- Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy
Margaret of Austria Princess of Asturias
Duchess consort of Savoy
Portrait of Margaret of Austria Spouse John, Prince of Asturias
Philibert II, Duke of Savoy
House House of Habsburg Father Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor Mother Mary, Duchess of Burgundy Born 10 January 1480 Died 1 December 1530(aged 50)
Margaret of Austria (10 January 1480 – 1 December 1530) was, by her two marriages, Princess of Asturias and Duchess of Savoy, and was appointed Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1507 to 1515 and again from 1519 to 1530.
Margaret was born on 10 January 1480, as the second child and only daughter of Maximilian of Austria and Mary of Burgundy, co-sovereigns of the Low Countries. She was named after her stepgrandmother, Margaret of York, Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, who was especially close to Duchess Mary. In 1482, Margaret's mother died and her older brother, Philip the Handsome, at that time three years of age, succeeded her as sovereign of the Low Countries, with his father Maximilian as his regent.
In 1482, her father and the King Louis XI of France signed the Treaty of Arras, whereby her father promised to give Margaret's hand in marriage to Louis's son Charles. The engagement took place in 1483. Margaret, with Franche-Comté and Artois as her dowry, was transferred to the guardianship of King Louis XI of France, who died soon after. She was educated at the French royal court and prepared for her future role as queen of France. She was raised as a fille de France by Madame de Segré, under the supervision of her fiancé's sister and regent, Anne of France. Several French noble children had their education overseen by Anne as well, amongst which Louise of Savoy, with whom she would later negotiate peace.
Margaret developed genuine affection for Charles. However, in the autumn of 1491, he renounced the treaty and married Margaret's stepmother[note 1] Anne, Duchess of Brittany, for political reasons. The French court had ceased treating Margaret as queen early in 1491. The Duchess of Brittany had been married to Margaret's father by proxy but their marriage was annulled. Margaret was not returned to her stepgrandmother's court until June 1493, after the Treaty of Senlis had been signed in May that year. Margaret was hurt by Charles's action and was left with a feeling of enduring resentment towards France.
Marriage to John of Castile
In order to achieve an alliance with Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, Maximilian started negotiating the marriage of their only son and heir, John, Prince of Asturias, to Margaret, as well as the marriage of their daughter, Joanna, to Philip. Margaret left the Netherlands for Spain late in 1496.
The marriage took place in 1497. John died after only six months, on 4 October. Margaret was left pregnant. On 8 December, she gave birth to a stillborn daughter. The Dowager Princess of Asturias returned to the Netherlands early in 1500, when her brother and sister-in-law invited her to be godmother to their newborn son, Charles of Austria.
Marriage to Philibert of Savoy
In 1501, Margaret married Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (1480–1504), who died three years later. This marriage had been childless as well. After his death, she vowed never to marry again. Her court historian and poet Jean Lemaire de Belges gave her the title "Dame de deuil" (Lady of Mourning).
She was appointed for the first time as governor of the Habsburg Netherlands (1507–1515) and guardian of her young nephew Charles (the future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). Margaret acted as intermediary between her father and his subjects in the Netherlands, negotiated a treaty of commerce with England favorable to the Flemish cloth interests, and played a role in the formation of the League of Cambrai (1508). After his majority in 1515, Charles rebelled against her influence, but he soon recognized her as one of his wisest advisers, and she was again governor of the Netherlands (1519–30) intermittently until her death. In 1529, together with Louise of Savoy, she negotiated the Treaty of Cambrai, the so-called Ladies' Peace.
Her reign was a period of relative peace and prosperity for the Netherlands, although the Protestant Reformation started to take root, especially in the northern Netherlands. The first Protestant martyrs were burnt at the stake in 1524 and 1525. She had some difficulty in keeping Duke Charles of Guelders under control. She could make him sign the Treaty of Gorinchem in 1528, but the problem was not finally dealt with during her reign.
Patroness of the arts
Margaret had received a fine education. She played several instruments, was well read and wrote poetry. Her court at Mechelen was visited by the great humanists of her time, including Erasmus. She possessed a rich library, consisting mostly of missals, historical and ethical treatises (which the works of Christine de Pizan) and poetry. It included the famous illuminated Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry. She ordered several splendid music manuscripts from Pierre Alamire to send them as gifts to members and her family and to her political relations, and possessed several Chansonniers herself. They contained works by Josquin des Prez, Johannes Ockeghem, Jacob Obrecht and Pierre de la Rue, who was her favourite composer.
She died at Mechelen, between Antwerp and Brussels, her main place of residence in the Netherlands, after appointing her nephew, Charles V, as her universal and sole heir. She is buried at Bourg-en-Bresse, [department of l'Ain, Rhone-Alpes] in the magnificent mausoleum that she ordered for her second husband (Philibert) and her. There is a statue of her next to the cathedral of Mechelen.
Ancestors of Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy 16. Leopold III, Duke of Austria 8. Ernest, Duke of Austria 17. Viridis Visconti 4. Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor 18. Siemowit IV, Duke of Masovia 9. Cymburgis of Masovia 19. Alexandra of Lithuania 2. Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor 20. John I of Portugal 10. Edward of Portugal 21. Philippa of Lancaster 5. Eleanor of Portugal 22. Ferdinand I of Aragon 11. Eleanor of Aragon 23. Eleanor of Alburquerque 1. Margaret of Habsburg 24. John II, Duke of Burgundy 12. Philip III, Duke of Burgundy 25. Margaret of Bavaria 6. Charles I, Duke of Burgundy 26. John I of Portugal (= 20) 13. Isabella of Portugal 27. Philippa of Lancaster (= 21) 3. Mary, Duchess of Burgundy 28. John I, Duke of Bourbon 14. Charles I, Duke of Bourbon 29. Marie, Duchess of Auvergne 7. Isabella of Bourbon 30. John II, Duke of Burgundy (= 24) 15. Agnes of Burgundy 31. Margaret of Bavaria (= 25)
- ^ Robin, Larsen and Levin. p. 43.
- ^ Gonkdo, Michal (2006). Dame de Deuil. Musical Offerings for Marguerite of Austria (1480-1530), 3. CD Booklet KTC 4011
- ^ Triest, Monica (2000). Macht, vrouwen en politiek 1477-1558. Maria van Bourgondië, Margaretha van Oostenrijk, Maria van Hongarije. Leuven, Van Halewijck.
- ^ Schreurs, Eugeen; Vendrix; Philippe (2005). The sweet melancholy of Margaret, translated by Celia Skrine, 11. CD Booklet MEW 0525.
- ^ Kellman, Herbert (ed.) (1999). The Treasury of Petrus Alamire. Music and Art in Flemish Court Manustricpts 1500-1535. Leuven, Die Keure.
- ^ Schreurs, Eugeen (1998). Margarete – Maximilian I, translated by Stratton Bull, 14. CD Booklet ORF CD 265.
Margaret of Austria, Duchess of SavoyBorn: 10 January 1480 Died: 1 December 1530
- Margarete - Maximilian I. Musik um 1500, Capilla Flamenca with La Caccia, Schola Cantorum Cantate Domino Aalst, Schola Gregoriana Lovaniensis, 1998, ORF Shop CD 265 (2 CDs).
- Dulcis Melancholia, Biographie musicale de Marguerite d'Autriche, Capilla Flamenca, 2005 (MEW 0525).
- Dame de Deuil. Musical Offerings for Marguerite of Austria, La Morra, 2005 (KTC 4011).
- Diana Maury Robin, Anne R. Larsen and Carole Levin (2007). Encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. ABC-CLIO, Inc.
Regnal titles Preceded by
William de Croÿ
Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands
Mary of Hungary
Italian nobility Preceded by
Yolande Louise of Savoy
Duchess consort of Savoy
VacantTitle next held byBeatrice of Portugal Austrian archduchesses by birth 1st generationnone 2nd generationArchduchess Helena · Kunigunde, Duchess of Bavaria 3rd generationMargaret, Duchess of Savoy 4th generation 5th generationElisabeth, Queen of Poland · Maria, Holy Roman Empress* · Anna, Duchess of Bavaria · Archduchess Isabella* · Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg · Archduchess Magdalena · Catherine, Queen of Poland · Eleanor, Duchess of Mantua · Archduchess Margaret · Joan, Princess of Portugal* · Barbara, Duchess of Ferrara · Archduchess Ursula · Archduchess Helena · Joanna, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 6th generationAnna, Queen of Spain · Elisabeth, Queen of France · Archduchess Maria · Archduchess Maria · Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Hetherlands* · Archduchess Margaret · Catherine Michelle, Duchess of Savoy* · Archduchess Eleanor · Archduchess Maria* · Archduchess Martha · Archduchess Anna Eleanor · Archduchess Maria · Anna, Holy Roman Empress · Anna, Queen of Poland · Maria Christina, Princess of Transilvania · Archduchess Catherine Renata · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana · Archduchess Eleanor · Margaret, Queen of Spain · Constance, Queen of Poland · Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 7th generationArchduchess Christine · Anna, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Maria Anna, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Anna Mauritia · Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Margarita Francisca* · Cecilia Renata, Queen of Poland · Archduchess Maria Eleanor · Isabella Clara, Duchess of Mantua · Maria Leopoldine, Holy Roman Empress 8th generationArchduchess Maria Margarita* · Archduchess Margarita Maria Catalina* · Archduchess Maria Eugenia* · Archduchess Isabella Maria Teresa* · Maria Anna, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia* · Maria Theresa, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Margarita Teresa, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Theresia Maria Josepha · Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine · Claudia Felicitas, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate · Archduchess Maria Ambrosia de la Concepción* · Archduchess Maria Magdalena 9th generationMaria Antonia, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia · Archduchess Anna Maria · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Christina · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth · Maria Anna, Queen of Portugal · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Maria Magdalena · Archduchess Maria Margaretha 10th generationMaria Josepha, Queen of Poland · Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Theresa · Maria Anna, Princess Charles Alexander of Lorraine · Archduchess Maria Amalia 11th generationArchduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Archduchess Johanna** · Archduchess Maria Josepha** · Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples** · Marie Antonia, Queen of France** 12th generationArchduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Marie Christine · Maria Theresia, Queen of Saxony** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia*** · Archduchess Maria Josepha*** · Maria Leopoldine, Electress of Bavaria*** · Maria Clementina, Duchess of Calabria** · Archduchess Maria Amalia** · Archduchess Maria Antonia*** · Maria Ludovika, Empress of Austria*** 13th generationArchduchess Ludovika Elisabeth · Marie Louise, Empress of the French · Archduchess Carolina Ferdinande** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Caroline Ludovika · Maria Leopoldina, Empress of Brazil · Clementina, Princess of Salerno · Archduchess Maria Luisa** · Archduchess Alexandrine · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia** · Marie Caroline, Crown Princess of Saxony · Archduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Amalia Theresa · Maria Theresa, Queen of the Two Sicilies · Maria Theresa, Countess of Chambord*** · Archduchess Hermine · Archduchess Franziska · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Adelaide, Queen of Sardinia · Maria Beatrix, Countess of Montizón*** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska · Marie Henriette, Queen of the Belgians 14th generationArchduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria** · Archduchess Maria Maximiliana** · Maria Isabella, Countess of Trapani** · Archduchess Maria Theresia** · Archduchess Maria Cristina** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg · Archduchess Mathilda · Maria Christina, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Eleonora · Archduchess Elisabeth · Maria Dorothea, Duchess of Orléans · Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis · Archduchess Elisabeth Henriette · Archduchess Klotilde · Maria Theresa, Queen of Bavaria*** 15th generationArchduchess Sophie · Gisela, Princess Leopold of Bavaria · Archduchess Marie Valerie · Margarete Sophie, Duchess of Württemberg · Archduchess Maria Annunziata · Elisabeth, Princess Aloys of Liechtenstein · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Luise, Crown Princess of Saxony** · Anna, Princess of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein** · Archduchess Margareta** · Archduchess Germana** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Maria Theresa** · Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha** · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Maria Immaculata, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Henriette** · Maria Christina, Princess Emmanuel of Salm-Salm · Maria Anna, Princess Elias of Bourbon Parma · Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst · Archduchess Natalie · Archduchess Stephanie · Archduchess Gabrielle · Isabella, Princess Georg of Bavaria · Alice, Baroness Waldbott of Bassenheim · Archduchess Eleonora, Mrs. Alfons von Kloss · Renata, Princess Hieronymus Radziwill · Mechthildis, Princess Olgierd Czartoryski · Archduchess Gisele · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Magdalena 16th generationElisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz · Helena, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg** · Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Dolores** · Maria Inmaculada, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri** · Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio** · Princess Maria Antonia, Mrs. Luis Pérez** · Archduchess Assunta, Mrs. Joseph Hopfinger** · Elisabeth, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil** · Hedwig, Countess of Stolberg-Stolberg** · Gertrud, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Margarethe, Mrs. Alexander Cech · Ilona, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Archduchess Anna Theresia · Archduchess Maria Kynga, Mrs. Joachim Krist 17th generationArchduchess Adelheid · Charlotte, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Elisabeth, Princess Heinrich of Liechtenstein · Elisabeth, Edle Hubert von Braun** · Alice, Baroness Vittorio Manno** · Marie Antoinette, Baroness of Proff in Irnich** · Archduchess Marie Christine** · Archduchess Walburga, Mrs. Carlos Tasso** · Archduchess Verena** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Roland Huber** · Agnes, Baroness Peter of Fürstenberg** · Maria Ileana, Countess Adam Kottulinski** · Alexandra, Baroness Viktor of Baillou** · Maria Magdalena, Baroness of Holzhausen** · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. Friedrich Sandhofer** · Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein** · Archduchess Maria Margaretha** · Archduchess Ludovica** · Archduchess Allix** · Josepha, Countess Clemens of Waldstein-Wartenberg** · Valerie, Margravine of Baden** · Alberta, Baroness Alexander of Kottwitz-Erdödy** · Theresa, Princess Rasso of Bavaria** · Maria Inmakulata, Countess Reinhart of Hoensbroech** · Archduchess Monika, Mrs. Charles de Rambures · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Raymond van der Meide · Archduchess Maria, Mrs. Wilhelm de Witt · Margherita, Countess Benedikt of Piatti 18th generationAndrea, Hereditary Countess of Neipperg · Monika, Duchess of Maqueda · Michaela, Countess Hubertus of Kageneck · Archduchess Gabriela, Mrs. Christian Meister · Walburga, Countess Archibald Douglas · Maria Beatrix, Countess Riprand of Arco-Zinneberg*** · Isabella, Countess Andrea Czarnocki-Lucheschi*** · Maria del Pilar, Edle Vollrad-Joachim von Poschinger · Kinga, Baroness Wolfgang of Erffa · Archduchess Marie Adelheid, Mrs. Jaime Corcuerra · Archduchess Viridis, Mrs. Karl Dunning-Gribble · Archduchess Alexandra, Mrs. Héctor Riesle · Maria Constanza, Princess of Auersperg-Trautson · Maria Anna, Princess Peter Galitzine · Catharina, Countess Maximiliano Secco d'Aragona · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. James Litchfield · Sophie, Princess of Windisch-Grätz · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Clemens Guggenberg · Archduchess Marie Bernadette, Mrs. Rupert Wolff** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Niall Brooks** · Archduchess Alicia** · Archduchess Maria Christina** · Archduchess Margaretha, Mrs. Andreas Baumgartner** · Archduchess Marie Valerie, Mrs. Martin Josef Wagner** · Archduchess Hedwig** · Archduchess Veronika** · Archduchess Johanna · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Celina · Archduchess Maria Floriana · Archduchess Sofía · Archduchess Anna Carolina · Archduchess Theresa · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Ladislaya 19th generationArchduchess Eleonore · Archduchess Gloria · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Hilda · Archduchess Maria Laura*** · Archduchess Luisa Maria*** · Archduchess Laetitia Maria*** · Archduchess Sophia · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Margherite · Archduchess Priscilla · Archduchess Marie des Neiges · Marie Christine, Countess Rodolphe of Limburg-Stirum · Archduchess Gabriella · Archduchess Antonia · Archduchess Isabelle · Archduchess Carlotta · Archduchess Paulina · Archduchess Lara · Archduchess Katharina · Archduchess Tatyana** · Archduchess Anabella** · Archduchess Tara** · Archduchess Amaya 20th generationArchduchess Zita · Archduchess Anežka *also an infanta of Spain
**also a princess of Tuscany
***also a princess of Modena
Princesses of Asturias
Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano (2004-present)Princess Maria Antonia of Naples and Sicily (1802-1806) · Princess Maria Luisa of Parma (1765-1788) · Infanta Barbara of Portugal (1729-1746) · Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans (1722-1724) · Princess Elisabeth of France (1615-1621) · Mary I of England (1554-1556) · Infanta Maria Manuela of Portugal (1543-1545) · Archduchess Margaret of Austria (1497) · Blanche II of Navarre (1468-1474) · Catherine of Lancaster (1388-1406)Mary of Burgundy(1416-1422) · Princess Anne of Cyprus (1434-1462) · Princess Yolande of France (1465-1472) · Bianca Maria Sforza (1474-1482) · Bianca of Montferrato (1485-1490) · Claudine de Brosse (1496-1497) · Yolande Louise of Savoy (1497-1499) · Archduchess Margaret of Austria (1501-1504) · Infanta Beatrice of Portugal (1521-1538) · Princess Margaret of France (1559-1574) · Archduchess Catherine Michelle of Austria (1582-1597) · Princess Christine Marie of France (1630-1637) · Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans (1663-1664) · Marie Jeanne of Savoy (1665-1675) · Anne Marie d'Orléans (1684-1713)
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