Outline of science


Outline of science

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to science:

Science – in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific method, as well as to the organized body of knowledge humans have gained by such research.

Contents

Essence of science

Main article: Science

Branches of science

Branch of science – also called a "science", is a widely-recognized category of specialized scientific expertise, which typically embodies its own terminology and nomenclature. Each branch of science is usually represented by one or more scientific journals, where research is peer reviewed before being published.

Natural sciences

Physical Sciences

Physics

Physics

Chemistry

Chemistry

Astronomy

Astronomy

Earth sciences

Earth science

Environmental sciences

Life Sciences (Biology)

Biology

  • Aerobiology – study of airborne organic particles
  • Agriculture – study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications
  • Anatomy – study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
  • Astrobiology – study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe—also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy
  • Biochemistry – study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
  • Bioengineering – study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
  • Biogeography – study of the distribution of species spatially and temporally
  • Bioinformatics – use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
  • Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology – quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
  • Biomechanics — often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics
  • Biomedical research – study of the human body in health and disease
  • Biophysics – study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
  • Biotechnology — a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
  • Building biology – study of the indoor living environment
  • Botany – study of plants
  • Cell biology – study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
  • Conservation Biology – study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
  • Chronobiology
  • Cryobiology – study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings.
  • Developmental biology – study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
    • Embryology – study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth). See also topobiology.
    • Gerontology – study of aging processes.
  • Ecology – study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
  • Environmental Biology – study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity
  • Epidemiology — a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
  • Evolution
  • Genetics – study of genes and heredity
  • Histology – study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
  • Integrative biology – study of whole organisms
  • Limnology – study of inland waters
  • Marine Biology – study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
  • Microbiology – study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
    • Bacteriology –
    • Virology – study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
  • Molecular Biology – study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
  • Morphology
  • Mycology – study of fungi
  • Oceanography – study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean
  • Oncology – study of cancer processes, including virus or mutation oncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings
  • Population biology – study of groups of conspecific organisms, including
  • Pathobiology or pathology – study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
  • Parasitology – study of parasites and parasitism
  • Pharmacology – study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
  • Physiology – study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
  • Phytopathology – study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
  • Psychobiology – study of the biological bases of psychology
  • Sociobiology – study of the biological bases of sociology
  • Systematics
  • Zoology – study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior

Cognitive sciences

Cognitive Science

Formal sciences

Formal science

Computer sciences

Computer science

See also Branches of Computer Science and ACM Computing Classification System

Mathematics

Mathematics

See also Branches of Mathematics and AMS Mathematics Subject Classification

Statistics

Statistics

Systems science

Systems science

Social sciences

Anthropology

Economics

Linguistics

Linguistics

Psychology

Psychology

Applied psychology

Applied psychology

Geography

Geography

Philosophy

Not considered a science by some thinkers,[who?] instead considered a precursor of it. Several fields of philosophy are more directly relevant to the natural and social sciences than others. These include:

philosophy

Political science

Political science

Sociology

Sociology

Applied sciences

Applied sciences –

Agronomy

Agronomy

Architecture

Architecture

Education

Education

Engineering

Engineering

Health sciences

Health science

Management

Management

Military sciences

Military science

Spatial Science

How scientific fields differ

Politics of science

History of science

Main article: History of science

By period

By date

By field

By region

History of science in present states, by continent

History of science in historic states

Philosophy of science

Scientific method

General scientific concepts

Scientific community

Scientific organizations

Scientists

Types of scientist

By field
By employment status

Famous scientists

Main list: Lists of scientists

Science education

Science education

See also


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