- Media of Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka's media outlets are generally divided along linguistic and ethnic lines. State and private media operators provide services in the main languages Sinhala, Tamil, and English. The government owns two major TV stations, radio networks operated by the Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC), and newspaper titles in Sinhala, Tamil and English.
After the growth of Sri Lankan economy, many satellite TV channels were introduced.
However, there are over a dozen privately owned radio stations and more than 30 privately operated television stations. They often engage in political debates.
The use of the internet is a growing force within Sri Lanka, many of the newspapers now have online editions. Because of the limited circulation for the daily and weekly newspapers, they are heavily dependent on advertising. As a result of this it is very rare to see Sri Lankan newspapers engage in investigative journalism or daring exposes of big business.
Important English language newspapers are the Daily Mirror, the Daily News and the Island. Sinhalese newspapers are Dinamina, Lankadeepa, Lakbima, and Divaena. Tamil newspapers are Uthayan and Virakesari.
There are both government-owned and private TV channels. Some operate analog free-to-air channels while others operate their channels through satellite, IPTV or cable networks
Analog Terrestrial Networks
Name Ownership Language(s) Established & current status 1 Independent Television Network (ITN) State-owned Sinhala April 13, 1979  2 Sri Lanka Rupavahini Corporation State-owned Sinhala February 15, 1982  3 Channel One MTV Private English December 14,1992  4 TNL Private Sinhala / English June 21,1993 5 ETV Private English 1995  6 Swarnavahini Private Sinhala March 16,1997 7 Sirasa TV Private Sinhala June 10,1998  8 Shakthi TV Private Tamil October 20, 1998 9 Channel Eye State-owned English August 20, 2000 10 TV Lanka  Private Sinhala December 05,2001 11 ART Television Private English July 21,2003  12 Derana Private Sinhala October 11, 2005  13 Max TV Private Sinhala / English / Tamil January 17, 2007 14 Nethra TV State-owned Tamil January 01, 2008 15 Vasantham TV State-owned Tamil June 25, 2009 16 Siyatha TV Private Sinhala September 17, 2009 17 Vettri TV Private Tamil September 17, 2009 18 Prime TV State-owned English November 12, 2009 19 NTV State-owned English November 18, 2009 20 DAN Tamiloli Private Tamil 2009 21 VIS3 - CCTV News Private English May 07, 2010 22 Carlton Sports Network - CSN  Private Sinhala / English March 07, 2011 23 The Buddhist TV  Private Sinhala April 08, 2011
Local TV Channels on Satellite or Cable Networks
Name Ownership Language Established 1 Young Asia Television  Private Sinhala/Tamil/English 1995 2 Srilakvahini Private Sinhala November 03, 2006 3 Sri TV  Private Sinhala 2006 4 Dhammavahini  Private Sinhala May, 2007 5 The Buddhist  Private Sinhala June 29, 2007 6 CiTi HiTz Private Sinhala December 10, 2007 7 Gospel Vision Private Sinhala/English 2007 8 Channel C Private Sinhala March 10, 2008 9 Lakroo/Info TV State-owned Sinhala April 04, 2009 10 Heritage TV  Private Sinhala May 08, 2009 11 DAN Tamiloli  Private Tamil 2009 12 TV Neth  Private Sinhala 2009 13 One SriLanka  Private Sinhala 2009 14 Knowledge TV Private Sinhala 2010 15 TV Dream Music Private Sinhala 2010 16 Nenasa TV Private Sinhala 2010 17 One Six Channel Private Sinhala 2011 18 Swarga TV Private Sinhala/Tamil/English 2011
Pay Television Networks (Sri Lankan Owned)
Name Technology Established 1 PEO TV (SLT Visioncom) IPTV (ADSL and WiMAX) September 2008 2 Lanka Broadband Networks (LBN) Analog/Digital Cable 2000 3 Dialog TV Digital Satellite 2005 4 Comet Cable(Not functioning since 2009) Analog Microwave 1999
Sri Lankan radio channels
Before 2000, apart from the state-run radio stations, there had been only a few radio channels, operated by three private companies – the Asia Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) Radio Networks, Colombo Communication Limited, and the Maharaja Broadcasting Corporation – broadcasting in Sinhala, Tamil, and English. They included:
- Gold FM, Sun FM, Hiru FM, and Sooriyan FM: owned by the Asia Broadcasting Corporation
- E FM, Ran FM, and Shree FM: owned by Colombo Communication Limited (a subsidiary of EAP)
- Sirasa FM, Shakthi FM, Y FM and Yes FM: owned by the Maharaja Broadcasting Corporation.
The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) operated three national services, in Sinhala, Tamil and English. Social awareness messages are often aired on issues such as drunk-driving, drugs and health concerns.
Throughout the authorities many private organizations obtained radio broadcasting licenses from the Telecommunications Regulatory Commission of Sri Lanka (TRC) and commenced operation of a number of terrestrial radio stations. By 2009, over thirty state and privately owned radio stations were in operation in Sri Lanka. The table below lists those currently active.
Radio Station Frequency Primary Language Status City FM 92.2MHz Sinhala Active CRI SRI LANKA 102.0MHz Sinhala, Tamil, English and Chinese Active FM Derana 92.4MHz, 94.5MHz, 95.8MHz, 99.2MHz, 102.3 MHz Sinhala Active FM Frey 104.0 Mhz Colombo 93.5 Mhz Minuwangoda Sinhala,English Testing E FM 100.4MHz, 93.2MHz, 95.8MHz, 99.2MHz, 102.3 MHz English Active Everlasting Radio 97 MHz English Active Gold FM 99.9MHz, 94.7MHz, 102.7MHz, 104.2MHz English Active Hiru FM 94.7MHz, 95.3MHz, 96.7MHz, 107.0MHz Sinhala Active Isira FM 88.0MHz, 89.0Mhz, 93.7MHz, 93.9MHz, 97.2MHz Sinhala Active Kiss FM 89.8 MHz English Active Kirula FM 93.6 MHz Sinhala Testing Lak FM 92.0 MHz,93.3 MHz, 100.1 MHz Sinhala Active Lakhanda 97.6MHz, 87.9MHz, 88.5MHz Sinhala Active Lakviru FM 91.6 MHz Sinhala Testing Lite FM 89.2MHz, 98.2MHz, 92.5 MHz, 90 MHz English Active Max Radio 90.6MHz Sinhala Active Neth FM 93.9 MHz, 95.0 MHz, 100.4 MHz, 105.4 MHz, 105.9 MHz Sinhala Active Ran FM 91.5 MHz, 95.0 MHz, 101.3 MHz, 102.2 MHz Sinhala Active Rangiri Sri Lanka 91.7 MHz, 96.7 MHz, 98.1 MHz, 107.2 MHz Sinhala Active Real Radio 87.8 MHz, 93.9 MHz, 106.7 MHz English Active Rhythm FM (formerly Asura FM) 87.6 MHz, 95.6 MHz, 100.7 MHz Sinhala Active Sath FM 103.6 MHz, 103.0 MHz, 103.6 MHz Sinhala testing Seth FM 101.5 MHz Sinhala Active Shakthi FM 103.8MHz, 105.1MHz, 91.2MHz, 91.5MHz Tamil Active Shree FM 99MHz, 99.3MHz, 93.2MHz, 98.8MHz, 95.8MHz Sinhala Active SLBC - English National Service 90.9 MHz, 95.6 MHz, 96.4 MHz, 96.4 MHz, 98.4 MHz, 99.6 MHz, 100.2 MHz English Active SLBC - Sinhala National Service (Swadeshiya Sevaya) 90.3 MHz, 90.3 MHz, 97.0 MHz, 98.3 MHz, 99.6 MHz, 102.0 MHz, 107.6 MHz Sinhala Active SLBC - Sinhala Commercial Service (Velanda Sevaya) 93.3FM, 106.9FM, 92.7FM Sinhala Active SLBC - Tamil National Service 94.2 MHz, 98.8 MHz, 101.3 MHz, 102.0 MHz, 102.4 MHz, 103.5 MHz, 104.8 MHz Tamil Active SLBC - Tamil Commercial Service (Thendral) 92.2 MHz, 92.8 MHz, 94.2 MHz, 104.5 MHz, 104.8 MHz, 105.6 MHz, 105.6 MHz, 107.9 MHz Tamil Active SLBC - Vidula Children's Service 102.6 MHz Sinhala, Tamil and English Active Sirasa FM 106.6MHz, 88.8MHz, 106.5MHz, 106.2MHz, 101.7MHz Sinhala Active Siyatha FM 90.9MHz, , 98.6MHz Sinhala Active Sooriyan FM 103.2MHz, 97.3MHz, 93MHz, 97.9MHz Tamil Active Sun Fm 98.8MHz English Active TNL Radio 101.7 MHz, 87.9 MHz English Active The Budhhist 104.5 MHz Sinhala,English Active V FM 100.4 MHz, 104.0 MHz, 107.6 MHz Sinhala Active Vasantham FM 102.4 MHz Tamil Active Vettri FM 99.6 MHz, 101.5 MHz, 106.1 MHz Tamil Active Y FM 92.6 MHz, 101.3MHz, 91.2MHz, 99.1MHZ English Active Yes FM 88.2 MHz, 88.2 MHz, 89.5 MHz, 101.0 MHz English Active Youth Radio 107.9 MHz, 100.7 MHz, 104.4 MHz, 104.8 MHz Sinhala Active Your Radio 88.3 MHz English Active
Tamil language radio programmes are broadcast over the Internet including the youth service "TamilsFlashFm".
Press freedom is a major concern in Sri Lanka. Both sides in the war make efforts to silence inconvenient reporters. Around 15 reporters received death threats from one faction or the other in 2004 The assassinated reporter Aiyathurai Nadesan, correspondent in Batticaloa for several Tamil media stated just prior to his assassination in 2005:
We are caught between a rock and a hard place. It is very difficult for us to check reports either with the security forces or the Tamil Tigers. And when a news item on local events is datelined Colombo, it puts us at risk of reprisals on the ground.
In 2005, the Tamil newspaper Thinakkural was threatened by Karuna. Copies of the newspaper were burned in the Eastern provinces. On the other hand, distribution of the Tamil weekly Thinamurasu is blocked by the LTTE because it is close to another armed group, the EPDP.
During the Rajapaksa administration, press freedom in Sri Lanka became the "worst in any democratic country", according to the Reporters without borders index, ranking 165th among 173 countries in the index. On 21 November 2008, a twelve-member group of masked men, forcibly entered the printing press of Sunday Leader, Morning Leader and Irudina Sinhala weekly and set fire damaging printing machines and copies of newspapers printed ready for distribution. The state jammed transmission of BBC programs which contained content the government disliked. The main private TV network Sirasa was repeatedly threatened by minister Mervyn Silva, attacked by a petrol bomb on 2.1.2009 and raided by gunmen on 6.1.2009, who set on fire the main control room. This was in response to SLBC criticizing Sirasa's coverage of the capture of Kilinochchi.
According to the head of the company, Chevaan Daniel: "It's either that the citizens of Sri Lanka are able to drive around attacking institutions armed with weapons and grenades, or there is a hand behind it."
Lasantha Wikramatunga, the chief editor of the English Weekly Sunday Leader, was assassinated on the Thursday January 8, 2008 by unknown gunmen. The newspaper and its editor as well as the editor of Morning Leader have been harassed and threatened continuously during the preceding three years. All Leader publications are very critical towards the government and exponents of opposition political views. According to Reporters without Borders, the Rajapaksa administration blocks investigations into the murder of journalists.
Defence minister Gotabhaya Rajapaksa threatened to chase Chris Morris, a BBC journalists, out of the country, if he does not act responsibly.
Local reporters in the country continue to be threatened, as was the case with 54-year-old M.I. Rahmathulla, who was beaten in April 2009 for reporting on political corruption in the Batticaloa region of Sri Lanka's Eastern Province.
- List of newspapers in Sri Lanka
- List of television networks in Sri Lanka
- List of radio networks in Sri Lanka
- Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation
- ^ a b c "Country profile: Sri Lanka". BBC News. February 4, 2011. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/country_profiles/1168427.stm.
- ^ ITN Sri Lanka, About Us
- ^ Rupavahini, About Us
- ^ Launched in 1992 as MTV Newsvision, renamed as MTV in 1998 Press reference, SRI LANKA Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers
- ^ Press reference, SRI LANKA Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers
- ^ Launched in 1995 as ETV 2, renamed as ETV in 1997 Press reference, SRI LANKA Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers
- ^ Launched in 1994 as ETV, renamed as Swarnavahini on March 16, 1997 Press reference, SRI LANKA Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers
- ^ Swarnavahini, About Us
- ^ Launched in 1992 as MTV, renamed as Sirasa TV in 1998 Press reference, SRI LANKA Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers
- ^ Launched in 1996 as Dynavision, renamed as ARTv Press reference, SRI LANKA Press, Media, TV, Radio, Newspapers
- ^ "Derana ceremonial launch today". The Daily News. 10 November 2005. http://www.dailynews.lk/2005/10/11/news19.htm.
- ^ TV and Radio Sri Lanka, Max TV launches today
- ^ Launched as Rupavahini 2 and later renamed as Channel Eye
- ^ http://tvradiosrilanka.blogspot.com/2009/06/vasantham-tv-to-launch-on-june-25th.html
- ^ http://tvradiosrilanka.blogspot.com/2009/09/siyatha-tv-and-vettri-tv-to-launch.html
- ^ http://tvradiosrilanka.blogspot.com/2009/09/siyatha-tv-and-vettri-tv-to-launch.html
- ^ http://tvradiosrilanka.blogspot.com/2009/11/prime-tv-launches-and-radio-1.html
- ^ http://tvradiosrilanka.blogspot.com/2009/11/ntv-to-launch-today.html
- ^ http://www.dantv.tv/
- ^ http://english.cntv.cn/program/newshour/20100508/101962.shtml
- ^ http://csn.lk/
- ^ About YA TV
- ^ Srilakvahini Test Transmission 
- ^ Dharmavahini Launched 
- ^ The Buddhist TV Launched 
- ^ Channel C Launched 
- ^ Lakroo Launched 
- ^ Heritage TV Launched 
- ^ PEO TV, 
- ^ Established in 2005 as CBNSat, later renamed Dialog TV when acquired by Dialog Telekom
- ^ Alan G. Davies. "Radio Stations in Sri Lanka". http://www.asiawaves.net/sri-lanka-radio.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- ^ . http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=13442
- ^ a b c d http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=13442
- ^ "'Drop' in S Lanka press freedom". BBC News. October 31, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7702880.stm.
- ^ http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=19391
- ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2008/12/081212_rsf_bbc.shtml
- ^ a b "Gunmen raid Sri Lanka TV station". BBC News. January 6, 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7813043.stm.
- ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/sinhala/news/story/2009/01/090108_lasantha.shtml
- ^ http://www.island.lk/2009/02/01/news1.html
- ^ Risking Lives for Information Exchange Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting http://pulitzercenter.typepad.com/untold_stories/2009/04/sri-lanka-risking-lives-for-information-exchange.html
- List of Tamil Online Radio
- Lanka Media Outlook
- Sri Lankan search engine - Sri Lankan news - Explore Sri Lanka - Ceylon
- The Permanent Mission of Sri Lanka to the United Nations Office at Geneva
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