Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy


Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy
Margaret of Austria
Princess of Asturias
Duchess consort of Savoy
Portrait of Margaret of Austria
Spouse John, Prince of Asturias
Philibert II, Duke of Savoy
House House of Habsburg
Father Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Mary, Duchess of Burgundy
Born 10 January 1480(1480-01-10)
Died 1 December 1530(1530-12-01) (aged 50)
Belgium

Margaret of Austria (10 January 1480 – 1 December 1530) was, by her two marriages, Princess of Asturias and Duchess of Savoy, and was appointed Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1507 to 1515 and again from 1519 to 1530.

Contents

Early life

Portrait of Margaret by Jean Hey, ca. 1490 (aged ten)

Margaret was born on 10 January 1480, as the second child and only daughter of Maximilian of Austria and Mary of Burgundy, co-sovereigns of the Low Countries. She was named after her stepgrandmother, Margaret of York, Dowager Duchess of Burgundy, who was especially close to Duchess Mary. In 1482, Margaret's mother died and her older brother, Philip the Handsome, at that time three years of age, succeeded her as sovereign of the Low Countries, with his father Maximilian as his regent.

In 1482, her father and the King Louis XI of France signed the Treaty of Arras, whereby her father promised to give Margaret's hand in marriage to Louis's son Charles. The engagement took place in 1483. Margaret, with Franche-Comté and Artois as her dowry, was transferred to the guardianship of King Louis XI of France, who died soon after. She was educated at the French royal court and prepared for her future role as queen of France. She was raised as a fille de France by Madame de Segré, under the supervision of her fiancé's sister and regent, Anne of France. Several French noble children had their education overseen by Anne as well, amongst which Louise of Savoy,[1] with whom she would later negotiate peace.

Margaret developed genuine affection for Charles. However, in the autumn of 1491, he renounced the treaty and married Margaret's stepmother[note 1] Anne, Duchess of Brittany, for political reasons. The French court had ceased treating Margaret as queen early in 1491. The Duchess of Brittany had been married to Margaret's father by proxy but their marriage was annulled. Margaret was not returned to her stepgrandmother's court until June 1493, after the Treaty of Senlis had been signed in May that year. Margaret was hurt by Charles's action and was left with a feeling of enduring resentment towards France.

Marriages

Marriage to John of Castile

In order to achieve an alliance with Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, Maximilian started negotiating the marriage of their only son and heir, John, Prince of Asturias, to Margaret, as well as the marriage of their daughter, Joanna, to Philip. Margaret left the Netherlands for Spain late in 1496.

The marriage took place in 1497. John died after only six months, on 4 October. Margaret was left pregnant. On 8 December, she gave birth to a stillborn daughter. The Dowager Princess of Asturias returned to the Netherlands early in 1500, when her brother and sister-in-law invited her to be godmother to their newborn son, Charles of Austria.

Marriage to Philibert of Savoy

In 1501, Margaret married Philibert II, Duke of Savoy (1480–1504), who died three years later. This marriage had been childless as well. After his death, she vowed never to marry again. Her court historian and poet Jean Lemaire de Belges gave her the title "Dame de deuil" (Lady of Mourning).[2]

Political role

Portrait of Margaret by Bernard van Orley

She was appointed for the first time as governor of the Habsburg Netherlands (1507–1515) and guardian of her young nephew Charles (the future Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor). Margaret acted as intermediary between her father and his subjects in the Netherlands, negotiated a treaty of commerce with England favorable to the Flemish cloth interests, and played a role in the formation of the League of Cambrai (1508). After his majority in 1515, Charles rebelled against her influence, but he soon recognized her as one of his wisest advisers, and she was again governor of the Netherlands (1519–30) intermittently until her death. In 1529, together with Louise of Savoy, she negotiated the Treaty of Cambrai, the so-called Ladies' Peace.

Her reign was a period of relative peace and prosperity for the Netherlands, although the Protestant Reformation started to take root, especially in the northern Netherlands. The first Protestant martyrs were burnt at the stake in 1524 and 1525. She had some difficulty in keeping Duke Charles of Guelders under control. She could make him sign the Treaty of Gorinchem in 1528, but the problem was not finally dealt with during her reign.

Patroness of the arts

Margaret had received a fine education. She played several instruments, was well read and wrote poetry. Her court at Mechelen was visited by the great humanists of her time, including Erasmus.[3] She possessed a rich library, consisting mostly of missals, historical and ethical treatises (which the works of Christine de Pizan) and poetry. It included the famous illuminated Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry.[4] She ordered several splendid music manuscripts from Pierre Alamire[5] to send them as gifts to members and her family and to her political relations, and possessed several Chansonniers herself.[6] They contained works by Josquin des Prez, Johannes Ockeghem, Jacob Obrecht and Pierre de la Rue, who was her favourite composer.

Death

She died at Mechelen, between Antwerp and Brussels, her main place of residence in the Netherlands, after appointing her nephew, Charles V, as her universal and sole heir. She is buried at Bourg-en-Bresse, [department of l'Ain, Rhone-Alpes] in the magnificent mausoleum that she ordered for her second husband (Philibert) and her. There is a statue of her next to the cathedral of Mechelen.

Ancestry

Notes

  1. ^ Anne of Brittany married Maximilian of Austria in 1490. The marriage was annulled by the Pope in 1492; by that time, Anne had already been forced to marry Charles VIII of France.

References

  1. ^ Robin, Larsen and Levin. p. 43. 
  2. ^ Gonkdo, Michal (2006). Dame de Deuil. Musical Offerings for Marguerite of Austria (1480-1530), 3. CD Booklet KTC 4011
  3. ^ Triest, Monica (2000). Macht, vrouwen en politiek 1477-1558. Maria van Bourgondië, Margaretha van Oostenrijk, Maria van Hongarije. Leuven, Van Halewijck.
  4. ^ Schreurs, Eugeen; Vendrix; Philippe (2005). The sweet melancholy of Margaret, translated by Celia Skrine, 11. CD Booklet MEW 0525.
  5. ^ Kellman, Herbert (ed.) (1999). The Treasury of Petrus Alamire. Music and Art in Flemish Court Manustricpts 1500-1535. Leuven, Die Keure.
  6. ^ Schreurs, Eugeen (1998). Margarete – Maximilian I, translated by Stratton Bull, 14. CD Booklet ORF CD 265.

Bibliography

  • Margarete - Maximilian I. Musik um 1500, Capilla Flamenca with La Caccia, Schola Cantorum Cantate Domino Aalst, Schola Gregoriana Lovaniensis, 1998, ORF Shop CD 265 (2 CDs).
  • Dulcis Melancholia, Biographie musicale de Marguerite d'Autriche, Capilla Flamenca, 2005 (MEW 0525).
  • Dame de Deuil. Musical Offerings for Marguerite of Austria, La Morra, 2005 (KTC 4011).
  • Diana Maury Robin, Anne R. Larsen and Carole Levin (2007). Encyclopedia of women in the Renaissance: Italy, France, and England. ABC-CLIO, Inc. 
Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy
Born: 10 January 1480 Died: 1 December 1530
Regnal titles
Preceded by
William de Croÿ
Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands
1507–1530
Succeeded by
Mary of Hungary
Italian nobility
Preceded by
Yolande Louise of Savoy
Duchess consort of Savoy
1501–1504
Vacant
Title next held by
Beatrice of Portugal

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