Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star


Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star
P-80 / F-80 Shooting Star
P-80A 44-85004
Role Jet Fighter
National origin United States
Manufacturer Lockheed
Designer Clarence "Kelly" Johnson
First flight 8 January 1944
Introduction 1945
Status Retired
Primary users United States Air Force
United States Navy
Number built 1,715
Unit cost US$110,000 in 1945[1]
Variants Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star
F-94 Starfire

The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first jet fighter used operationally by the United States Army Air Forces.[2] Designed in 1943 as a response to the German Messerschmitt Me-262 jet fighter, and delivered in just 143 days from the start of the design process, production models were flying but not ready for service by the end of World War II. Designed with straight wings, the type saw extensive combat in Korea with the United States Air Force (USAF) as the F-80.

America's first successful turbojet-powered combat aircraft, it helped usher in the "jet age" in the USAF, but was outclassed with the appearance of the swept-wing transonic MiG-15 and quickly replaced in the air superiority role by the North American F-86 Sabre. The F-94 Starfire, an all-weather interceptor on the same airframe, also saw Korean war service. The closely related T-33 Shooting Star trainer would remain in service with the U.S. Air Force and Navy until the 1970s and many still serve in a military role or and in private hands in the present day.

Contents

Design and development

The XP-80 was a conventional, all-metal airframe with a slim low wing and tricycle undercarriage (landing gear). Like most early jets designed during WWII (before the Allies captured German swept wing research data which showed the promise of much greater speeds), the XP-80 had straight wings, like previous propeller-driven fighters. It was the first operational jet fighter to have its engine in the fuselage, a design previously used in the pioneering Heinkel He 178 of 1939, and the slightly later Gloster E.28/39 demonstrator of 1941. Other early jets generally had two engines because of their limited power and mounted these in external pods for easier maintenance. With the advent of more powerful British Jet engines, fuselage mounting was more effective and would be used by nearly all subsequent fighter aircraft.

Concept work began on the XP-80 in 1943 with a design being built around the blueprint dimensions of a British de Havilland H-1 B turbojet (later called Goblin), a powerplant to which the design team did not have actual access. Lockheed's team, consisting of 28 engineers, was led by the legendary Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson. This teaming was an early product of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which would surface again in the next decade to produce a line of high-performance aircraft beginning with the F-104.

The original XP-80 prototype Lulu-Belle.

The impetus for development of the P-80 was the discovery by Allied intelligence of the Me 262 in spring 1943, which had only made test flights of production prototypes at that time. After receiving documents and blueprints comprising years of British jet aircraft research, the commanding General of the Army Air Forces, Henry H. Arnold, believed an airframe could be developed to accept the British-made jet engine, and the Materiel Command's Wright Field research and development division tasked Lockheed to design the aircraft. With the Germans and British clearly far ahead in development, Lockheed was pressed to develop a comparable jet in as short a time as possible. Kelly Johnson submitted a design proposal in mid-June and promised that the prototype would be ready for testing in 180 days. The Skunk Works team, beginning 26 June 1943, produced the airframe in 143 days, delivering it to Muroc Army Airfield on 16 November. After the Goblin engine had mated to the airframe, foreign object damage during the first run-up destroyed the engine, which delayed the first flight until a second engine (the only other extant)[3] could be delivered from Britain.[4]

The first prototype (44-83020) was nicknamed Lulu-Belle (also known as "the Green Hornet" because of its green paint scheme). Powered by the replacement Halford H1 taken from the prototype de Havilland Vampire jet fighter, it first flew on 8 January 1944, with Lockheed test pilot Tony LeVier at the controls. Following this flight, Johnson said, "It was a magnificent demonstration, our plane was a success - such a complete success that it had overcome the temporary advantage the Germans had gained from years of preliminary development on jet planes." The donated British Jet program data had no doubt proved invaluable.[citation needed] In test flights, the XP-80 eventually reached a top speed of 502 mph at 20,480 feet, making it the first USAAF aircraft to exceed 500 mph in level flight.

XP-80A 44-83021 Gray Ghost in flight.

The second prototype, designated XP-80A, was designed for the larger General Electric I-40 engine (an improved Rolls-Royce Derwent, later produced by Allison as the J33). Two aircraft (44-83021 and 44-83022) were built. 44-83021 was nicknamed the Gray Ghost after its "pearl gray" paint scheme, while 83022, left unpainted for comparison of flight characteristics, became known as the Silver Ghost. The XP-80A's first test flight was unimpressive, but most of the problems with the design were soon addressed and corrected in the test program. Initial opinions of the XP-80A were not positive, with Lockheed Chief Engineering Test Pilot Milo Burcham commenting an aircraft he very much enjoyed (powered by the Halford engine) had now become a "dog." The XP-80As were primarily testbeds for larger, more powerful engines and intake duct design, and consequently were larger and 25% heavier than the XP-80.

The P-80 testing program proved very dangerous. Burcham was killed on 20 October 1944 while flying the third YP-80A produced, 44-83025. The Gray Ghost was lost on a test flight on 20 March 1945, although pilot Tony LeVier escaped. Newly promoted to chief engineering test pilot to replace Burcham, LeVier bailed out when one of the engine's turbine blades broke, causing structural failure in the airplane's tail. LeVier landed hard and broke his back, but returned to the test program after six months of recovery. Noted ace Major Richard Bong was also killed on an acceptance flight of a production P-80 in the United States on 6 August 1945. Both Burcham and Bong crashed as a result of main fuel pump failure. Burcham's death was the result of a failure to brief him on a newly installed emergency fuel pump backup system, but the investigation of Bong's crash found he had apparently forgotten to switch on this pump, which could have prevented the accident. He bailed out when the aircraft rolled inverted but was too close to the ground for his parachute to deploy.

Navy service

TO-1 Shooting Star of VMF-311

Several P-80A Shooting Stars[N 1] were transferred to the United States Navy beginning 29 June 1945, retaining their P-80 designations. At Naval Air Station Patuxent River, one Navy P-80 was modified (with required add-ons, such as a tail hook) and loaded aboard the aircraft carrier USS Franklin D. Roosevelt at Norfolk, Virginia, on 31 October 1946. The following day the aircraft made four deck-run takeoffs and two catapult launches, with five arrested landings, flown by Marine Major Marion Carl. A second series of trials was held 11 November.[5]

The Navy had already begun procuring its own jet aircraft, but the slow pace of delivery was causing retention problems among pilots, particularly those of the Marines who were still flying Vought F4U Corsairs. To increase land-based jet transition training in the late 1940s, 50 F-80Cs were transferred to the Navy from the Air Force in 1949 as jet trainers. Designated TO-1 by the Navy (changed to TV-1 in 1950), 25 were based at Naval Air Station North Island, California, with VF-52, and 16 assigned to the Marine Corps, equipping VMF-311 at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro. These aircraft were eventually sent to reserve units. The success of these aircraft led to the procurement by the Navy of 698 T-33 Shooting Stars (as the TO-2/TV-2) to provide a two-seat aircraft for the training role. Lockheed went on to develop a carrier-capable version, the T2V SeaStar, which went into service in 1957.[5]

Costs

The costs are in approximately 1947 United States dollars and have not been adjusted for inflation.[1]

P-80A FP-80A (RF-80A) P-80B F-80C/TF-80C
Airframe 75,967 62,050
Engine 21,584 21,192
Electronics 4,195 5,536
Armament 3,715 4,678
Ordnance 2,335
Flyaway cost 110,000 107,796 95,000 93,456

Operational history

Operational P-80Bs at Langley AFB.

The Shooting Star began to enter service in late 1944 with 12 pre-production YP-80As one of which was destroyed in the accident in which Burcham was killed. A 13th YP-80A was modified to the sole F-14 photo reconnaissance model and lost in a December crash. Four were sent to Europe for operational testing (two to England and two to the 1st Fighter Group at Lesina Airfield, Italy) but when test pilot Major Frederic Borsodi was killed in a crash caused by an engine fire on 28 January 1945, demonstrating YP-80A 44-83026 at RAF Burtonwood, the YP-80A was temporarily grounded. Some early P-80s had been sent to Europe for demonstration, but because of the delay the Shooting Star saw no combat in World War II.[6]

The initial production order was for 344 P-80As after USAAF acceptance in February 1945. A total of 83 P-80s had been delivered by the end of July 1945 and 45 assigned to the 412th Fighter Group (later redesignated the 1st Fighter Group) at Muroc Army Air Field. After the war, production continued, although wartime plans for 5,000 were quickly reduced to 2,000 at a little under $100,000 a copy. A total of 1,714 single-seat F-80A, F-80B, F-80C and RF-80s were manufactured by the end of production in 1950, of which 927 were F-80Cs (including 129 operational F-80As upgraded to F-80C-11-LO standards). However, the two-seat TF-80C, first flown on 22 March 1948, became the basis for the T-33 trainer, of which 6,557 were produced.

On 27 January 1946, Colonel William H. Councill flew a P-80 nonstop across the US to make the first transcontinental jet flight. He completed the 2,457 miles (3,954 km) run between Los Angeles and New York in 4 hours, 13 minutes 26 seconds at an average speed of 584 mph (940 km/h) to set a Fédération Aéronautique Internationale record. The P-80B prototype, modified as a racer and designated XP-80R, was piloted by Colonel Albert Boyd to a world air speed record of 623.73 mph (1,004.2 km/h) on 19 June 1947. The P-80C began production in 1948; on 11 June, now part of the USAF, the P-80C was officially redesignated the F-80C.

The USAF Strategic Air Command had F-80 Shooting Stars in service from 1946 through 1948 with the 1st and 56th Fighter Groups. The first P-80s to serve in Europe joined the 55th Fighter Group (later redesignated the 31st FG) at Giebelstadt, Germany, in 1946, remaining 18 months. When the Soviet Union blockaded Berlin, a squadron of the 56th FG led by Colonel David C. Schilling made the first west-to-east Atlantic crossing by single-engined jets in July, flying to Germany for 45 days in Operation Fox Able I.[N 2] Replaced by the newly F-80-equipped 36th Fighter Group at Fürstenfeldbruck, the 56th FG conducted Fox Able II in May 1949. That same year F-80s first equipped the 51st Fighter Group, based in Japan.

The 4th (Langley Air Force Base, Virginia), 81st (Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico), and 57th (Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska) Fighter Groups all acquired F-80s in 1948, as did interceptor squadrons of the Air Defense Command. The first Air National Guard unit to fly the P-80 was the 196th FS of the California ANG in June 1947.

Korean War

F-80Cs of the 8th Fighter-Bomber Group

Shooting Stars first saw combat service in the Korean War, employing both the F-80C variant and RF-80 photo-recon variants. The F-80 flew both air to air and air to ground sorties, claiming several aerial victories against North Korean Yak-9s and Il-10s. The first jet-versus-jet aerial victory in history was scored on 8 November 1950 when Lieutenant Russell J. Brown, flying an F-80, shot down a MiG-15.[7] [N 3]. Despite the initial claim of success, the speed of the straight-wing F-80s were inferior in performance to the 668 mph MiGs which incorporated German research on swept wings which delayed the onset of compressibility problems that enabled speeds much closer to the speed of sound. The F-80s were soon replaced in the air superiority role by the North American F-86 Sabre which had been delayed to also incorporate swept wings into an improved straight-winged naval FJ-1 Fury. However F-80 pilots still destroyed a total of 6 MiG-15s in aerial combat. When sufficient Sabres were in operation, the Shooting Star flew exclusively ground attack missions, and advanced flight training duties and air defense in Japan. By the end of hostilities, the only F-80s still flying in Korea were photo-reconnaissance variants.

F-80Cs equipped 10 USAF squadrons in Korea:

  • 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing (35th, 36th, and 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadrons), based at Suwon, was the longest-serving F-80 unit in Korea. It began missions from Japan in June 1950 and continued to fly the Shooting Star until May 1953, when it converted to F-86 Sabres.
  • 49th Fighter-Bomber Group (7th, 8th and 9th FBS) deployed to Taegu, Korea, from Japan in September 1950 and continued fighter-bomber missions in the F-80C until June 1951, when it converted to the F-84 Thunderjet.
  • 51st Fighter-Interceptor Wing (16th and 25th FIS) operated F-80Cs from Kimpo and Japan from September 1950 to November 1951 when it transitioned to F-86s.
  • 35th Fighter-Interceptor Group and two squadrons, the 39th and 40th FIS, went to Pohang, Korea in July 1950, but converted to the P-51 Mustang before the end of the year.

One RF-80A unit operated in Korea:

  • 8th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron', later redesignated 15th TRS, served from 27 June 1950 at Itazuke, Japan, Taegu (K-2) and Kimpo (K-14), Korea, until after the armistice. The squadron also utilized a few converted RF-80Cs and RF-86s.

Of the 277 F-80s lost in operations (approximately 30% of the existing inventory), 113 were destroyed by ground fire and 14 shot down by enemy aircraft.[1] F-80s are credited by the USAF with destroying 17 aircraft in air-to-air combat and 24 on the ground.[8] Major Charles J. Loring, Jr. was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions while flying an F-80 with the 80th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 8th Fighter-Bomber Wing on 22 November 1952.

Variants

P-80/F-80

1714 production aircraft were delivered to the Air Force prior to any conversions or redesignations, with their original block numbers.

EF-80 prone pilot test aircraft
XP-80
Prototype, one built.
XP-80A
Second prototype variant, two built.
YP-80A
12 pre-production aircraft.
XF-14
One built from YP-80A order (44-83024), lost in midair collision with B-25 Mitchell chase plane on 6 December 1944; USAAF photo reconnaissance prototype.
P-80A
344 block 1-LO aircraft; 180 block 5-LO aircraft. Block 5 and all subsequent Shooting Stars were natural metal finish. Fitted with 225 US gal (187 imp gal; 850 l) tiptanks.[9]
F-80A
USAF designation of P-80A.
EF-80
Modified to test "Prone Pilot" cockpit positions.[N 4]
F-14A
Unknown number of conversions from P-80A, all redesignated FP-80A.
XFP-80A
Modified P-80A 44-85201 with hinged nose for camera equipment.
F-80A test aircraft (s/n 44-85044) with twin 0.5 in (12.7 mm) machine guns in oblique mount, similar to World War II German Schräge Musik, to study the ability to attack Soviet bombers from below.
F-80 with Schräge Musik configuration at full elevation.
FP-80A
152 block 15-LO; operational photo reconnaissance aircraft.
RF-80A
USAF designation of FP-80A, 66 operational F-80A's modified to RF-80A standard.
ERF-80A
Modified P-80A 44-85042 with experimental nose contour.
XP-80B
Reconfigured P-80A, improved J-33 engine, one built as prototype for P-80B
P-80B
209 block 1-LO; 31 block 5-LO; first model to be fitted with ejection seat (retrofitted into -As)[10]
F-80B
USAF designation of P-80B.
XP-80R
Modification of XP-80B to racer.
P-80C
162 block 1-LO; 75 block 5-LO; 561 block 10-LO
F-80C
USAF designation of P-80; 128 F-80A modified to F-80C-11-LO with J-33-A-35 engine and ejection seat installed; fitted with 260 US gal (220 imp gal; 980 l) tiptanks; major P-80 production version.[9]
RF-80C
70 modified F-80A and F-80C, and six modified RF-80A, to RF-80C and RF-80C-11, respectively; upgraded photo recon plane.
DF-80A
Designation given to number of F-80As converted into drone directors.
QF-80A/QF-80C/QF-80F
Project Bad Boy F-80 conversions by Sperry Gyroscope to target drones. Q-8 was initially proposed as designation for the QF-80.
TP-80C
First designation for TF-80C trainer prototype.
TF-80C
Prototype for T-33 (48-0356).
TO-1/TV-1
U.S. Navy variant of F-80C; 49 block 1-LO and one block 5-LO aircraft transferred to USN in 1949; 16 initially went to U.S. Marine Corps.

Derivatives

Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star

Lockheed also produced a two-seat trainer variant with a longer fuselage, the T-33, which remained in production until 1959 and was produced under license in Japan and Canada. The trainer was used by more than 20 different countries. A total of 6,557 T-33s were built and some are still flying.

Lockheed F-94 Starfire

Two TF-80Cs were modified as prototypes for the F-94 Starfire, an all-weather fighter which was produced in three variants.


Operators

Peruvian F-80C preserved in a Lima park.
 Brazil
33 F-80C delivered starting in 1958, withdrawn from service in 1973.[11]
 Chile
around 30 F-80C delivered from 1958 on, last ones retired from service in 1974.[12]
 Colombia
16 F-80C delivered starting in 1958, retired by 1966.[13]
 Ecuador
16 F-80C delivered between 1957 and 1960, six returned to the USA in 1965.[14]
 Peru
16 F-80C delivered starting in 1958, used by the 13th Fighter-Bomber Group until the type was phased out in 1973.[15]
 United States
 Uruguay
at least 17 F-80C delivered, withdrawn from use in 1971.[16]

Aircraft on display

Brazil
Chile
  • P-80C Shooting Star, s/n J-342, is on display at Chile's National Aviation and Space Museum (Museo Nacional Aeronautico y del Espacio) in Santiago.
United States
  • XP-80 Shooting Star, s/n 44-83020 Lulu-Belle, is on display at the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C.. It flew on 8 January 1944 was restored right after the 1976 opening of the National Air and Space Museum and is still in their collection.[17]
  • P-80A Shooting Star, s/n 44-85200, is on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, Ohio. This aircraft was specially modified for racing by equipping it with a smaller canopy, a shorter wing, and redesigned air intakes. On 19 June 1947, it was flown by Colonel Albert Boyd to a new world speed record of 623.73 mph (1,004.2 km/h). The aircraft was shipped to the Museum from Griffiss Air Force Base in New York in October 1954.[19][20]
  • P-80C Shooting Star, s/n 49-0853, is on display at Holloman AFB in New Mexico.[26]
Uruguay
  • P-80 Shooting Star, s/n 213 in FAU markings, is on display at the "Museo Aeronáutico, Cnel. (Av.) Jaime Meregalli" in Montevideo.
  • P-80B Shooting Star, s/n 45-8704 in U.S.A.F. markings, is on display at the McClellan Aerospace Museum in Sacramento California.[27]

Specifications (P-80C/F-80C)

USAF P-80A of the first production series, bearing a buzz number.
F-80C Shooting Star

Data from Quest for Performance[28]

General characteristics

Performance

Armament

  • Guns: 6 × 0.50 in (12.7 mm) M2 Browning machine guns (300 rpg)
  • Rockets: 8 × unguided rockets
  • Bombs: 2 × 1,000 lb (454 kg) bombs

See also

Related development
  • Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star
  • Lockheed T2V SeaStar
  • Lockheed F-94 Starfire
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. ^ Aviation historian Norman Polmar states three, but Joseph Baugher lists serial and bureau numbers for four: 44-85000 and -85005 became 29667 and 29668 with 44-85235 and 45-8557 becoming 29689 and 29690.
  2. ^ Royal Air Force jets had made the first crossing of the Atlantic in the reverse direction two weeks earlier.
  3. ^ Note: This claim has been disputed by some researchers, citing Soviet records.
  4. ^ See also Gloster Meteor F8 "Prone Pilot" for background on prone pilot experiments.
Citations
  1. ^ a b c Knaack 1978
  2. ^ Green and Swanborough 2001, p. 345.
  3. ^ Gunston 1989, p. 59.
  4. ^ Heppenheimer, T.A. "The Jet Plane is Born." American Heritage magazine, February 1993. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
  5. ^ a b Polmar 2001, pp. 12–14.
  6. ^ a b "Lockheed F-80 "Shooting Star." The 456th Fighter Interception Squadron. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
  7. ^ Knez, Saso, Diego Fernando Zampini and Joe L. Brenan. "Korean War Database." AirCombat Information Group, (ACIG), 28 October 2003. Retrieved: 6 July 2008.
  8. ^ "USAF Credits for the Destruction of Enemy Aircraft, Korean War." Air Force Historical Study 81, p. 46. Retrieved: 1 August 2011.
  9. ^ a b Fitzsimons 1978, p. 2319.
  10. ^ Jones 1975, p. 202.
  11. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 81.
  12. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 126.
  13. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 143.
  14. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 167.
  15. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 239.
  16. ^ Andrade 1982, p. 263.
  17. ^ "XP-80 Shooting Star/44-83020." NASM Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  18. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85182." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  19. ^ United States Air Force Museum Guidebook 1975, p. 52.
  20. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85200." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  21. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/44-85488." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  22. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/45-8490." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  23. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/45-8612." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  24. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/48-0868." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  25. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/49-0696." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  26. ^ "P-80 Shooting Star/49-0853." Warbirds Resource Group. Retrieved: 10 June 2011.
  27. ^ "Lockheed F-80B ' Shooting Star'." McClellan Aerospace Museum. Retrieved: 29 October 2011.
  28. ^ Loftin, L.K. Jr. "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft NASA SP-468." NASA. Retrieved: 22 April 2006.
Bibliography
  • Andrade, John. Latin-American Military Aviation. Leicester, UK: Midland Counties Publications, 1982. ISBN 0-90459-731-8.
  • Baugher, Joe. "Lockheed P-80/F-80 Shooting Star." USAAC/USAAF/USAF Fighter and Pursuit Aircraft, 16 July 1999.
  • Davis, Larry. MiG Alley: Air to Air Combat Over Korea. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1978. ISBN 0-89747-081-8.
  • Davis, Larry. P-80 Shooting Star. T-33/F-94 in action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, 1980. ISBN 0-89747-099-0.
  • Dorr, Robert F. "P-80 Shooting Star Variants". Wings of Fame Vol. 11. London: Aerospace Publishing Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-86184-017-9.
  • Fitzsimons, Bernard, ed. "Shooting Star, Lockheed F-80/T-33." Illustrated Encyclopedia of 20th Century Weapons and Warfare, Volume 21. London: Phoebus, 1978. ISBN 0-83936-175-0.
  • Green, William. War Planes of the Second World War, Volume Four: Fighters. London: MacDonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1961 (Sixth impression 1969). ISBN 0-356-01448-7.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. The Great Book of Fighters. St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing, 2001. ISBN 0-7603-1194-3.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. WW2 Aircraft Fact Files: US Army Air Force Fighters, Part 2. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1978. ISBN 0-354-01072-7.
  • Gunston, Bill. World Encyclopedia of Aero Engines. Cambridge, UK: Patrick Stephens Limited, 1989. ISBN 1-85260-163-9.
  • Jenkins, Dennis R. and Tony R. Landis. Experimental & Prototype U.S. Air Force Jet Fighters. North Branch, Minnesota, USA: Specialty Press, 2008. ISBN 978-1-58007-111-6.
  • Jones, Lloyd S. U.S. Fighters, Army-Air Force: 1925 to 1980s. Los Angeles: Aero Publishers Incorporated, 1975. ISBN 0-8168-9200-8.
  • Knaack, Marcelle Size. Encyclopedia of US Air Force Aircraft and Missile Systems: Volume 1 Post-World War II Fighters 1945-1973. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, 1978. ISBN 0-912799-59-5.
  • Pace, Steve. Lockheed Skunk Works. St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International, 1992. ISBN 0-87938-632-0.
  • Polmar, Norman. "Lots of Shooting Stars". Naval History (United States Naval Institute), Vol. 14, No. 4, August 2001, pp. 12–14.
  • United States Air Force Museum Guidebook. Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio: Air Force Museum Foundation, 1975.
  • Wooldridge, E.T. Jr. The P-80 Shooting Star: Evolution of a Jet Fighter (Famous Aircraft of the National Air and Space Museum Series, Vol. 3). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979. ISBN 0-874749-65-4.

External links


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