- Montoursville Area School District
Montoursville Area School District Address 50 North Arch Street
Montoursville, Pennsylvania, Lycoming, 17754
Information Superintendent Dominic Cavallaro Grades K-12 Kindergarten 125 Grade 1 141 Grade 2 127 Grade 3 121 Grade 4 179 Grade 5 135 Grade 6 145 Grade 7 161 Grade 8 153 Grade 9 168 Grade 10 150 Grade 11 157 Grade 12 178 Other Enrollment projected to be at 1954 by 2019 Website http://www.montoursville.k12.pa.us/
The Montoursville Area School District is the public school district in Lycoming County. The school serves the borough of Montoursville, plus the townships of Fairfield, Upper Fairfield, Eldred, Gamble, Cascade, and Plunketts Creek. The district encompasses approximately 189.6 square miles. According to 2000 federal census data, it serves a resident population of 13,512. According to District officials, in school year 2007-08 the Montoursville Area School District provided basic educational services to 2,012 pupils through the employment of 155 teachers, 103 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 12 administrators.
The district contains two elementary schools, one middle school, and one high school.
- 1 Academic achievement
- 2 Special Education
- 3 Bullying policy
- 4 Budget
- 5 Enrollment
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Montoursville Area School District was ranked 64th out of 498 Pennsylvania school districts in 2010 by the Pittsburgh Business Times. The ranking was based on student academic performance based on the PSSAs for: reading, writing, math and two years of science.
- 2009 - 71st
- 2008 - 72nd
- 2007 - 82nd out of 501 Pennsylvania school districts.
In 2009, the academic achievement, of the students in the Montoursville Area School District, was in the 85th percentile among all 500 Pennsylvania school districts Scale (0-99; 100 is state best) 
- PSSA Results
- 11th Grade Reading
- 2010 - 73% on grade level (12% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 66% of 11th graders on grade level.
- 2009 - 77% (9% below basic), State - 65% 
- 2008 - 78% (10% below basic), State - 65%
- 2007 - 79% (6% below basic), State - 65% 
- 11th Grade Math
- 2010 - 67% on grade level (17% below basic). State - 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.
- 2009 - 63% (14% below basic). State - 56%
- 2008 - 71% (12% below basic). State - 56% 
- 2007 - 75% (7% below basic). State - 53%
- 11th Grade Science
- 2010 - 53%, (8% below basic), State - 39% of 11th graders were on grade level.
- 2009 - 60%, (7% below basic). State - 40%
- 2008 - 44%, (7% below basic). State - 39%
- College remediation
According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 7% of Montoursville Area High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or community colleges. Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years. Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in mathematics or English.
The Montoursville Area School Board has determined that a student must earn 24.5 credits to graduate including: English 4 credits, Social Studies 4 credits, Math 3 credits, Science 3 credits, Health and Physical Education 2.5 credits, Art Humanities 2 credits and 6 electives.
By law, all Pennsylvania secondary school students must complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.
By Pennsylvania School Board regulations, for the graduating classes of 2015 and 2016, students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, English Composition, and Literature for which the Keystone Exams serve as the final course exams. Students’ Keystone Exam scores shall count for at least one-third of the final course grade.
600 Willow Street, Montoursville, PA 17754
- 8th Grade Reading
- 2010 - 92% on grade level.62 % advanced (4% below basic) State - 81% 
- 2009 - 94%, 72% advanced (2% below basic), State - 80%
- 2008 - 84%, 65% advanced (8% below basic), State - 78%
- 2007 - 84%, 49% advanced (4% below basic), State - 75%
- 8th Grade Math
- 2010 - 93% on grade level. 68% advanced (2% below basic) State - 75%
- 2009 - 91%, 65% advanced (3% below basic), State - 71%
- 2008 - 84%, 55% advanced (8% below basic), State - 70% 
- 2007 - 85%, 59% advanced (6% below basic), State - 67%
- 8th Grade Science
- 2010 - 72% on grade level. (13% below basic), State - 57%.
- 2009 - 75%, (4% below basic), State: - 54% 
- 2008 - 71%, (7% below basic), State - 52% 
- 7th Grade Reading
- 2010 - 85% on grade level. 49% advanced, (5% below basic) State - 73%
- 2009 - 78%, 46% advanced (6% below basic), State - 71.7%
- 2008 - 84%, 45% advanced (2% below basic), State - 70%
- 2007 - 80%, 43% advanced (7% below basic), State - 66%
- 7th Grade Math
- 2010 - 91% on grade level. 71% advanced (3% below basic) State - 77%
- 2009 - 83%, 60% advanced (5% below basic), State - 75%
- 2008 - 92%, 65% advanced (5% below basic), State - 72%
- 2007 - 86%, 57% advanced (6% below basic), State - 67%
- 6th Grade Reading
- 2010 - 77% on grade level. 46% advanced (9% below basic) State - 68%
- 2009 - 85%, 54% advanced (4% below basic), State - 67%
- 2008 - 82% (6% below basic), State - 67%
- 2007 - 82% (6% below basic), State - 63%
- 6th Grade Math
- 2010 - 91% on grade level. 69% advanced (4% below basic) State - 78%
- 2009 - 89%, 69% advanced (4% below basic), State - 75.9%
- 2008 - 82% (3% below basic), State - 72%
- 2007 - 88% (6% below basic), State - 69%
- 5th Grade Reading;
- 2010 - 80%, 35% advanced (5% below basic), State - 64%
- 2009 - 74%, 28% advanced (8% below basic), State - 64%
- 2008 - 77%, 22% advanced, (9% below basic) State - 62%
- 5th Grade Math;
- 2010 - 91%, 74% advanced, State - 74%
- 2009 - 86%, 62% advanced, State - 73%
- 2008 - 93%, 70% advanced, State - 73%
The District engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress. To identify students who may be eligible for special education, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Instructional Support Team or Student Assistance Team. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the District seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the Special Education Department.
In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. The funds were distributed to districts based on a state policy which estimates that 16% of the district's pupils are receiving special education services. This funding is in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.
Montoursville Area School District received a $1,196,704 supplement for special education services in 2010.
The District Administration reported that 38 or 2.37% of its students were gifted in 2009. By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The primary emphasis is on enrichment and acceleration of the regular education curriculum through a push in model with the gifted instructor in the classroom with the regular instructor. This approach permits such specialized instructional strategies as tiered assignments, curriculum compacting, flexible grouping, learning stations, independent projects and independent contracts. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.
The Montoursville Area School Board has not provided the district's antibully policy online. All Pennsylvania schools are required to have an anti-bullying policy incorporated into their Code of Student Conduct. The policy must identify disciplinary actions for bullying and designate a school staff person to receive complaints of bullying. The policy must be available on the school's website and posted in every classroom. All Pennsylvania public schools must provide a copy of its anti-bullying policy to the Office for Safe Schools every year, and shall review their policy every three years. Additionally, the district must conduct an annual review of that policy with students. The Center for Schools and Communities works in partnership with the Pennsylvania Commission on Crime & Delinquency and the Pennsylvania Department of Education to assist schools and communities as they research, select and implement bullying prevention programs and initiatives.
Education standards relating to student safety and antiharassment programs are described in the 10.3. Safety and Injury Prevention in the Pennsylvania Academic Standards for Health, Safety and Physical Education.
In 2009, the district reports employing over 200 teachers with a starting salary of $40,890 for 182 pupil instruction days. The average teacher salary was $58,445 while the maximum salary is $113,400. As of 2007, Pennsylvania ranked in the top 10 states in average teacher salaries. When adjusted for cost of living Pennsylvania ranked fourth in the nation for teacher compensation. Additionally, Montoursville Area School District teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, professional development reimbursement, paid personal days, 10 sick days, a retirement bonus of $700 per year for each year of service at MASD up to 35 years; 5 days bereavement leave with full pay and other benefits. Teachers are paid extra if they are required to work outside of the regular school day. The union officers may take 6 days, with pay, for union business. According to State Rep. Glen Grell, a trustee of the Pennsylvania Public School Employees’ Retirement System Board, a 40-year educator can retire with a pension equal to 100 percent of their final salary.
In 2007, the district employed 142 teachers. The average teacher salary in the district was $54,459 for 180 school days worked.
Montoursville Area School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 were $701 per pupil. The district is ranked 317th out of 500 in Pennsylvania for administrative spending. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.
In 2008, Montoursville Area School District reported spending $11,253 per pupil. This ranked 371st in the commonwealth.
In 2009, the district reported $2,502,899 in a unreserved-undesignated fund balance. The designated fund balance was reported as zero.
In March 2011, the Pennsylvania Auditor General conducted a performance audit of the district. Findings were reported to the administration and school board.
The district is funded by a combination of: a local income tax, a property tax, a real estate transfer tax, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the federal government. Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax regardless of the individual's wealth.
State basic education funding
For 2010-11 the Montoursville Area School District received a 3.03% increase in state Basic Education Funding resulting in a $6,922,641 payment. The highest increase awarded a Lycoming County school district went to Loyalsock Township School District which received a 8.13% increase in BEF from the state. Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County received the highest increase in the state at 23.65% increase in funding for the 2010-11 school year. One hundred fifty school districts received the base 2% increase in 2010-11. The amount of increase each school district receives is determined by the Governor and the Secretary of Education through the allocation set in the state budget proposal made in February each year.
In the 2009-2010 budget year the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 2.53% increase in Basic Education funding for a total of $6,715,381. The state Basic Education funding to the district in 2008-09 was $6,549,411.56. The district also received supplemental funding for English language learners, Title 1 federal funding for low income students, for district size, a poverty supplement from the commonwealth and more. Loyalsock Township School District received a 5.94% increase, the highest increase in Lycoming County for the 2009-10 school year. Among the 500 school districts in Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received the highest with a 22.31% increase in funding.
Accountability Block Grants
Beginning in 2004-2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher training, All Day Kindergarten, lower class size K-3rd grade, literacy and math coaching programs that provide teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction, before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students. For 2010-11 the Montoursville Area School District applied for and received $281,979 in addition to all other state and federal funding. The district used the funding to provide full day kindergarten for the 6th year, for teacher coaching in teaching reading and math; and for before/after school tutoring for struggling students.
Classrooms for the Future grant
The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Math) and paid for teacher training to optimize the computers use. The program was funded from 2006-2009. Montoursville Area School District did not apply for funding in 2006-07 nor in 2007-08. For the 2008-09, school year the district received $74,691. Of the 501 public school districts in Pennsylvania, 447 of them received Classrooms for the Future grant awards.
Federal Stimulus Grant
The district received an extra $931,092 in ARRA - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low income students. The funding is for the 2009-10 and 2010-11 school years.
Race to the Top grant
School district officials applied for the Race to the Top federal grant which would have brought the district hundreds of thousands in additional federal dollars for improving student academic achievement. Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate. Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.
Common Cents state initiative
The Montoursville Area School Board participated in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program. The program called for the state to audit the district, at no cost to local taxpayers, to identify ways the district could save tax dollars. The report identified significant savings could be found in purchasing across several school district departments. After the review of the information, the district was not required to implement the recommended cost savings changes.
Real estate taxes
The school board set property tax rates in 2010-2011 at 13.1900 mills. A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region. Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections (Local Tax Enabling Act), which are around 15% of revenues for school districts. The school district includes municipalities in three counties, each of which has different rates of property tax assessment, necessitating a state board equalization of the tax rates between the counties.
Act 1 Adjusted index
The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not authorized to raise taxes above that index unless they allow voters to vote by referendum, or they seek an exception from the state Department of Education. The base index for the 2011-2012 school year is 1.4 percent, but the Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as property values and the personal income of district residents. Act 1 included 10 exceptions including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.
The School District Adjusted Index for the Montoursville Area School District 2006-2007 through 2010-2011.
- 2006-07 - 5.0%, Base 3.9%
- 2007-08 - 4.4%, Base 3.4%
- 2008-09 - 5.8%, Base 4.4%
- 2009-10 - 5.3%, Base 4.1%
- 2010-11 - 3.7%, Base 2.9%
- 2011-12 - 1.8%, Base 1.4%
Montoursville Area School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 index for the budgets in 2010-11. In the Spring of 2010, 135 Pennsylvania school boards asked to exceed their adjusted index. Approval was granted to 133 of them and 128 sought an exception for pension costs increases.
Property tax relief
In 2009, the Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief from gambling for the Mountoursville Area School District was $129 per approved permanent primary residence. In the district, 3,025 property owners applied for the tax relief. The tax relief was subtracted from the total annual school property on the individual's tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. The Pennsylvania Auditor General found that 69% of property owners applied for tax relief in Lycoming County. In Lycoming County, the highest property tax relief in 2009 was $310 awarded to the approved property owners in Williamsport Area School District. Pennsylvania awarded the highest property tax relief to residents of the Chester-Upland School District in Delaware County at $632 per homestead and farmstead in 2010. This was the second year Chester Upland School District was the top recipient.
Additionally, the Pennsylvania Property Tax/Rent Rebate program is provided for low income Pennsylvanians aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners. The maximum rebate for both homeowners and renters is $650. Applicants can exclude one-half (1/2) of their Social Security income, consequently individuals who have income substantially more than $35,000, may still qualify for a rebate. Individuals must apply annually for the rebate. This can be taken in addition to Homestead/Farmstead Property Tax Relief.
Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).
Montoursville Area School District is experiencing low enrollment in K-12. The Pennsylvania Department of Education projects the district's enrollment will remain low through 2018. Shifting population trends across the U.S. and Pennsylvania are affecting school enrollment and may impact the building needs of school districts in the years to come. Over the next 10 years, rural Pennsylvania school enrollment is projected to decrease 8 percent. The most significant enrollment decline is projected to be in western Pennsylvania, where rural school districts may have a 16 percent decline. More than 40 percent of elementary schools and more than 60 percent of secondary schools in western Pennsylvania are projected to experience significant enrollment decreases (15 percent or greater).
A study done by Standard and Poors in 2007 (at the request of the PA General Assembly) examined school districts enrollment and consolidation. As a part of the study, superintendents were asked about savings, if their district were to merge with another district at the administrative level only, but not close any of their schools. It found 42% of the respondents believed consolidation would achieve cost reductions. Additionally, 63% of responding superintendents believed that consolidation with another district would help provide additional academic enrichment opportunities for the students.
In 2011, the Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants released their findings on government efficiency - "Report of the Fiscal Responsibility Task Force, January 2011". It found that one area of inefficiency and redundancy in Pennsylvania government is the administration of the educational system. It noted that the state could achieve savings exceeding $1.5 billion a year, by reducing the number of district administrations to 67. The report emphasized that this modification would not change the number of schools or teachers in classrooms.
Pennsylvania has one of the highest numbers of school districts in the nation. In Pennsylvania, 80% of the school districts serve student populations under 5,000, and 40% serve less than 2,000. Less than 95 of Pennsylvania's 501 school districts have enrollment below 1250 students, in 2007.
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- ^ Montoursville Area School District (2010-2011). "Montoursville Area School District Special Education Department - Annual Public Notice of Special Education Services". http://www.montoursville.k12.pa.us/webpages/specialed/.
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- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (Revised December 1, 2009 Child Count (Collected July 2010)). "Gifted Students as Percentage of Total Enrollment by School District/Charter School". http://penndata.hbg.psu.edu/BSEReports/docs/Ad_Hoc_Gifted_0910_from_Revised_Count.pdf.
- ^ "Montoursville Area Gifted Support Education". http://www.montoursville.k12.pa.us/webpages/specialed/gifted.cfm.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education and Pennsylvania School Board. "CHAPTER 16. Special Education For Gifted Students". http://www.pacode.com/secure/data/022/chapter16/chap16toc.html. Retrieved February 4, 2011.
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- ^ "Regular Session 2007-2008 House Bill 1067, Act 61 Section 6 page 8". http://www.legis.state.pa.us/cfdocs/billinfo/BillInfo.cfm?syear=2007&sind=0&body=H&type=B&bn=1067.
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- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (October 2009). "Basic Education Funding by School District 2009-10". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/education_budget/8699/2009-2010_education_budget/509747.
- ^ "Pennsylvania Department of Education Report on Funding by school district". October 2009. http://www.scribd.com/doc/21865360/Basic-Education-Funding-Pennsylvania-Public-Schools-2009-10.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Funding Report by LEA 2009.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Accountability Block Grant report 2010, Grantee list 2010". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/education_budget/8699/pa_accountability_grants/604468.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Accountability Block Grant Mid Year report". http://www.scribd.com/doc/23322599/ACCOUNTABILITY-BLOCK-GRANT-Awards.
- ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General (2008-12-22). "Special Performance Audit Classrooms For the Future grants". http://www.auditorgen.state.pa.us/reports/performance/special/specff122208.pdf.
- ^ Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. "Lycoming County ARRA FUNDING Report". http://www.recovery.pa.gov/. Retrieved February 2011.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education Press Release (January 2009). "Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support". http://www.education.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt?open=512&objID=7201&PageID=510952&mode=2&contentid=http://pubcontent.state.pa.us/publishedcontent/publish/global/news_releases/governor_s_office/news_releases/pennsylvania_s__race_to_the_top__fueled_by_effective_reforms__strong_local_support.html.
- ^ Pennsylvania's 'Race to the Top' Fueled by Effective Reforms, Strong Local Support
- ^ U.S. Department of Education (March 29, 2010). "Race to the Top Fund,". http://www2.ed.gov/programs/racetothetop/index.html.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Common Cents program - Making Every Dollar Count". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/common_cents/8781. Retrieved February 1, 2011.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Finances_Real Estate Tax Rates 2010-11". http://www.scribd.com/doc/40141929/Pennsylvania-Department-of-Education-Finances-Real-Estate-Tax-Rates-2010-11.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education,. "Act 511 Tax Report, 2004". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/summaries_of_annual_financial_report_data/7673/afr_excel_data_files/509047.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education 2010-11 Act 1 of 2006 Referendum Exception Guidelines.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2010.). "Special Session Act 1 of 2006 School District Adjusted Index for 2006-2007 through 2011-2012". https://spreadsheets.google.com/ccc?key=0AqCAjQ6eteArdFFCaWRjMUhzSkl5RTYxMjNJN1RQemc&hl=en#gid=0.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (April 2010). "Pennsylvania SSAct1_Act1 Exceptions Report 2010-2011 April 2010". http://www.scribd.com/doc/40402981/Pennsylvania-SSAct1-Act1-Exceptions-Report-2010-2011-April-2010.
- ^ Scarcella, Frank and Pursell, Tricia (May 25, 2010). "Local school tax assessments exceed state averages". The Daily Item. http://dailyitem.com/0100_news/x1174308659/Local-school-tax-assessments-exceed-state-averages.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education (May 2009). "Estimated Tax Relief Per Homestead and Farmstead May 1, 2009". http://www.wgal.com/download/2009/0501/19345089.pdf.
- ^ Pennsylvania Auditor General Office, (2010-02-23). "Special Report Pennsylvania Property Tax Relief,". http://www.auditorgen.state.pa.us/department/press/wagnerpennsylvaniansmissingoutonprop.html.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education, (May 2010). "Tax Relief per Homestead 5-1-10. Report". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_relief/7452/property_tax_reduction_allocations/510335.
- ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education. "Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program". http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/property_tax_rent_rebate/11410.
- ^ Tax Foundation, (September 22, 2009). "New Census Data on Property Taxes on Homeowners,". http://www.taxfoundation.org/news/show/26742.html.
- ^ PDE East LycomingSD Enrollment and Projections. January 2009
- ^ Research Analyzes Rural School District Enrollment and Building Capacity
- ^ "Research Analyzes Rural School District Enrollment and Building Capacity", The Center for Rural Pennsylvania. October 2009.
- ^ Standard and Poors (2007). "Pennsylvania Legislative Budget and Finance Committee Study - Study of the Cost-Effectiveness of Consolidating Pennsylvania School Districts part 1". http://lbfc.legis.state.pa.us/reports/2007/289.PDF.
- ^ Efficiency & Streamlining State Government. Report of the PICPA Fiscal Responsibility Task Force, Pennsylvania Institute of Certified Public Accountants, January 2011, pages 7 & 8.
- ^ Pennsylvania Legislative Budget and Finance Committee, Study of the Cost Effectiveness of Consolidating Pennsylvania School Districts, 2007.
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