- M1 carbine
name=Carbine, Caliber .30, M1
World War IIto Vietnam War
manufacturer="Military contractors" "Commercial copies"
production_date=September 1941–August 1945; commercial 1945-present
service=July 1942–1960s (U.S.)
Korean War, Vietnam War
feed=15 or 30-round detachable box magazine
rate=Semi-automatic (M1/A1) 850–900 rounds/min (M2/M3)
variants=M1A1, M1A3, M2, M3
number=Over 6.25 million
The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber .30, M1) is a lightweight semi-automatic
carbinethat became a standard firearm in the U.S. military during World War IIand the Korean War, and was produced in several variants. It was widely used by U.S. and foreign military and paramilitary forces, and has also been a popular civilian firearm.
U.S. Marine with the M1 carbine in
United States' M1 Garand riflewas originally developed to chamber a lighter .276 round, but this design feature was canceled in the early 1930s. The M1 rifle would eventually be chambered for the same powerful .30-06 Springfieldstandard round used in other service weapons of the time, such as the Springfield M1903, the BAR, and the M1917/M1919 machine guns. This left the Army without the lighter, handier rifle it had wanted. This, along with lessons learned during earlier wars, observations of conflicts during the 1930s, and dissatisfaction with existing submachine guns and rifles contributed to the development of the M1 Carbine.
Troops in rear areas (such as truck drivers or supply personnel),
paratroopers, or front-line troops required to carry other equipment (such as medics, engineers and mortar crews) found the full-size rifles too cumbersome, and pistols and revolvers to be insufficiently accurate or powerful. Submachine guns such as the Thompson were more than sufficiently powerful for close-range encounters, but lacked effective range and were not significantly easier to carry or maintain than the existing service rifles (such as the M1903 and Garand).
The same considerations applied to airborne infantry, a concept that was also under consideration at the time. Prior to the development and issue of submachine guns such as the M3 "Grease Gun", a submachine gun like the Thompson was also much more expensive than pistols and most rifles of the period. The M1 Garand, then entering service, was as heavy and cumbersome as existing service rifles. It was decided that a new weapon was needed for these other roles. While the range of a pistol is about 50 yards and the range of existing rifles was several hundred yards, the requirement for the new firearm called for a maximum range of 300 yards.
A carbine version of the standard-issue semi-automatic rifle was considered, but the .30-06 round for which the M1 Garand was chambered was found to be too powerful. The requirement was for a weapon lighter and handier than the Garand, with less recoil, but at the same time, greater range, accuracy, and effective
stopping powerthan the M1911A1 pistols currently in use. The M1 Carbine was intended for use by soldiers who required a more compact, lightweight defensive weapon, and for soldiers who did not utilize an infantry rifle as their primary arm.
In 1938, the Chief of Infantry requested the Ordnance Department develop a lightweight rifle or carbine, though the formal requirement for the weapon type was not approved until 1940. This led to a competition in 1941 by major U.S. firearm companies and designers. Winchester at first did not submit a design, as it was occupied in developing the .30-06 Winchester Military Rifle. The rifle originated as a design by Jonathan "Ed" Browning, half-brother of the famous weapons designer
John Browning. A couple of months after Ed Browning's death in May 1939, Winchester hired ex-convict David M. "Carbine" Williams, a some-time bootlegger who had devised a short-stroke gas piston design while serving a prison sentence for murder. (This unlikely true story, a natural for the movie industry, was the basis of the 1952 movie " Carbine Williams" starring James Stewart.) Winchester hoped Williams would be able to complete various designs left unfinished by Ed Browning. Williams' first design change for the rifle was the incorporation of his short-stroke piston design. After the Marine Corps semi-automatic rifle trials in 1940, Browning's rear-locking, tilting bolt design was considered to be unreliable in sandy conditions. As a result, the rifle was redesigned yet again to incorporate a Garand-style rotating boltand operating rod.
The prototypes for the US M1 carbine were chambered for a new cartridge, the .30 M1. The
.30 Carbineis a smaller and lighter .30 caliber (7.62 mm) round, very different, in both design and performance, from the .30-'06 used in the Garand. The .30 Carbine cartridge was intermediate in both muzzle energy("ME") and muzzle velocity("MV"). Essentially a rimless version of the obsolete .32 Winchester Self-Loadingcartridge, the .30 Carbine had a round-nose convert|110|gr|g|abbr=on|lk=on bullet. From the M1 Carbine's convert|18|in|abbr=on barrel, the .30 Carbine cartridge produced a muzzle velocity of approximately convert|1970|ft/s|0|lk=on|abbr=on.
mortar crew in action at
Camp Carson, Colorado, April 24, 1943. The soldier on the left has a slung M1 Carbine.]
By May 1941, the rifle prototype had been shaved to a mere convert|7.5|lb|abbr=on. Winchester contacted the Ordnance Department to examine their design, who believed the design could be scaled down to a carbine which weighed 4.5 to 4.75 lb nowrap|(2.0–2.2 kg). In response, Major René Studler demanded a carbine prototype as soon as possible. The first model was developed in 13 days by William C. Roemer and Fred Humeston. It was cobbled together using the trigger housing and lockwork of a Winchester M1905 rifle. The prototype was an immediate hit with Army observers. [Citation
last = Bishop
first = Chris
title = The Encyclopedia of Weapons of World War II
place = New York
publisher = Orbis Publiishing Ltd
year = 1998
isbn = 0-7607-1022-8.]
After the initial Army testing in August 1941, Winchester set out to develop a more refined version. This competed successfully against other carbine candidates in September 1941, and Winchester was notified of their victory the very next month. Standardization as the M1 Carbine was approved in
October 22, 1941. Contrary to popular myth, Williams had little to do with the carbine's development, with the exception of his short-stroke gas piston design. As a matter of fact, Williams went about creating his own design apart from the other Winchester staff. Williams' final carbine design was not ready for testing until December 1941, two months after the Winchester M1 Carbine had been adopted and type-classified. None of William's additional design features were incorporated into later M1 production.
A primary stimulus for the carbine's development was a concern over Germany's use of glider-borne and paratroop forces to infiltrate and attack strategic points behind the front lines, forcing support units and line-of-communications forces into combat with the enemy. [Weeks, John, "World War II Small Arms", Orbis Publishing (1979), p. 130] The M1 carbine was designed to offer troops whose primary task was not combat a lightweight, convenient defensive weapon with greater accuracy and range than a pistol or submachine gun, but without the recoil, bulk, or weight of a full-power infantry rifle. With its relatively low recoil and short overall length, the carbine was easier to use and more convenient to carry for officers, NCOs, or specialists encumbered with weapons, field glasses, radios, or other gear. [George, John, "Shots Fired In Anger", NRA Press (1981), p. 394] Tankers, drivers, artillery crews, mortar crews, and other personnel were also issued the M1 carbine in lieu of the larger, heavier M1 Garand. Belatedly, a folding-stock version of the M1 carbine was developed, after a request was made for a compact and light infantry arm for airborne troops. The first M1 carbines were delivered in mid-1942, with initial priority given to troops in the
European Theater of Operations.
The M1 carbine and its reduced-power .30 cartridge was never intended to serve as a primary weapon for combat infantrymen, nor was it comparable to more powerful assault rifles developed late in the war. Nevertheless, the carbine was soon issued widely to infantry officers, machine-gun crews, paratroopers, and other frontline troops. Its reputation in front-line combat was mixed. Some soldiers and Marines, especially those who were unable to use a full-size rifle as their primary weapon, preferred the carbine over the Garand because of the weapon's small size and light weight. [Shore, C. (Capt), "With British Snipers To The Reich", Lancer Militaria Press (1988), pp. 191-195] The carbine also gained generally high praise from airborne troops who were issued the folding-stock M1A1. The carbine's exclusive use of non-corrosive primered ammunition was found to be a godsend by troops and ordnance personnel serving in the Pacific, where barrel corrosion was a significant issue, though not to the same extent in Europe, where some soldiers reported misfires attributed to bad primers. [Shore, C. (Capt), "With British Snipers To The Reich", Lancer Militaria Press (1988), pp. 191-195]
In the Pacific theatre, soldiers and guerrilla forces operating in heavy jungle with only occasional enemy contact generally praised the carbine for its light weight and accuracy. Other soldiers and Marines engaged in frequent daily combat (particularly those serving in the Philippines) found the weapon to have insufficient stopping power and penetration. [Dunlap, Roy, "Ordnance Went Up Front", Samworth Press (1948), p. 297] Reports of the carbine's failure to stop enemy soldiers, sometimes after multiple hits, appeared in individual after-action reports, postwar evaluations, and service histories of both the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps. [Dunlap, Roy, "Ordnance Went Up Front", Samworth Press (1948), p. 297] Aware of these shortcomings, the U.S. Army, its Pacific Command Ordnance staff, and the Aberdeen small arms facility continued to work on shortened versions of the Garand throughout the war, though none were ever officially adopted.
Some troops also found the .30 Carbine cartridge incapable of penetrating small trees and light cover, though it was markedly superior to .45-caliber weapons in accuracy and penetration. Lt. Col. John George, a small arms expert and intelligence officer serving in Burma with
Merrill's Marauders, reported that the .30 carbine bullet would easily penetrate the front and back of steel helmets, as well as the body armor [U.S. Army, "Handbook on Japanese Military Forces: Body armor", Technical Manual, 15 September 1944, Chap. X, sec. 4(b) http://www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar/Japan/IJA/HB/HB-10.html] used by Japanese forces of the era. [George, John, "Shots Fired In Anger" NRA Press (1981), p. 450]
Initially, the M1 Carbine was intended to have a selective-fire capability, but the decision was made to put the M1 into production without this feature. Fully-automatic capability was incorporated into the design of the M2 (an improved, selective-fire version of the M1), introduced in 1944.
The M2 Carbine continued in use during the Korean War. As noted, the M2 featured a selective-fire switch allowing optional fully-automatic fire at a rather high rate (850-900 rpm) and a 30-round magazine. In Korea, all versions of the M1/M2 carbine soon acquired a poor reputation for jamming in extreme cold weather conditions [Dill, James, "Winter of the Yalu", Changjin Journal 06.22.00] , eventually traced to inadequate recoil impulse and weak return springs. A 1951 official U.S. Army evaluation noted the weapon's cold-weather shortcomings, and recorded complaints by troops for failure to stop heavily-clothed North Korean and Chinese troops at close range after multiple hits. [U.S. Army, "Commentary on Infantry and Weapons in Korea 1950-51" (1951)]
The M2 carbine was again issued to some U.S. troops in Vietnam, particularly reconnaissance units (LRRP) and advisors as a substitute standard weapon. These weapons began to be replaced by the M16 in the late 1960s, and many M1, M2, and M3 Carbines were given to the South Vietnamese.
The M1/M2 carbine was finally replaced by the M16 in the mid-1960s. The M1/M2/M3 carbines were the most heavily produced family of U.S. military weapons for several decades, most of these being the M1 version.
Design and Operation
The M1 carbine bolt mechanism is similar to the
M1 Garand rifle, though the carbine has a different gas system and trigger mechanism design. The gas system is a lightweight tappet-and-slide gas system. Initially fed from a 15 round magazine, a 30 round magazine was introduced for the M2.
The very first carbines, those made before mid-1943, were originally equipped with a "V-cut" extractor for removalof the fired round from the chamber. The "V-cut" design was found to be flawed and unreliable. In the field "V-cut" extractors were reground to a straight configuration, which enhanced reliability, until factory production was able to supply the better design.
The .30 Carbine cartridge was intermediate in both
muzzle energy("ME") and muzzle velocity("MV"). It is essentially a rimless version of the obsolete .32 Winchester Self-Loadingcartridge. [Barnes, Frank C., "Cartridges of the World", 6th ed., DBI Books Inc. (1989), p. 52] The .30 Carbine had a round-nose convert|110|gr|g|abbr=on|lk=on bullet, in contrast to the spitzer bullet designs found in most full-power rifle cartridges of the day. From the M1 Carbine's convert|18|in|abbr=on barrel, the .30 Carbine cartridge produced a muzzle velocity of approximately convert|1970|ft/s|0|lk=on|abbr=on, a velocity between that of contemporary submachine guns (approximately 900 to 1,600 ft/s nowrap|(300–500 m/s)) and full-power rifles and light machine guns (approximately 2,400 to 2,800 ft/s nowrap|(700–900 m/s)). At the M1 Carbine's maximum listed range of convert|300|yd, its bullet has about the same energy as pistol rounds like the 7mm Nambudo at the muzzle. Bullet drop is significant past convert|200|yd. [Barnes, Frank C., "Cartridges of the World", 6th ed., DBI Books Inc. (1989), p. 52]
One characteristic of .30 Carbine ammunition is that from the beginning of production, non-corrosive primers were specified. This was the first major use of this type of primers in a military firearm. Because the rifle had a closed gas system, not normally disassembled, corrosive primers would have led to a rapid deterioration of the gas system. The use of non-corrosive primers was a novelty to service ammunition at this time. [Dunlap, Roy, "Ordnance Went Up Front", Samworth Press (1948), p. 293] Some misfires were reported in early lots of .30 M1 carbine ammunition, attributed to moisture ingress of the non-corrosive primer compound. [Shore, C. (Capt), "With British Snipers To The Reich", Lancer Militaria Press (1988), pp. 191-195]
Categorizing the M1 carbine series has been the subject of much debate. The M1 is sufficiently accurate at short ranges. At convert|100|yd, it can deliver groups of between 3 and 5 minutes of angle, sufficient for its intended purpose as a close-range defensive weapon. Its muzzle energy and range are beyond those of any submachine gun of the period, though its bullet is much lighter in weight and smaller in diameter than .45 caliber weapons, and much less powerful than those of other
service rifles of the period. The M1 and later M2 carbine was never designed to be an assault rifle, in league with the later German StG44 and Russian AK-47, and the .30 Carbine gives up significant muzzle velocity (roughly convert|350|ft/s|abbr=on) to both. Additionally, the bullets used in the cartridges of the AK-47 and StG44 are spitzer designs, and suffer less energy loss and trajectory drop at distances beyond 100 yards. Most authorities list the effective combat range of the M1 Carbine at around 200 yards, compared to 250-300 yards nowrap|(230–270 m) for the AK-47 and StG44.
The M1 carbine was used with the
M8 grenade launcher, which was fired with the M6 cartridge. It also accepts the M4 bayonet, that was based on the M3 knife. The M4 bayonet formed the basis for the later M6 and M7 bayonet-knives. The carbine was modified from its original design to incorporate a bayonet, due to requests from the field. Very few carbines with bayonet lugs reached the front lines before the end of the war. This modification was made to nearly all carbines immediately following WWII. By the time the Korean Warbegan, the bayonet-equipped M1 was common issue. It is now rare to find a non bayonet-equipped original M1 carbine.
During World War II, the T23 flash hider was also developed, which could greatly reduce muzzle flash; it was developed from an earlier model for the Garand.
The M3 carbine was initially used with the M1 sniper scope ("Snooperscope"), which was an active
infraredsystem. Before the M3 carbine and M1 sniper scope were type-classified, they were known as the T3 and T120, respectively. The system continued to be developed, and by the time of the Korean War, it was used with the M3 sniper scope. Eventually, the scopes would be superseded by passive infrared scopes. All the M1 attachments would fade out of U.S. military service during the 1960s, when the M1 carbine would be replaced by the 5.56 mm firearms — the M16 and its carbine variants, such as the XM177/CAR-15. Many of the attachments continued to be used with other countries that also used the M1, such as South Vietnam and Israel.
Production and usage
A total of 6 million M1 carbines of various models were manufactured, making it the most produced small arm in American military history. Despite being designed by Winchester, the great majority of these were made by other companies. The largest producer was the Inland division of
General Motors, but many others were made by contractors as diverse as IBM, the Underwood typewritercompany, and the Rock-Ola jukeboxcompany. Irwin-Pedersen models were the fewest produced, at a little over 4,000. Many carbines were refurbished at several arsenals after the war, with many parts interchanged from original maker carbines. True untouched war production carbines, therefore, are the most collectible. [ [http://www.fulton-armory.com/M1Carbine.htm "A Pocket History of the M1 Carbine" - Fulton Armory] ]
The German designation for captured carbines was Selbstladekarabiner 455(a). The "(a)" came from the country name in German; in this case, "Amerika".
The SAS used the M1 & M1A1 carbines after 1943. The weapon was taken into use simply because a decision had been taken by Allied authorities to supply .30 caliber weapons from US stocks in the weapons containers dropped to Resistance groups sponsored by an
SOE, or later also OSS, organizer, on the assumption the groups so supplied would be operating in areas within the operational boundaries of U.S. forces committed to Operation Overlord.Fact|date=April 2007 They were found to be suited to the kind of operation the two British, two French, and one Belgian Regiment carried out. It was handy enough to parachute with, and, in addition, could be easily stowed in an operational Jeep. Other specialist intelligence collection units, such as 30 Assault Unitsponsored by the Naval Intelligence Division of the British Admiralty, which operated across the entire Allied area of operations, also made use of this weapon.Fact|date=April 2007
A variant was produced shortly after WWII by the Japanese manufacturer Howa Machinery, under U.S. supervision. These were issued to all branches of the
Japan Self-Defense Forces, and large numbers of them found their way to Southeast Asiaduring the Vietnam War.
Numerous examples were obtained and used by the Israeli
Palmach-based special forcesin the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Because of their compact size and semi-auto capabilities, they were given to reconnaissance companies of the Israeli Defence Forces.
It was also used by police and border guard in
Bavariaafter WWII and into the 1950s. The carbines were stamped according to the branch they were in service with; for instance, those used by the border guard were stamped " Bundesgrenzschutz". Some of these weapons were modified with different sights, finishes, and sometimes new barrels.
After the Korean War, the carbine was widely exported to U.S. allies and client states (such as
South Korea, Taiwan, ROCand other European allies), and was used as a frontline weapon well into the Vietnam era. The M1 carbine was also issued to the Korean and Israeli military and police forces.
The M1A was also used by the French Paratroopers (such as the 1er RCP) during the
Algerian Warfrom 1954 to 1962.
Current military use
Israeli policestill uses the M1 Carbine as a standard long gun for non-combat elements and MASHAZvolunteers. During the late 1990s, the police started to issue a Micro Galil variant called the "Magal" chambered in .30 Carbine, but after extensive problems with various malfunctions, they withdrew the weapon from service in 2001.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a police battalion named BOPE("Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais", or "Special Police Operations Battalion") still uses the M1 carbine.
The government of the
Philippinesstill issues M1 carbines (together with M1 Garands, M14s, and M16s) to the Civilian Auxiliary Forces Geographical Unit or (CAFGU) and Civilian Volunteer Organization (CVO).
Allies of World War II(1940s)
*flag|Bavaria (1945–early 1950s, Border Guard)
*flag|Greenland (present, police)
Israeli Defence Forces; 1970s–present, Israeli Police; 1974–present, Civil Guard)
Carabinieri, as of 1992)
*flag|Japan (National Police Reserve)(1950-1989)
*flag|Mexico (police departments & security forces)
*flag|Norway (Norwegian Army 1951-70, with some Norwegian police units until the 1990s)
*flag|South Korea (1950s-Present, Reserve Force)
*flag|South Vietnam (1960s–70s)
Republic of China) (1950s-present)
*flag|Vietnam (Captured Batches)
*flag|United States (1940s–60s/70s, Armed Forces) and some law enforcement agencies (1940s-present)
Carbine, Cal .30, M1A1
*Folding stock, 15-round magazine
*About 150,000 produced
Carbine, Cal .30, M1A2
*Proposed variant with improved sight adjustable for windage and elevation
*Not produced, instead new sight incorporated into new production carbines
Carbine, Cal .30, M1A3
*Pantograph stock, 15-round magazine
*Type standardized to replace the M1A1 but may not have been issued.
*Pantograph stock was more rigid than the M1A1's folding stock and folded flush under the fore end.
Carbine, Cal .30, M2
*The M2 carbine was a selective fire (capable of fully-automatic fire) version and was used with a 30-round magazine
*About 600,000 produced
Carbine, Cal .30, M3
*M2 with mounting (T3 mount) for an early active (infrared) night vision sight.
*An improved version of the M3, with a revised mount and with the infrared spotlight mounted on top of the scope instead of hanging from the barrel, was used in Korea and Vietnam.
*About 3,000 produced.
*Inland (production: 2,632,097), sole producer of the M1A1 Carbine
*Irwin-Pedersen (operated by Saginaw and production included with Saginaw total)
National Postal Meter(production: 413,017)
Quality Hardware(production: 359,666)
Saginaw Gear(production: 517,212 including production at Pedersen facility)
Standard Products(production: 247,100)
*Underwood (production: 545,616)
*Winchester (production: 828,059) ["Canfield, June 2007, p. 37]
Several companies manufactured copies of the M1 Carbine after World War II, which varied in quality. Some companies used a combination of original USGI and new commercial parts, while others manufactured entire firearms from new parts, which may or may not be of the same quality as the originals. These copies were marketed to the general public and were not made for or used by the U.S. military.
In 1963, firearms designer and promoter Melvin M. Johnson introduced a version of the M1 Carbine called the "Spitfire", which fired a 5.7 mm (.22 in)
wildcat cartridgeknown as the 5.7 mm MMJ or .22 Spitfire. [The Spitfire fired a 40-grain (2.6 g) bullet with a muzzle velocity of 2850 ft/s (870 m/s) for a muzzle energy of convert|720|ft·lbf|J. Barnes, Frank C. "Cartridges of the World" (DBI, 1978), p.127.] Johnson promoted the smaller caliber and the modified carbine as a survival rifle for use in jungles or other remote areas. While the concept had some military application when used for this role in the selective-fire M2 Carbine, it was not pursued and few Spitfire carbines were made. [Barnes, 1989 edition.]
Iver Johnsoncompany produced carbines including a cut down pistol version called the "Enforcer".
The Auto-Ordnance division of Kahr Arms began production of an M1 Carbine replica in 2005. Auto Ordnance had produced various replacement parts for IBM during World War II, but did not manufacture complete carbines until the introduction of this replica. The AOM110 and AOM120 models (no longer produced) featured birch stocks and handguards, Parkerized receivers, flip-style rear sights and barrel bands without bayonet lugs. The current AOM130 and AOM140 models are identical except for American walnut stocks and handguards. [ [http://www.auto-ordnance.com/ao_aom110_f.html "Auto-Ordnance M1 Carbines" - Auto-Ordnance.com] ] [ [http://www.nrapublications.org/tar/M1Carbine.asp "M1 Carbine" - American Rifleman] ]
An Israeli arms company (Advanced Combat Systems) offers a modernized
bullpupvariant called the Hezi SM-1. [ [http://www.securityarms.com/20010315/galleryfiles/2800/2803.htm "ACS Hezi SM-1" - SecurityArms.com] ] The company claims accuracy of 1.5 MOA at convert|100|yd. [ [http://www.advancedcombat.com/military/sm1.html "HEZI SM-1 Upgrade" - AdvancedCombat.com] ]
Known commercial manufacturers include:
*Auto-Ordnance (now a subsidiary of
*IAI (Kahr-made receiver)
*Israeli Military Industries (IMI)
*Plainfield Machine Co. (later purchased and operated by
*Universal Firearms - Early Universal guns were, like other manufacturers, assembled from USGI parts. However, beginning in 1968, the company began producing the "New Carbine", which externally resembled the M1 but was in fact a completely new firearm internally, using a different receiver, bolt carrier, bolt, recoil spring assembly, etc. with almost no interchangeability with USGI carbines. [ [http://www.bavarianm1carbines.com/carbine_universal.html "Universal Firearms Corporation" - bavarianm1carbines.com] ] clear
Hunting and civilian use
The M1 carbine is still in use today by many civilian shooters and police around the world. The .30 Carbine cartridge is used for a number of types of hunting, including white-tailed deer, but is definitely underpowered for larger North American game such as elk,
moose, and bear. Some U.S. states prohibit use of the cartridge for hunting deer and larger animals due to a lessened chance of killing an animal in a single shot, even with expanding bullets. The carbine is prohibited in several states such as Pennsylvania[ [http://www.pgc.state.pa.us/pgc/cwp/view.asp?a=465&q=151336 Pennsylvania Game Commission - State Wildlife Management Agency: Deer Hunting Laws and Regulations ] ] because of the semi-automatic function, and Illinois[ [http://dnr.state.il.us/admin/systems/Digest/Digest.pdf Illinois: Digest of Hunting and Trapping Regulations 2007-2008, "Statewide Deer Hunting Information", Illinois Department of Natural Resources, p. 11.] ] which prohibits all non-muzzleloading rifles for big game hunting.
The ease of use and great adaptability of the weapon led to it being used by
Malcolm X(as a self-defense tool) and Patty Hearst(as a bank robbery weapon). Both were featured in famous photographs carrying the M1 carbine.
Related equipment and accessories
The ammunition used by the military with the carbine include: ["TM 9-1305-200/TO 11A13-1-101 Small-Arms Ammunition", 1961, p. 39-41] *Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Ball, M1
*Cartridge, Grenade, Caliber .30, M6 (also authorized for other blank firing uses, due to a lack of a dedicated blank cartridge)
*Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Dummy, M13
*Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Ball, Test, High Pressure, M18
*Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Tracer, M16 (also rated as having an incendiary effect)
*Cartridge, Caliber .30, Carbine, Tracer, M27 (dimmer illumination and no incendiary effect)
*Barnes, Frank C., "Cartridges of the World", DBI Books Inc., 1975, 1978, 1989.
*Dunlap, Roy F. "Ordnance Went Up Front". The Samworth Press, 1948.
*George, John (Lt. Col.), "Shots Fired In Anger", NRA Press, 1981.
*Hufnagl, Wolfdieter. "U.S.Karabiner M1 Waffe und Zubehör".
* [http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1978.html IBM Archives]
* [http://libraryautomation.com/nymas/changjinjournal.html Korean War cold weather malfunctions]
*Shore, C. (Capt), "With British Snipers To The Reich", Lancer Militaria Press (1988)
*United States Government. Departments of the Army and Air Force. "TM 9-1305-200/TO 11A13-1-101 Small-Arms Ammunition". Washington, DC: Departments of the Army and Air Force, 1961.
*U.S. Army, "Commentary on Infantry and Weapons in Korea 1950-51", 1951
*"U.S. Army Catalog of Standard Ordnance Items". Second Edition 1944, Volume III, p.419
*Weeks, John, "World War II Small Arms", London: Orbis Publishing Ltd. and New York: Galahad Books, ISBN 0883654032 (1979)
*cite web|url=http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2003/JessicaWorrell.shtml|work=The Physics Factbook|title=Range of a Rifle Bullet|year=2003|last=Worrell|first=Jessica
* [http://m1.50webs.com/ US Army M1 Carbine Technical Manual]
* [http://www.rt66.com/~korteng/SmallArms/m1carbin.htm M1 Carbine Article]
* [http://www.olive-drab.com/od_other_firearms_rifle_m1carbine.php3 M1 Carbine Family: M1, M1A1, M2, M3]
* [http://www.rawles.to/M1_Carbine_Mag_FAQ.html The M1/M2 Carbine Magazine FAQ]
* [http://www.auto-ordnance.com/ao_aom110_f.html Auto-Ordnance M1 Carbines]
* [http://www.90thidpg.us/Reference/Reference.html 90th Reference manual page including FM 23-7 Carbine, 1942 manual]
* [http://www.90thidpg.us/Equipment/Articles/index.html Articles page including information on blank adapting the M1 carbine]
* [http://world.guns.ru/rifle/rfl08-e.htm M1 Carbine page at Modern Firearms]
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Carbine — Car bine, n. [F. carbine, OF. calabrin carabineer (cf. Ot. calabrina a policeman), fr. OF & Pr. calabre, OF. cable, chable, an engine of war used in besieging, fr. LL. chadabula, cabulus, a kind of projectile machine, fr. Gr. ? a throwing down,… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
carbine — index gun Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 … Law dictionary
carbine — 1580s, from Fr. carabine, used of light horsemen and also of the weapon they carried, perhaps from M.L. Calabrinus Calabrian (i.e., rifle made in Calabria ). One far fetched theory connects it to O.Fr. escarrabin corpse bearer during the plague,… … Etymology dictionary
carbine — ► NOUN 1) a light automatic rifle. 2) historical a short rifle or musket used by cavalry. ORIGIN French carabine, from carabin mounted musketeer … English terms dictionary
carbine — [kär′bīn΄, kär′bēn΄] n. [Fr carabine < carabin, mounted rifleman < OFr escarrabin, corpse bearer during the plague (lit., prob. “carrion beetle,” used as epithet for archers from Flanders) < scarabée: see SCARAB] 1. a rifle with a short… … English World dictionary
Carbine — A carbine is a firearm similar to a rifle or musket, but generally shorter and of lesser power. Many carbines, especially modern designs, were developed from rifles, being essentially shortened versions of full rifles firing the same ammunition,… … Wikipedia
Carbine (horse) — Thoroughbred racehorse infobox horsename = Carbine caption = sire = Musket grandsire = Toxophilite dam = Mersey damsire = Knowsley sex = Stallion foaled = 1885 country = New Zealand colour = Bay breeder = N. Z. Stud Co. owner = Donald Wallace… … Wikipedia
carbine — /kahr been, buyn/, n. 1. a light, gas operated semiautomatic rifle. 2. (formerly) a short rifle used in the cavalry. [1595 1605; earlier carabine < MF: small harquebus, weapon borne by a carabin a lightly armed cavalryman, compared with… … Universalium
Carbine affair — The Carbine affair, also known as the Carbine wives affair, started on March 10, 1992, when German federal authorities taking part in a sting operation jointly with its U.S. counterpart, FBI, arrested in Frankfurt am Main, eight persons suspected … Wikipedia