cambrai Map indicates the number of Crusader sites that reside in the Mount of Olives, the map of outgoing ways leading the Golden Gate Gate of Jehoshaphat Valley of Jehoshaphat, and connect to the tomb Mary Church - that the valley was owned. Another building from the Crusader is Akeldama (Aramaic: the bloody field) held by the Knights Hospitallers and served as a burial place for pilgrims. Modern monastery stands at the Crusader building called The bodies were buried with the bones pilgrims. Miriam near the tomb, where now stands the Church of All Nations was a Crusader church completely destroyed Gat AIPM in 1345.

Mount Zion

Like the wall surrounding Jerusalem today, even during the Crusader period was Mount Zion outside the city limits. In the 13th century the Crusaders built a giant included Cloister Church St. Mary of Mount Zion (S. Maria de monte Syon) described in the writings of pilgrims, a magnificent building surrounded by a wall, a monastery and a guesthouse. Tomb of David became the crypt of the church and it seems that today the number of used sarcophagus of King David was placed there by the Crusaders. Second floor of the building was dedicated to the Last Supper - pages and arcs divide the room into three sections Crusader, Crusaders-style buildings properties from the 13th century. One of the pillars in the room decorated with pictures pelicans.

Mentioned in writings Crusader Church of St. Peter Church Galiaknto not standing on the mountain - now stands a modern church in memory of the church there is no crusader.

Monastery of the Cross

Valley of the Cross impressive structure was built by Bagrat IV of the united Georgian Kingdom in the years 1039 to 1056, the foundations of an earlier church. Georgian monks, the monastery housed the encouragement of the Crusaders. Muslims conquered Jerusalem and the mosque became the building until 1305 it returned to its function and structure returned to the original owner [28]. Church - the main building from the Crusader, built nave and two stereo, divided by square pillars bearing vaults, with mosaics from the Crusader period preserved intact. [Edit] Ein Hamad

Ein Hamad is the Hebrew name of the national park a small nature reserve close to reside in the hills of Jerusalem in the river channel the living room. They are lovely interchange south of Highway 1, about seven kilometers west of Jerusalem. Ein Hamad sitting on the route of an ancient Roman road which was also used in later times was called by the Crusaders through the Emmaus of the ancient Jewish community there. The road connected the region with humiliation and the hills of Jerusalem and at first the course near the area known today as a park came to Canada from Abu Ghosh and from there to the Castel and Givat Shaul Jerusalem through the day. The site is also known as the Latin name Aqua Bella (beautiful water in Hebrew) is the Arabic name Ayakbelah disruption Latin name. the northern bank of the channel in the channel impressive ruins of a Crusader building the size of 30 to 40 meters and his front wall facing toward South rises to a height of 12 meters. The building was constructed of local stones, some dressed edges. building a number of gates with two spacious Satckertam vaulted halls. According to the analysis of the architectural plan of the building structures based on the similarity Other Crusader found in the country, the researchers concluded that the building is a fortified farm water sources maintained site.

Prophet Samuel's Tomb

The building now known as Nabi Samuel is a Mamluk mosque built on the ruins of a fortified church from the Crusader period. The excavated there were wide and deep moat was dug around the fort, warehouses and homes. Nebi Samuel importance of the Crusader period due to being the first vantage point, from which pilgrims could see the holy city of Jerusalem, for it is called the site named "Mount Joy" (Montis Gaudii). Travel diary of Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela, who visited Israel in 1173, described the Crusaders, as they pass through the Ramla, identified by them as "what", found in the bones of the prophet Samuel, and brought them with them, Okbrom re-Nabi Samuel - identified by them at Shiloh . After the fall of the country by Salah Al - Din, the fort became a mosque, Samuel burial traditions very strengthened both among Muslims and Jews. [29]

Demographics

Christian

In 1099, after the conquest of Jerusalem, Godfrey of Bouillon was declared to shield the Holy Sepulchre "(Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri) and head of the pyramid of the church caught the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, Daymbert, revolution removed the Greek Orthodox Patriarch status. Since all city residents were killed after the conquest of the city, all of Jerusalem's population Crusaders francs. Crusader royal family's efforts to expand the population of the city brought local Christians immigration emergency, Egypt, the Caucasus, Syria and Asia Minor to Jerusalem, and in 1160 an estimated number of residents in 30,000 people, of whom about 20,000 local Christians, whom the Crusaders called "Syrian Christians" [30]. Crusader kingdom was a country of immigrants from Europe who have a Latin Christian worship and see the holy throne top religious authority. This ethnic group was at the top of the feudal system run by the Latin crusaders and maintained for them. Other Christian communities in Jerusalem were inferior in rank and had to pay a poll tax than a Latin church. Crusaders were not satisfied with administrative changes and confiscated many properties - monasteries, mosques, churches divide - were handed over to the Latin church. The local Christians were a number of places of worship in Jerusalem, where prayers were held on time.

This Greek Orthodox community, whose sons were gathered in Jerusalem from all over the Middle East, living in Jerusalem as Lord down on his luck. Jerusalem became the district headquarters of the Latin Patriarchate, and they found living in all other parts of the city. Community members appeared to have skilled craftsmen, their talent was essential for the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Crusaders This committee rejected the previous position, as well as the right to choose the heads of the congregation - was placed under the Latin patriarchs. Although it maintained the worship Greek Orthodox monasteries scattered throughout the land of Israel, mainly in the Judean Desert, and they feed on constant movement and undisturbed of pilgrims - children of the church in the eastern basin of the Mediterranean.

Oriental Syrian Christian communities, fewer numbers Coptic Ethiopians, came to Jerusalem Kings Crusaders encouraged to increase the number of residents in Jerusalem. Community members, who were farmers and laborers, had no military tradition. Jerusalem numbers increased after the Crusader conquest of the County of Edessa in 1144, fled from the community Achspalittim kingdom of Jerusalem. Ostracized from the Orthodox Christian majority, the only remaining members of the community clinging to the city after its destruction in 1219 - they have no place of refuge. [31]

This solitary Armenian community, whose sons were also used as mercenaries for all parties in Israel and Asia Minor, was sitting in the Armenian Quarter of Jerusalem today. The Armenian community was a courageous ally of the Crusaders, who appreciated his military capabilities, such as their education and knowledge of the languages which were blessed. Headquarters in Jerusalem, St. James Cathedral was built in the 12th century Byzantine remains based on the 6th century, and the magnificent exist in Israel.

Jews

Capture of Jerusalem by the Crusaders in 1099 brought an end to violence and destruction of a prosperous Jewish community, who participated in the defense of the city together with the Muslim inhabitants of Jerusalem. Since the city was not allowed for settlement of Jews (exception of a handful of colors that he met Benjamin of Tudela). With the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid changed the legal situation and began a period of tolerance toward Jews, which characterized the Muslim rulers of the 12th century. Judah's famous essay Alharizi "Tachkemoni" describes the author's encounter with a Jewish resident of Jerusalem, held in 1216, about the history of the Jewish community in Jerusalem after the Ayyubid blockade [32]: Cquote2.svg forest god the spirit of the Ishmaelites in four thousand nine hundred and fifty creation rests on the spirit of counsel and might, he and his host went up from Egypt to Jerusalem and gave it created the voice he commanded to each city to every young multi-wit: Talk about the heart of Jerusalem, to to all who wants to seed of Ephraim, which will remain Assyria and Egypt, the sky will gather at the edge remote from her wig and encamped on the border. We just sit in time Henmatakat Cquote1.svg

This historic section analysis indicates [33] Professor Joshua Prawer, that the very conquest of the city by the Ayyubid canceled all orders and decrees Crusader allowed re-entry of Jews. Three years later, in the heat of fighting in the Third Crusade Salah carrots - Dean decree the destruction of Ashkelon, which surrounded the Jewish community also possible that the residents of this community were the basis for the Jewish community in Jerusalem. Jewish community Neetltlo the alternating waves of destruction and construction in the city last Ayyubid and the general massacre victims were residents of the city conducted by the eighth Waarizmym in 1244.

During this difficult time held the Jews in Jerusalem, against all logic, against all the calculation of benefit. This settlement was powered from a great inner urge to live in Jerusalem, close to the holy sites of Judaism and the need for observance related to the country, also recurred at times that life in the city were in the balance living conditions were impossible. So find Alharizi active Jewish community in the city, where residents from the community of Western (Maghreb Jews), Jewish community from Egypt to Ashkelon Jewish community of France. It is told in a letter in 1214 on the transfer of funds from Jewish communities in Egypt Jerusalem community to support the needy and to build synagogues.

Crusader structures

Holy Sepulcher

Holy Sepulchre today is largely a Crusader building - part of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre Crusader inaugurated on 15 July 1149 - Fifty years after the conquest of the city. The Crusaders established on the basis of a new church Byzantine Church, which united a number of buildings associated with the crucifixion actually. Although later identified stops on the way leading to the church and began the tradition of Via Dolorosa.

Church of the Holy "Crusader" was much smaller than the original Byzantine church, and included, in terms of territory, only the Calvary Hill Court rotunda. Entrance to the church was made through a front yard (Platea Spulcri) - Heritage outline of the Byzantine church, which characterizes the colonnade led by "titles basket." Left of the entrance bell tower was built just at the bottom survived, whereas on the right were stairs to Calvary. Church chapels were so different, too, represent characters and events from the life of Jesus, and a visit to the site visit which is considered "real." [34] with his church compound of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem monastery was surrounded by a wall. Maps from the Crusader church appears in several names, sometimes the Greek name Resurrection (Anastasis) with Calvary chapel times lower (Golgata) Calabria (Calvaria) upper structure.

In her essay "The Art of Crusader Jerusalem" [35] notes Professor Bianca Kohanl: "Crusader basilica is formal and functional solution to all problems putting an appropriate place to architect all periods. First, it provides a counterweight to the rotunda with three apses (North West and South) beat (ambulatory) around the grave by its own beat radial Chapels; to find balance east and west weight complex with a compact and harmonious structure. Second, the new structure also appropriately emphasizes the place of the tomb and the hill Ahagogta, and gives the worshiper cult pilgrim Church Landscape. "

Crusader takeover of the Holy Sepulcher marked the passage of the Land of Israel and the holy places to the complete control of the Catholic Church and the Orthodox Church's status and washing up. This struggle also reflected light ceremony Saturday, according to Polk Mshrter chronicler - in 1101 the fire kindled only after Baldwin I of Jerusalem, went to the temple the Lord (Temple Mount) and prayed humbly, the Greeks helped the Latins, and made the miracle for them while the latter prayed fervently on the Temple Mount .

Saladin conquest - Dean he decided not to harm the Holy Sepulchre and placed the keys of the church by two Muslim families, the Association "to Goody" Family " The Joudeh family are key custodians of the holly sepulchre until now while Nussiebah family responsible for door keeping the church.

Church of Mary's Tomb

Tomb of Mary Church (Ecclesia S. Maria in Valle Josphat) is located in a cave underground - the bottom of the Kidron Valley channel. Original graves dated first century AD. Later the tomb, Mary's grave was identified, separated from the rock surrounding it is shaped like a cross. Godfrey of Bouillon, the first Crusader King of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, built a monastery for monks Vendyaktinym. Established in 1130 in a magnificent church. The complex, located outside the city walls, surrounded by walls and towers to keep Muslim bandits. Queen's ashes Melisende of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem was buried in the chapel in 1161. [36] Excavations at the site during the British Mandate showed that the Crusaders extended the Byzantine Church added a flight of stairs down the crypt, and unique front facing today.

After the conquest of Jerusalem by Saladin - Dean destroyed the church and monastery, the building blocks were dismantled and used to strengthen the fortifications of Jerusalem, the only entrance to the chapel of the sub - floor (crypt) have survived.

Church of Ascension

Immigrant Church preserves the tradition of Jesus' rise to heaven. When the Crusaders conquered Jerusalem in 1187 they built an octagonal chapel on the site, which is composed of eight pillars. Today we can see the basic pillars of Ahportico surrounding the chapel yard. West, North - West and North are clearly and completely on three sides Octagon outer wall was built in part of the day. Today, only four bases of the half-page four internal corners of the Octagon. There were probably eight pages. The yard was covered but the roof was destroyed today. Eastern wall of the courtyard has three altars and another south of them. Hadicolo Crusader was open to the sky. Inside the church were Crusader titles with palm branches or thorny plant and titles with gryphons and animals and birds wrestling. [37] There is much similarity in proportions between immigration and the Church of the Holy Sepulcher and the Dome of the Rock. Octagonal shape element is probably the result of the Crusader, possibly influenced by the monumental building of the Dome of the Rock. This element is reflected in the main towers of the Government House Museum Rockefeller, structures built during the British Mandate by the British, who saw itself as having the direct path of the Crusaders.

After the conquest of Jerusalem by Saladin - Dean in 1187 the church moved to Muslims. Around the year 1200, restored the church, which was a Muslim place of worship: the open roof was replaced by a dome, the arches have been sealed with stones, the rock was moved from Hadicolo at Mahreb southern wall was built hexagon-shaped wall was built around the site.

Church of St. Anne

Church of St. Anne was built north of the Temple Mount, near pools and sheep, have called home Chisda pools Crusaders, Byzantine church was in place to mark the birthplace of Mary, mother of Jesus. After the first Crusade the Crusaders established a small monastery chapel, dedicated to the healing miracle of Jesus [38] also built a large church dedicated next St. Anna, mother of Mary. The fate of the small monastery, which were based on William of Tyre "four poor women, has changed after deciding Baldwin I of Jerusalem to divorce his wife Princess Arda where the Armenian monastery. To allow the former Queen appropriately be increased status monastery property, income and importance. The monastery became a place of residence of the royal family and important women that Melisende's sister Agnes, Queen of Jerusalem. Melisende, religion and welfare of her sister were close to her heart, increased income-generating assets were transferred to the monastery.

The church is an example of the most common type of a Crusader church in Israel - a basilica with a nave and two secondary wings ending in three apses East parallel. The building combines an early Romanesque style building with local building traditions and ancient Christian Byzantine influences. Steps leading right wing Roman crypt, which according to Christian tradition is the birth place of Mary.

Five years after the defeat of the Crusaders in 1187 the church became a Muslim madressa (Muslim school), as described above the lintel at the entrance: "As Allah is merciful. All well and good that came your destiny is Allah. Madrasa was built for this blessed Waqf by our Lord Saladin Din Sultan of Islam and Muslims. " For the transformation of the church madressa close the city's conquest by Salah al-Din of the building is well maintained and is one of the most beautiful examples of Crusader architecture in Jerusalem.

Ayyubid Buildings

Ayyubid dynasty rule period is short ancient Jerusalem truncated, but in building construction projects were launched in a number of influencing the appearance of today's Old City. Most of the investment was aimed to rehabilitate the Muslim character of Jerusalem and the return of the crown of glory to the Temple Mount. Additional effort was invested in strengthening the fortifications of the city walls. After the conquest of the city of churches and religious buildings have changed their identity and became Christians and mosques and schools. The Temple Mount destroyed Crusader building additions Christian worship marks have been removed, new structures were built for the welfare of the faithful.

Dome corner grammar is south - west of the top surface of the Temple Mount, built by the Ayyubid prince little 'D' Isa, governor of Damascus, in 1207. The dome is an elongated rectangular structure with three rooms, the length of the building about 25 meters, the center entrance arches.

Dome of the increase (in Arabic, "occurred while the - Mi'raj") is an octagonal structure (it has eight sides), 6 meters wide, built on the Temple Mount, probably in the 12th century Chapel originally served as a dip. Building damaged during the Ayyubid conquest of Jerusalem, established in 1200. During reconstruction of the building were sealed arches that characterized him and added a prayer niche (Mahraab) facing Mecca.

Library Khaldi (Arabic: al - from the subsidiary to - Khalidi المكتبة الخالدية) is an important Muslim library in the Muslim Quarter of Jerusalem. The library contains rare and important manuscripts based in a unique structure on the chain. The building is an architectural encyclopedia of medieval Jerusalem. Beginning in the Crusader period, in the 13th century. Designation at this time is unknown. Mid-13th century warriors were buried in three H. Waarizmym. Architecturally the building has a mixture of styles of bow - bow cushions - Crusader construction characteristic zigzag or Ayyubid Mamluk Palestine with features such as Ablk, combining red and white stone doorway surrounded by round windows in a zig - zag.

Conclusion

Seventh Crusade led to the collapse of the idea of the Holy Crusades to Israel, but also end the rule of the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt with the murder of Malik Almoate Gem Thorane Shah - the last Ayyubid Sultan. Instead increased the stage of history of the Middle East, Egypt and Israel Mamluks, who will within a generation to make extinct the remains of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Jerusalem, the city whose very name the hosts pushed Salah - Dean and the idea of Jihad in the 12th century, remained outside the circle of the Mamluk ideological. Jerusalem was no more than a destination, and departure from the grip of Christianity has not been under the threat of Muslim character. Mamluks were directed against the religious Lotma Crusader kingdom and its capital theory, Acre, and against the Mongol invaders. Disappear threat of new Crusades could not be the target of the city called holy war could not ignite the imagination of the faithful. Jerusalem star way back for a moment and died Muslim history marginal status.

Google Maps of Jerusalem Crusader

Crusader has a wealth of manuscripts and maps that describe Jerusalem. These maps are not intended for purposes of navigation or research, but are intended to describe Jerusalem as a Christian, to subject the world his eyes. Schematic maps are characterized by sometimes describing the author's imagination, in some cases not seen Jerusalem. Sites listed are related mainly Christian biblical tradition.

See also

References

  • Joshua Prawer,'history of the Crusader kingdom in Israel, Volume II, Bialik Institute, First edition, 1963, expanded and revised third edition, 1973, sixth printing, 2005; School won Israel Prize French translation of the French Academy Award
  • Joshua Prawer Hagai Ben - MayBook of Jerusalem - Crusader and Ayyubid Period (1250-1099) published by Yad Ben Zvi Jerusalem Atsne"a.
  • Dan Bahat, A. Schiller (ed.)shows the city of Jerusalem Crusader'- a bloody history of the Second Temple of Jerusalem to the Ottoman period, Ariel, Jerusalem Atsne"ab
  • Adrian J. Boas. Jerusalem in the time of the crusades: society, landscape, and art in the Holy City under Frankish rule. Routledge, 2001
  • Sylvia Schein. Gateway to the heavenly city: crusader Jerusalem and the Catholic West (1099-1187). Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2005

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