- Young Hegelians
in 1833 and responding to his ambiguous legacy. The Young Hegelians drew on his idea that the purpose and promise of history was the total negation of everything conducive to restriction of freedom and irrationality to mount radical critiques of first religion and then the Prussian political system. They ignored those anti-utopian aspects of his thought that suggested the world had essentially reached perfection.
Left and Right Hegelianism
The German philosophers writing immediately after the death of
Georg Wilhelm Hegelin 1833 can be (roughly) divided into the politically and religiously radical 'left', or 'young', Hegelians and the more conservative 'right', or 'Old', Hegelians. The Right Hegelians followed the master in believing that the dialectic of history had come to an end (Hegel's Phenomenology of Spiritreveals itself to be the culmination of history as the reader reaches its end). This meant that reason and freedom had reached the absolute maximum and were embodied in the Prussian state which, although it had an extensive civil service, good universities, some industrialization and high employment, was actually rather politically backward compared with the far more liberal constitutional monarchies of France and Britain. The Young Hegelians drew on Hegel's veneration of Reason and Freedom as the guiding forces of history, and his idea that the 'Spirit' overcame all that was opposed to these and to itself. They believed Hegel's apparent belief in the end of history conflicted with other aspects of his thought and that it was painfully obvious that the dialectic was not complete given the irrationality of certain (later all) religious beliefs and the empirical lack of (especially political and religious) freedom in Prussian society as it existed at the time. It is important to note that the groups were not as unified or self-conscious as the labels 'right' and 'left' make them seem. The term 'Right Hegelian', for example, was never actually used by those it was ascribed to, Hegel's direct predecessors at the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität (now the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin), and was actually first used by David Strauss to describe Bruno Bauer (who is, confusingly, a typically 'Left' Hegelian).
It was the outcry caused by David Strauss's "The Life of Jesus" in 1835 which first made the 'Young Hegelians' aware of their existence as a distinct group, and it was their attitude to religion that distinguished the left and right from then onwards (
August Cieszkowskiis a possible exception to this rule). Despite the lack of political freedom of speech in Prussia at the time King Wilhelm III, under the influence of his relatively enlightened minister of religion, health and education Altenstein, allowed pretty much anything to be said about religion so long as there was practical obedience to his enforced merging of Calvinism and Lutheranism and spreading of Protestantism in Catholic areasStedman-Jones, Gareth, introduction to "Marx and Engels, The Communist Manifesto", Penguin Classics, 2002] . Thus the Young Hegelians at first found it easier to direct their critical energies towards religion than politics. A major consolidator of the Young Hegelian movement was the journal "Hallische Jahrbucher" (1838-41) (later "Deutsche Jahrbucher" (1841-43)) which was edited by Arnold Rugeand received contributions from many of the other Young Hegelians (and, in its infancy, Old Hegelians). It attacked Catholicism and orthodox Protestantism but was initially politically moderate, taking the line that Prussia was the embodiment of historical reason, which required that it evolve by peaceful reform towards a bourgeois egalitarian state with a constitutional monarchy, Protestant religion (though without a dominating state church) and freedom of speech. Another nucleus of the Young Hegelian movement was the Doctor's Club in Berlin (later known as 'the Free'), a society of intellectuals founded in 1837 and led by Bruno Bauer who, by 1838, was writing the most anti-Christian pamphlets in Germany at the timeKolakowski, Leszek, "Main currents of Marxism: the founders, the golden age, the breakdown", Norton, 2005.] .
The radicalisation and politicisation of the movement occurred when the new king upon whom the Young Hegelians had pinned their hopes of political reform,
Frederick William IV, came to power in 1840 and curtailed political freedom and religious tolerance even more than before. In philosophy the radicalisation took the form of a breach with Hegel’s doctrine of the Prussian state as the fulfilment of history. In religion it manifested as a rejection of Christianity even in its most diluted pantheistic form and an adoption of atheism (led by Bauer and Feuerbach). In politics the Young Hegelians dropped much of Hegel's political theory and for the most part turned to republicanism- the exceptions being Moses Hess, who mixed Hegelianism with communism, and of course Marx and Engels. In all these areas a central change was the adoption of certain ideas of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, especially the notion that the self-transcendence of the world by man was a possibility and duty, but one that could never be conclusively fulfilled.
Although they spread democratic ideas throughout Germany to some extent, the intellectual exertions of the Young Hegelians failed to connect with or stir any wider social movement, and when the "Deutsche Jahrbucher" was suppressed in 1843 the movement started to disintegrate.
The Young Hegelians interpreted the entire state apparatus as ultimately claiming legitimacy based upon religious tenets; while this thought was clearly inspired by the function of Lutheranism in contemporary
Prussia, the Young Hegelians held the theory to be applicable to any state backed by any religion. All laws were ultimately based on religious tenets.
As such, their plan to undermine what they felt was the corrupt and despotic state apparatus was to attack the philosophical basis of religion. In the process, they became the first non-religious Biblical scholars since
Baruch Spinozain his Theologico-Political Treatise.
David Strausswrote "Das Leben Jesu" ("The Life of Jesus|The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined") in 1835, in which he argued - in a Hegelian framework - against both the supernatural elements of the Gospel and the idea that the Christian church was the sole bearer of absolute truth. He believed the Gospel stories were mythical responses to the situation the Jewish community at the time found themselves in. The idea that 'infinite reason' or 'the absolute' (i.e. broadly Hegelian notions of God) could be incarnated within a finite human being was particularly absurd. Moreover, the original teachings of Jesus, which were aimed at aiding the poor and downtrodden, had slowly been perverted and usurped by the establishment to manipulate and oppress the populaces of the world by promising them a reward in the afterlife if they refrained from rebellion against the powers that be in this.
Bruno Bauerwent further, and claimed that the entire story of Jesus was a myth. He found no record of anyone named "Yeshua of Nazareth" in any then-extant Roman records. (Subsequent research has, in fact, found such citations, notably by the Roman historian Tacitus and the Jewish historian Josephus, although these citations are not contemporaneous with Jesus' life and are widely viewed as forgeries.) Bauer argued that almost all prominent historical figures in antiquity are referenced in other works (e.g., Aristophanesmocking Socratesin his plays), but as he could not find any such references to Jesus, it was likely that the entire story of Jesus was fabricated
Ludwig Feuerbachwrote a psychological profile of a believer called "Das Wesen des Christentums" ("The Essence of Christianity"). He argues that the believer is presented with a doctrine that encourages the projection of fantasies onto the world. Believers are encouraged to believe in miracles, and to idealize all their weaknesses by imagining an omnipotent, omniscient, immortal God who represents the antithesis of all human flaws and shortcomings.
Karl Neuwerckwas a lecturer of Hegelian philosophy in Berlin who lost his teaching license along with Bruno Bauerin 1842.Toews, John ("Becoming Historical - Cultural Reformation and Public Memory in Nineteenth-Century Berlin") [http://assets.cambridge.org/052183/6484/sample/0521836484ws.pdf] ]
As an advocate of a free and united
Germany, Arnold Rugeshared Hegel's belief that history is a progressive advance towards the realization of freedom, and that freedom is attained in the State, the creation of the rational General Will. At the same time he criticized Hegelfor having given an interpretation of history which was closed to the future, in the sense that it left no room for novelty.Copleston, Frederick ("A History of Philosophy, volume VII, p. 301")]
Max Stirnerwould occasionally socialize with the Young Hegelians, but held views much to the contrary of these thinkers, all of whom he consequently satirized and mocked in his nominalistmasterpiece "Der Einzige und Sein Eigentum" (" The Ego and Its Own").
Another Young Hegelian,
Karl Marx, was at first sympathetic with this strategy of attacking Christianity to undermine the Prussian establishment, but later formed divergent ideas and broke with the Young Hegelians, attacking their views in works such as " The German Ideology". Marx concluded that religion is not the basis of the establishment's power, but rather ownership of capital -- land, money, and the means of production -- lie at the heart of the establishment's power. Marx felt religion was just a smokescreen to obscure this true basis of establishment power, and indeed, was a vital crutch for the oppressed proletariat-- "the opium of the people," their sole solace in life which he would not wish to take away.
Friedrich Engelscontributed alongside Karl Marx to The Communist Manifesto.Expand-section|date=May 2008
August von Cieszkowski
August Cieszkowskifocused on Hegel's view of world history and reformed it to better accommodate Hegelian Philosophy itself by dividing it into Past, Present, and Future. In his "Prolegomena to Historiosophy", Cieszkowski argues that we have gone from Art(the Past), which was a stage of contemplating the Real, to Philosophy(the Present), which is a contemplation of the Ideal, and that since Hegel's philosophy was the summing-up and perfection of Philosophy, the time of Philosophy was up, and the time for a new era has dawned - the era of Action. [ [http://www.nonserviam.com/stirner/yh/main.html www.nonserviam.com] ]
The Young Hegelians were not popular at the university due to their radical views on religion and society. Bauer was dismissed from his teaching post in
1842, and Marx and other students were warned that they should not bother submitting their dissertations at the University of Berlin, as they would certainly be poorly received due to their reputations.
* [http://www.nonserviam.com/stirner/yh/main.html The Young Hegelians]
* [http://www.amazon.com/Berlin-Red-Room-white-beer/dp/0894106678 Berlin: the Red Room and White Beer] by Robert James Hellman
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