History of the X-Men comics


History of the X-Men comics

This text deals with the history of the popular Marvel Comics franchise, the X-Men.

1960s

The original X-Men

In the early 1960s, Marvel Comics editor/writer Stan Lee, artist Jack Kirby and several other illustrators produced a number of superhero titles which stressed character personalities and personal conflict as much as action and adventure, including The Fantastic Four, The Incredible Hulk and Spider-Man. "The X-Men" was one of the last titles of this Silver Age renaissance, appearing in September 1963.

In the comic book series, the X-Men were founded by the paraplegic telepath Charles Xavier, also known as Professor X. Xavier gathered the X-Men under the cover of a "School for Gifted Youngsters" at a large country estate at 1407 Graymalkin Lane in Salem Center, a city in Westchester County, New York.

Cover-billed as "the strangest heroes of all", the original X-Men consisted of five teenagers still learning to control their powers:

*Cyclops (Scott Summers), whose eyes constantly gave off heatless blasts of concussive force that could only be controlled by a "ruby quartz" visor. He would become the X-Men's field leader.
*Marvel Girl (Jean Grey, later known as Phoenix), a telekinetic of limited power. She was Xavier's first female student.
*Angel (Warren Worthington III, later known as Archangel), who took his name from the large, angel-like feathered wings which sprouted from his back at puberty and allowed him to fly.
*Beast (Hank McCoy), a genius with remarkable physical prowess, whose enlarged hands and feet granted him enhanced agility and dexterity.
*Iceman (Bobby Drake), who could transform his body into ice and lower temperatures by absorbing moisture from the air.

A precursor to the concept of a school for feared genetic mutants appeared in the 1953 science fiction novel "Children of the Atom" by Wilmar H. Shiras, which has been credited — though never officially confirmed — with inspiring the X-Men. The title characters of the novel were also mutants, the results of an unintended experiment in genetic mutation. The term "Children of the Atom" has also been used at times during the X-Men franchise's history, often as a subtitle for various X-Men publications and video games.

Despite the philosophical concepts which appeared in "The X-Men," Lee has said he invented genetic "mutants" to find a way to create a number of super-powered characters without having to come up with a separate and interesting origin for each one.

"The X-Men" #1 also introduced the team's arch-nemesis, Magneto, who controlled magnetism and who felt that mutants should rule over or kill all normal humans. Magneto's character would later be fleshed out to reveal that he once shared a friendship with Professor X, and that his decree that mutants must conquer or be conquered grew from his experiences as a Holocaust survivor. "The X-Men" #4 introduced Magneto's team, the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants, including Mastermind, the Toad, Quicksilver and the Scarlet Witch. Other villains were also introduced during this era who would loosely become affiliated with the Brotherhood over time, including Unus the Untouchable, the Vanisher and the Blob, the latter having the most longevity with the group, joining or aiding nearly every incarnation.While a few other important villains debuted during the 1960s — such as Professor X's superhumanly strong stepbrother the Juggernaut and the mutant-hunting robot Sentinels — the X-Men often fought easily-forgotten mutant criminals, alien invaders and brutish monsters. As a result, this era is largely regarded as unremarkable and "The X-Men" became one of the less successful Marvel series during the 1960s.

During this early era, only one other member was briefly added to the team:

*Mimic (Calvin Rankin), who could use the powers of others, including the other X-Men. He is notable for not only having blackmailed himself onto the team, but also being the only member expelled by Xavier. Whether or not he is truly a mutant is heavily debated.

Lee and Kirby departed the series in 1966, handing the reins over to Roy Thomas and Werner Roth. Roth gave up the regular art chores in 1967, and Thomas dropped the scripting slot in 1968. The title went with no long-term creative team for about a year, but had a couple notable artists. Jim Steranko drew several issues, one added the villain Mesmero to the cast and Barry Windsor-Smith drew three issues. In 1969, Thomas returned, joined by fan favorite artist Neal Adams in an effort to save the series from its sagging sales. These issues are more highly regarded by fans and introduced recurring villains Sauron and the Living Monolith as well as two more X-Men:

*Lorna Dane (later Polaris), a green-haired mutant with similar powers to Magneto; and
*Havok (Alex Summers), Cyclops' rebellious brother who could absorb cosmic energy and use it to disintegrate objects or create energy bursts. Like his brother, he had great difficulty controlling his destructive powers.

Though sales did improve while Adams illustrated the book, it was too little and too late, and Marvel stopped producing new issues of "The X-Men" in 1970 with issue #66. The series continued by reprinting old issues and the X-Men appeared in other Marvel comics — including prominent appearances in "Marvel Team-Up", "The Avengers", "The Incredible Hulk" and "Captain America" — but faded to near-obscurity.

Late 1970s/Early 1980s

The all-new, all-different X-Men

In 1975, writer Len Wein and artist Dave Cockrum introduced a new team of X-Men. Rather than teenagers, this group consisted of adults who hailed from a variety of nations and cultures. The wide range of cultures came from Marvel's intention to target the title in markets outside its U.S. base. "Giant-Size X-Men" #1 introduced this team, called together by Professor X to rescue the original team from captivity on the radioactive "living island" of Krakoa.

The "All-New, All-Different X-Men" were led by Cyclops, and consisted of:

*Sunfire (Shiro Yoshida), a hot-tempered Japanese mutant who could generate superheated plasma and fly.
*Thunderbird (John Proudstar), an Apache who possessed superhuman strength, speed, endurance, reflexes, and instinctual tracking senses and skills.
*Banshee (Sean Cassidy), an Irish mutant with a "sonic scream" that allows him to fly and generate concussive sonic blasts.
*Colossus (Piotr Rasputin), a quiet, contemplative Russian who could transform his entire body into "organic steel", increasing his size, strength, speed and endurance while making him virtually indestructible.
*Nightcrawler (Kurt Wagner), a rascally German who possessed great agility and the ability to teleport. His appearance, with iridescent eyes, blue velvet fur, three fingers on each hand, two toes on each foot, fangs, pointed ears, and a prehensile tail, makes him look like a demon. Note that one of his lesser known powers is the ability to fade from view in shadows.
*Storm (Ororo Munroe), a strong-willed woman who was raised in Africa. She is psychically linked to the weather patterns of Earth, allowing her to control and manipulate the weather. Storm would become the X-Men's leader in times of Cyclops' absence.
*Wolverine (James "Logan" Howlett), a gruff Canadian government agent who possessed heightened senses, a regenerative "healing factor" which also slowed his aging process, and retractable adamantium claws. A covert agency named Weapon X had bonded the fictitious metal alloy to Wolverine's skeleton. Revealed piecemeal, Wolverine's origin would become one of the series' greatest mysteries.

After "Giant-Size X-Men" #1, Marvel began publishing new issues of "Uncanny X-Men," featuring the new team minus Sunfire (who had quit) and Thunderbird, who had died in battle after two issues in "Uncanny X-Men" #95. The series was illustrated by Cockrum and written by Chris Claremont, who would go on to become the longest-standing contributor to the series. One of the most important storylines of this era was "The Phoenix Saga" ("Uncanny X-Men" #101-108, 1977), in which Jean Grey seemingly bonded with a cosmic entity called the Phoenix and led the team on an intergalactic mission. The saga introduced the Shi'ar alien race and its empress Lilandra, a recurring love interest of Professor X. Moira MacTaggert and Proteus were introduced as well.

In 1978, Cockrum was succeeded as penciller by John Byrne, who also co-plotted the series with Claremont (soon retitled — informally in issue #114 and officially in issue #142 — "The Uncanny X-Men"). This marked the beginning of what many consider the X-Men's first creative renaissance, during which the series became one of the most popular in the industry. Following a confrontation with Magneto, Professor X and Jean Grey believed the X-Men lost and over the continuity of a year, the team fought its way back home. Byrne also introduced a series of Canadian-themed adventures with the introduction of Alpha Flight, a Canadian super-hero team. Wolverine consistently won awards as the most popular comic character — as a result, at least one issue per year between 1980 and 1984 focused on him. In 1982, Wolverine was given a limited series, penned by Claremont and drawn by Frank Miller, introducing the Japanese culture element of his character.

Dark Sagas

Claremont and Byrne thrust the X-Men into a variety of desperate situations that tested their character, most notably "The Dark Phoenix Saga" ("Uncanny X-Men" #129-137, 1980). In this story, the aristocratic Hellfire Club seduced Phoenix, using Mastermind's mutant ability to create complex illusions. This tampering with her mind unleashed Phoenix's dark side, and she went on to destroy a populated solar system with over five billion inhabitants. Although the X-Men tried to control her and apparently succeeded, Lilandra had Jean Grey captured in the hope of ending the Phoenix threat. Professor Xavier called for a duel of honor for the right not to surrender Phoenix. Lilandra, with the agreement of the Kree and Skrull as long as the superheroes' defeat was guaranteed, agreed to the challenge. The result was a battle on Earth's Moon between the Shi'ar's Imperial Guard and the X-Men, with Jean Grey's fate hanging in the balance. The X-Men were eventually overwhelmed, but the stress of the battle, during which Cyclops was injured, overcame Phoenix's mental restraints against her dark persona, and it returned. At that point, Lilandra ordered the solar system destroyed in hopes that the Phoenix might be killed in the process, and Professor Xavier regretfully ordered the X-Men to kill their teammate to prevent such destruction. Because of Jean Grey's humanity and willpower, Phoenix committed suicide to prevent further loss, a watershed moment for comics; major characters had rarely been killed up to that point, and sacrificial suicide had previously been inconceivable. "The Dark Phoenix Saga" introduced several characters, including Kitty Pryde, the White Queen of the Hellfire Club, and future X-Man, and Dazzler.

For their swan song, Claremont and Byrne produced "Days of Future Past" ("Uncanny X-Men" #141-142, 1981), which portrayed a dystopian future in which America is a wasteland controlled by Sentinels. In this timestream, most of the X-Men and other heroes are dead, and mutants are confined in concentration camps. In the storyline, the psyche of the adult 'Kate Pryde' is sent back in time to the body of her younger self (Kitty), and she convinces the X-Men to help her thwart the assassination of a senator by a new Brotherhood of Evil Mutants led by the shapeshifter Mystique and her new Brotherhood, including new characters Avalanche, Pyro and Destiny as well as the Blob. This dark vision of a future created by fear, hatred, and intolerance has inspired many X-Men stories in the years since.

In 1982, Claremont wrote and Brent Anderson illustrated the graphic novel "," in which Reverend William Stryker began a religious crusade against mutants, capturing and brainwashing Professor X to manipulate his powers to attack and eradicate mutant minds. The X-Men united with Magneto to battle Stryker, resulting in one of the clearest examples of mutants as a metaphor for race relations in the series. More than twenty years later, the story inspired the plot of the second X-Men film.

Meanwhile, "Uncanny X-Men" continued with Claremont and artists such as Paul Smith and later John Romita Jr.. Early 1980s storylines introduced the aliens Deathbird and the Brood, the subterranean mutant gang the Morlocks and the futuristic mutant hunter Nimrod; explored Wolverine's love of Japanese aristocrat Mariko Yashida; saw Storm adjust to the temporary loss of her powers and form a relationship with the mutant government weapons contractor Forge; and delved into Cyclops' relationship with Madelyne Pryor, a seeming doppelgänger of Jean Grey. This last story ended with Cyclops marrying Madelyne and retiring from the X-Men.

The X-Men gathered several new recruits in the early and mid-1980s, including:
*Sprite, (Kitty Pryde), later briefly called Ariel and now Shadowcat, a Jewish-American teenager who could "phase" through solid objects, walk on thin air, utilize her powers to scramble electronic systems and extend her intangibility to anything she touches. She would later be called Shadowcat after an adventure in Japan with Wolverine.
*Rogue, a southern belle who involuntarily drained powers and memories from anyone she touches, leaving them weakened or unconscious for the duration and permanently comatose in a few cases. Rogue was introduced as a member of Mystique's Brotherhood of Evil Mutants.
*Rachel Summers, the second Phoenix, later the second Marvel Girl, and the adult daughter of Cyclops and Jean Grey from the "Days of Futures Past" timeline. Telepathic, telekinetic, and able to travel through time astrally, she formerly acted as host of the Phoenix Force, which amplified her powers and allowed her to physically transport herself and other people or objects through time at will.

Mid-to-late 1980s

The series becomes a franchise

In the 1980s, the growing popularity of "Uncanny X-Men" and the rise of comic book specialty stores lead to the introduction of several spin-off series nicknamed "X-Books." The first, "The New Mutants," was launched in 1983 and featured a new group of teenaged mutants attending Xavier's school. In 1985, the original X-Men, including a controversially resurrected Jean Grey, formed "X-Factor". In 1988, Wolverine was granted his own solo series, which often dealt with his struggles with personal honor and his past. In 1987 Marvel added the offbeat "Excalibur", featuring Rachel Summers, Nightcrawler, Shadowcat and the British superheroes Captain Britain and Meggan. With so many spin-off series, the X-Men franchise became one of Marvel's most valuable assets, although the X-Men mythos and larger X-Men storylines became increasingly complex and difficult to follow. In the coming decade, the success of the X-Books would inspire other popular franchises, such as Spider-Man and DC Comics' Superman and Batman, to develop into interconnected "families" of multiple series.

Another controversial move was to have Professor X relocate to space in 1986 after he sustained injuries so severe that only Shi'ar technology could save his life, while a convenient solar flare prevented Xavier from returning to Earth. The major controversy arose from former arch-villain Magneto taking Xavier's place in running the school as well as the various X-teams. This was the reason given for the original X-Men's decision to form X-Factor and keep their identities secret, as they thought the new team had "betrayed" Xavier by working with Magneto.

This plethora of X-Men-related titles led to the rise of crossovers, sometimes called "X-Overs", storylines which would overlap into several X-Books, sometimes for months at a time. The first, 1986's "Mutant Massacre," featured the Marauders, a group a murderous mutants, who slaughtered the Morlocks and severely injured many of the X-Men who intervened (Kitty Pryde and Nightcrawler's injuries allowed the writers to ship them off to England for "Excalibur"). The saga introduced Mister Sinister, a nefarious mutant geneticist who was the Marauders' leader and a central figure in many subsequent plots. It also brought Sabretooth, previously an opponent of the martial arts hero Iron Fist, into the X-Men's world as an adversary for Wolverine, with the suggestion that the two were linked in the past.

During this period Claremont unveiled a new X-Men line-up consisting of Storm, Rogue, Wolverine, Colossus, Havok and several characters new to the team:

*Magneto, the team's then-reformed former nemesis, was left in charge of the X-Men and New Mutants by Xavier as he departed. Magneto left the X-Men after he failed to prevent the death of one of the New Mutants (Douglas Ramsey, also known as Cypher), and ultimately reverted to villainy. It was during this era, that Claremont expanded and gave Magneto his Holocaust origin.
*Longshot, a television action star with "good luck" powers from an absurdist alien dimension run by the tyrannical television network head Mojo.
*Dazzler (Alison Blaire), a former disco singer who could absorb sound energy and convert it into a variety of light effects, including lasers. Dazzler had been introduced in the book several years earlier and had had her own comic series in the intervening years.
*Psylocke (Betsy Braddock), originally introduced in the "Captain Britain" comic as an English telepath, she would change powers many times over the years, and would go through a body-swap with a Japanese woman, becoming a sexy, martial artist femme fatale in the process, and is currently telekinetic.

Also in this time period, in addition to crossovers, the X-Men co-starred in two mini-series: "The Fantastic Four vs. the X-Men" and "The X-Men vs. the Avengers". The former took care of a dangling plot thread left over from the "Mutant Massacre" story, as the Fantastic Four's leader, Mr. Fantastic, and their enemy, Dr. Doom, were needed to save Kitty Pryde's life.

Following the 1987 "Fall of the Mutants" crossover, in which the X-Men died and were reborn after fighting a demon called the Adversary in Dallas, the team briefly relocated to an abandoned outpost in Australia. The Australian period saw the introduction of the Reavers, a band of cyborg mercenaries, and the crossover "Inferno", which revealed that Madelyne Pryor was actually a clone of Jean Grey created by Mister Sinister. The X-Men and X-Factor battled Pryor, who was now the insane Goblin Queen, and the demons she had allied herself with. One of the high points of the story was the reunion of X-Factor and the X-Men; X-Factor had no idea the others were really alive, and the X-Men had assumed Jean Grey was still dead. The Australian sojourn finally ended with Storm and Rogue presumed dead and most of the others, despondent, choosing to enter the Siege Perilous, a crystal which determined their individual fates. Claremont took this opportunity to write Dazzler and Longshot out of the series (they paired up and left to raise a child). Unlike most X-characters, they have rarely been seen or heard from since their departure. In 2005, Dazzler returned in "New Excalibur", while Longshot has been teamed with the "Exiles".

In late 1989, Marvel began publishing "Uncanny X-Men" twice a month, allowing Claremont to write intertwined plot threats involving a number of X-Men. The 1990 crossover, "The X-Tinction Agenda," pulled the X-Men back together, with Storm, Banshee, Wolverine, Psylocke and three new members:

*Forge , an American Indian with the mutant gift of instinctive invention.

*Jubilee (Jubilation Lee), a teenage Chinese-American "mall rat" who could generate explosive energy, she calls fireworks. Jubilee stowed away with the X-women when they teleported home from a mall excursion. She lived in their quarters without their knowledge for several weeks, finally revealing herself to save Wolverine from a crucifixion at the hands of Lady Deathstrike.

*Gambit (Remy LeBeau), a suave Cajun thief who could charge objects (most commonly playing cards) so that they exploded on impact when thrown. His hypnotic charm allows him to exert subtle influence over sentient minds, compelling them to believe what he says and agree with his suggestions.

The final battle of this era, the Muir Island Saga, saw the X-Men, X-Factor and some allies fight an old nemesis of Xavier, the Shadow King.

From 1987 until 1990 Marc Silvestri illustrated "Uncanny X-Men". He was succeeded by young artist Jim Lee, who was one of the most popular artists in comics during his tenure on the title.

1990s

The sales boom of the 1990s

After the X-Men's return to Westchester, New York and Professor X's return to Earth in early 1991, Marvel revised the entire lineup of X-books. Artist Rob Liefeld transformed "The New Mutants" into the platoon-like "X-Force", led by the mysterious warhawk Cable. The original X-Men abandoned X-Factor and returned to the X-Men, some of them much different from when they left. Beast had developed blue fur and earned a PhD in genetics and Angel, now called Archangel, had been transformed by the 5,000-year old supermutant Apocalypse and now had blue skin and metal wings. Meanwhile, Havok, Polaris and several secondary mutants formed a new, government-affiliated X-Factor.

To make room for the enlarged main team, Marvel launched a second X-Men series, simply called "". Written by Claremont and illustrated by Lee, the new series featured the "blue team," consisting of Beast, Psylocke, Rogue, Gambit, Cyclops and Wolverine. "Uncanny X-Men", written and illustrated by Lee and Whilce Portacio, featured the "gold team," consisting of Colossus, Iceman, Archangel, Jean Grey, Storm, and Bishop, a gun-toting renegade mutant from a distant future. Professor X, Jubilee, Banshee and Forge stayed on as non-combatant X-Men; Banshee and Forge left soon after for various reasons.

The popular art of Lee and Liefeld and the buzz produced by this reformation raised the X-Men's popularity even further and the first issues of "X-Force" and "X-Men" became two of the best-selling comic book issues of all time, thanks mainly to the sales boom from comics speculators.

Amid the success, internal friction split the X-Men books' creative teams. Claremont left after only three issues of "X-Men" due to clashes with Marvel editors and with Lee, ending his fifteen-year stint as X-Men writer. Months later, Liefeld and Lee left Marvel with several other popular artists, including Silvestri and Portacio, to form Image Comics.

The X-Men's rise in popularity continued, largely thanks to the Fox Network's top-rated "X-Men" animated series, which debuted in 1992. Meanwhile "Uncanny X-Men" was handed over to writer Scott Lobdell and artist Joe Madureira, whose manga-like style helped generate a new interest in Japanese comics in the U.S. "X-Men" continued with writer Fabian Nicieza and artist Andy Kubert.

X-overs proliferated, becoming almost annual events during the 1990s. Although they consistently boosted sales, fans began to complain that they were just contrived publicity stunts. Some of the more prominent crossovers from the decade include:

*"The X-Tinction Agenda" (1990), in which the government of Genosha, a fictional island off the coast of Africa where mutants are used as prison labor, captured the X-Teams.
*"The Muir Island Saga" (1991), in which the original X-Factor and Xavier returned to the X-Men.
*"X-Cutioner's Song" (1992), in which Cable's clone and arch-enemy Stryfe framed the X-Force leader for an attempt on Professor X's life. He also captured and tormented Cyclops and Jean Grey, the genetic parents of both Cable and Stryfe, who were revealed to be time-travelers.
*"Fatal Attractions" (1993), which Magneto returned, ripping out Wolverine's adamantium and forcing Xavier to mindwipe him. It was continued in "Bloodties".
*"Phalanx Covenant" (1994), in which a collective consciousness infected with the Transmode Virus infiltrated the X-Mansion, kidnapped a small bunch of previously unknown mutants (including Husk), and plotted to eliminate mutant-kind. The Phalanx was eventually thwarted by the few X-Men who had not been incapacitated, and the cross-over resulted in the "Generation X" series.
*"Legion Quest"/"Age of Apocalypse" (1995), in which Professor X was killed by his time-traveling son Legion (David Haller) before he had ever formed the X-Men. An alternate reality unfolded in which Apocalypse ruled North America and Magneto led the X-Men as a resistance force.
*"Onslaught" (1996), which dominated all Marvel series for two months. In this storyline, Professor X lost control of his powers, producing an evil, near-omnipotent secondary personality called Onslaught, which battled the X-Men, The Avengers and the Fantastic Four.
*"" (1997), in which an anti-mutant army is given government license to hunt down the X-Teams and other mutants.

Other important storylines included the second slaughter of the Morlocks; Iceman learning to deal with increased power levels, now able to turn completely into ice; the murder of Colossus' family and his subsequent defection to Magneto's Acolytes; Psylocke discovering the origin of her transformation from English model to Asian assassin; the burgeoning relationship between Rogue and Gambit; Jean Grey abandoning her Marvel Girl codename in favor of Phoenix, to honor both Rachel and the alien life force; Rogue briefly quitting after absorbing Gambit's psyche; Bishop dealing with faulty memories from a timeline that could not exist; Psylocke and Archangel's near murders at the hands of Sabretooth, warranting their leaving the team; Wolverine mutating into a strange, unintelligent beast after losing his adamantium at the hands of Magneto; Iceman quitting to nurse his bigoted father back to health after being attacked by anti-mutant activists; and Gambit harboring a dark secret: he was the one who gathered the Marauders for Sinister.

The 1990s saw an even greater number of X-books, with numerous ongoing series and limited series running at any given time. Ongoing series from this time included "Generation X," starring another team of teenage mutants and "X-Man", the offspring of Cyclops and Jean Grey from the Age of Apocalypse reality. Marvel launched solo series for several characters including "Cable", "Gambit", "Bishop" and "Deadpool," a sarcastic mercenary antagonist of "X-Force". In 1998 "Excalibur" and "X-Factor" ended and the latter was replaced with the parallel world series "Mutant X" starring Havok.

Late 1990s/Early 2000s

Era of reformations

By the time "Operation: Zero Tolerance" concluded in 1997, major characters such as Bishop, Gambit, Jean Grey and Cyclops had been written out of the X-Men. In place, writers assembled a new team consisting of Wolverine, Rogue, Beast, Storm and several newcomers including:

*Cannonball (Sam Guthrie), a former member of the New Mutants and X-Force who flew at jet speeds;
*Joseph, thought at the time to be a mind-wiped (and somehow de-aged) Magneto;
*Marrow (Sarah), a former Morlock whose body grew protruding bones which she could remove and use as blades or clubs;
*Maggott (Japheth), a South African whose intestines took on the form of giant maggots, allowing him to digest any/all matter; and
*Cecilia Reyes, a Puerto Rican doctor with a personal force field.

Writers Joe Kelly and Steven Seagle, under editorial mandate, scrapped that team, keeping Marrow, Rogue, Storm and Wolverine and returning Shadowcat, Nightcrawler, Colossus, Gambit and Professor X to the fold. Kelly and Seagle would abruptly leave the titles, paving the way for Alan Davis. Fans consideredPOV-statement|date=October 2008 Alan Davis' stint — during which he illustrated "X-Men" and Adam Kubert illustrated "Uncanny X-Men" and which included the popular "Magneto War" and the critically mauled "The Twelve" (where Cyclops was killed off) storylines — a moderate success, but Marvel ended it when Claremont agreed to return in early 2000 to write both core X-Men series.

With the event called "Revolution", Marvel instituted a six-month time gap between issues of the X-Books, allowing Claremont and illustrators to completely revise the X-Men in a single month. (A later mini series, "X-Men: Black Sun", filled in part of that gap). Claremont's second stint featured mainly a cast of the old regulars: A main team appeared in "X-Men," consisting of Wolverine, Rogue, Colossus, Shadowcat, Psylocke, and a new Thunderbird: an Indian pyrokinetic named Neal Shaara. A sub-team appeared in "Uncanny X-Men" consisting of Gambit, Storm, Phoenix, Beast and Cable, X-Force's former militaristic leader, now finally a full X-Man. Claremont soon also introduced former Hellfire Club ally "Tessa" as an X-Man, now called Sage. This character, who possessed telepathic powers and a computer-like brain, had been seen as a part of the aristocratic club for years but was revealed to be a spy for Professor X.

Wandering plot lines and forgettable new villains, such as the Neo, plagued Claremont's return, leading Marvel's new Editor-in-Chief Joe Quesada to remove him from the two flagship titles in early 2001. Quesada paired Claremont with artist Salvador Larroca for a new title, "X-Treme X-Men," featuring Sage, Psylocke, Bishop, Gambit, Thunderbird, Rogue and Storm operating outside the central X-Men, akin to the West Coast Avengers of the late 1980s-early 1990s.

At the same time, Marvel cancelled "Gambit", "Bishop", "X-Man", "Mutant X" and "Generation X" and completely overhauled "X-Force". While these series had sold well, Quesada argued that so many mutant superhero titles had become redundant.

Marvel launched a few new books, not based on the theme of "fighting for a world that hates and fears them," including:
*"Weapon X," a black ops villain team employing Sabretooth, Marrow and several other hard-edged characters.
*"Exiles," a group of reality-hopping mutants from various parallel worlds.
*The new "X-Force" (later retitled "X-Statix") a sardonic series featuring a group of publicity-seeking, corporate-sponsored mutant superheroes.

Other drastic changes of this time included the deaths of long-running characters Moira MacTaggert, Senator Kelly (both in the 2000 "Dreams End" crossover), Colossus (as part of the 2001 "Eve of Destruction" crossover, getting rid of the Legacy Virus), Apocalypse and Psylocke, and the long-awaited uncovering of Wolverine's beginnings in the 2001 "Origin" limited series

The Grant Morrison Years

backstory.

Simultaneously "Uncanny X-Men" was revamped by writer Joe Casey and artist Ian Churchill, who were later replaced by writer Chuck Austen and a revolving door of artists. While "New X-Men" focused on Cyclops' five team members as teachers to a new generation, "Uncanny" focused on an "away team" and traditional action and adventure, featuring team leader Archangel and members Iceman and Nightcrawler. They were soon joined by:

*Chamber (Jono Starsmore), a former member of Generation X whose chest was filled with psionic energy;
*Stacy X (Miranda Leevald), a former prostitute who controlled pheromones;
*Northstar, (Jean-Paul Beaubier), a former member of Canada's Alpha Flight team;
*Husk, (Paige Guthrie), Cannonball's sister and another former Generation X member, who could rip off layers of skin to reveal stronger forms underneath; and, most surprisingly,
*The Juggernaut (Cain Marko), Xavier's stepbrother, who had been a criminal and enemy of the X-Men since the mid-1960s. Austen had Juggernaut redeem himself in one of the few storylines of his run that was well-received.

Austen brought back Havok, who had been floating in limbo ever since "Mutant X" had been cancelled, as well as Polaris and Jubilee. Both Casey and Austen, however, received considerable backlash. Many critics felt "Uncanny X-Men" was treading a derivative and well-worn path, especially in comparison to the more adventurous "New X-Men", while fans often objected to the changes that were made, including retcons of Nightcrawler's previously becoming a Catholic Priest as well as his parentage, a change in the character of Polaris, turning her into a cruel and mentally disturbed terrorist, and confirming a longheld suspicion of being Magnetos daughter, and a controversial Archangel/Husk romance, with Husk being an 18 year-old roughly ten years Archangel's junior.

Meanwhile, in "X-Treme X-Men," two other new characters were added to the team:

*Lifeguard (Heather Cameron), whose body would adapt to dangers thrown at her; and her brother,
*Slipstream (Davis Cameron), who could teleport using his "Warp Wave".

Another popular new X-Men series was "Ultimate X-Men," writer Mark Millar and artist Adam Kubert's reinvention of the concept featuring modern teenaged versions of the X-Men and meant to appeal to new readers. Ultimate X-Men was set in the "Ultimate Marvel Universe", alongside "Ultimate Spider-Man" and "Ultimates."

Morrison concluded his run with the return of Magneto in Planet X and Here Comes Tomorrow and the death of Jean Grey, who once more bonded with the Phoenix Force. Controversially, Magneto became a full genocidalist and was decapitated by Wolverine, and once more Cyclops watched Jean die.

Mid-2000s

ReLoad

In 2004, Morrison left "New X-Men" and Marvel prepared for what was already being called the "post-Morrison period", in an event called "X-Men ReLoad". Marvel cancelled "X-Treme X-Men" and placed Claremont back on "Uncanny X-Men". This team, consisting of Storm, Wolverine, Bishop, Sage, Marvel Girl, Nightcrawler and Cannonball, had been granted U.N. authority in an act called the X-Treme Sanctions Executive (X.S.E.) and were given full authority and government approved status equal to the Avengers to act as law enforcers to mutant activity across the world. "New X-Men" reverted its title back to merely "X-Men," and featured Havok, Polaris, Iceman, Rogue, Gambit and Juggernaut. The company also launched "Astonishing X-Men" with writer Joss Whedon (well-known as the creator of the cult television series "Buffy the Vampire Slayer") and artist John Cassaday ("Planetary") Astonishing featured Cyclops, Frost, Beast, Shadowcat and Wolverine. To set up the three new teams, Cyclops mandated the X-Men ditch the leather outfits and return to their costumes, while unceremoniously removing Archangel, Husk, Jubilee and Northstar from active duty.

"Astonishing X-Men" became a hit among comic book fans due to Whedon's plotting and dialogue, and John Cassaday's clean and realistically-styled art. Some attributed the title's success to its relatively straightforward presentation: many "X-Men" books from the 1990s were known for complicated continuity and flashy art overshadowing the characters in the story. The series included the return of decisively dead X-Man Colossus, which fans generally accepted due to the nature of his death several years earlier. "Astonishing X-Men" earned a few spin-off limited series, such as and "Colossus: Bloodties". Psylocke was also resurrected in "Uncanny X-Men" as Chris Claremont had intended on bringing her back ever since her death over in "X-Treme X-Men", but was not allowed to due to a 'Dead is Dead' rule at the time.

Marvel also launched several new secondary X-Books, including "District X," in which Bishop polices a mutant neighborhood of New York City, "," a continuation of the recently launched "New Mutants" (vol. 2) starring Xavier's student body, and a new "Excalibur," featuring Magneto, with the previous story retconned into an imposter named Xorn and Professor X's attempt to rebuild Genosha. Rogue, Nightcrawler, Gambit and Jubilee all received their own eponymous ongoing series at this time, although "Jubilee" was cancelled after only six issues, as it had sold less copies per issue than any other X-Men spinoff ever published at that point; Gambit and Rogue only made it to twelve issues each.

Marvel ended X-Statix when creators Peter Milligan and Mike Allred left. Milligan replaced Chuck Austen as writer of "X-Men" in January 2005.

Meanwhile, the long-delayed series "NYX" introduced the character X-23, a teenage female clone of Wolverine who had originally appeared on the animated television series "". X-23 subsequently joined the school in "New X-Men" after helping the "Uncanny X-Men" team.

Decimation

In 2005, Marvel's major crossover event, House of M resulted in a decimation of mutants, in which millions lost their powers, including Professor X and Magneto. Following the "Deadly Genesis" limited series, which revealed skeletons in Xavier's closet, he and Cyclops soon turned against one another and the villainous character of Vulcan, Cyclops' brother, was introduced. Also, Wolverine regained all his memories, continued in "Wolverine: Origins".

In the meantime, limited series such as "Son of M", "Generation M" and "The 198" dealt with the mutants who had lost their powers, with New X-Men studying it in full. Apocalypse was also resurrected, who turned heroes such as Polaris and Gambit into villains, though both were rescued in due time.

Meanwhile, the Avengers and Magneto dealt with the missing mutant power in the Collective. Afterwards, "House of M" led onto Marvel's 2006 crossover: Civil War. Chris Claremont also moved onto New Excalibur. Xavier founded a new team in a storyline continuing "Deadly Genesis" as Ed Brubaker took over "Uncanny X-Men".

"Astonishing X-Men" continued its successful run, but as Whedon's contract was renewed for another twelve issues following his original twelve issue contract and during 2006 the title became bi-monthly to allow him time to finish his arcs. Whedon also returned Emma Frost to villainy, and subsequently redeemed her. Rogue formed a splinter group in "X-Men", consisting of seemingly reformed villains such as Mystique and Sabretooth, whilst the "New X-Men" suffered the return of William Stryker.


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