- Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe General information NSSDC ID 2001-027A Organization NASA Launch date 30 June 2001, 19:46 UTC Launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch vehicle Delta II 7425-10 Mission length 10 years, 4 months and 22 days elapsed Mass 840 kg Type of orbit Lissajous orbit Location L2 Instruments K-band 23 GHz 52.8 MOA beam Ka-band 33 GHz 39.6 MOA beam Q-band 41 GHz 30.6 MOA beam V-band 61 GHz 21 MOA beam W-band 94 GHz 13.2 MOA beam Website http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov References:  Physical cosmology Universe · Big Bang
Age of the universe
Timeline of the Big Bang
Ultimate fate of the universe
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) — also known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), and Explorer 80 — is a spacecraft which measures differences in the temperature of the Big Bang's remnant radiant heat — the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation — across the full sky. Headed by Professor Charles L. Bennett, Johns Hopkins University, the mission was developed in a joint partnership between the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Princeton University. The WMAP spacecraft was launched on 30 June 2001, at 19:46:46 GDT, from Florida. The WMAP mission succeeds the COBE space mission and was the second medium-class (MIDEX) spacecraft of the Explorer program. In 2003, MAP was renamed WMAP in honor of cosmologist David Todd Wilkinson (1935–2002), who had been a member of the mission's science team.
WMAP's measurements played the key role in establishing the current Standard Model of Cosmology. WMAP data are very well fit by a universe that is dominated by dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant. Other cosmological data are also consistent, and together tightly constrain the Model. In this Lambda-CDM model of the universe, the age of the universe is 13.75 ± 0.11 billion years. The WMAP mission's determination of the age of the universe to better than 1% precision was recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records. The current expansion rate of the universe is (see Hubble constant) of 70.5 ± 1.3 km·s−1·Mpc−1. The content of the universe presently consists of 4.56% ± 0.15% ordinary baryonic matter; 22.8% ± 1.3% Cold dark matter (CDM) that neither emits nor absorbs light; and 72.6% ± 1.5% of dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant that accelerates the expansion of the universe. Less than 1% of the current contents of the universe is in neutrinos, but WMAP's measurements have found, for the first time in 2008, that the data prefers the existence of a cosmic neutrino background with an effective number of neutrino flavors of 4.4 ± 1.5, consistent with the expectation of 3.06. The contents point to a "flat" Euclidean flat geometry, with the ratio of the energy density in curvature to the critical density 0.0179 < Ωk <0.0081 (95%CL). The WMAP measurements also support the cosmic inflation paradigm in several ways, including the flatness measurement.
According to Science magazine, the WMAP was the Breakthrough of the Year for 2003. This mission's results papers were first and second in the "Super Hot Papers in Science Since 2003" list. Of the all-time most referenced papers in physics and astronomy in the SPIRES database, only three have been published since 2000, and all three are WMAP publications. On May 27, 2010, it was announced that Bennett, Lyman A. Page, Jr., and David N. Spergel, the latter both of Princeton University, would share the 2010 Shaw Prize in astronomy for their work on WMAP.
As of October 2010, the WMAP spacecraft is in a graveyard orbit after 9 years of operations. The Astronomy and Physics Senior Review panel at NASA Headquarters has endorsed a total of 9 years of WMAP operations, through September 2010. All WMAP data are released to the public and have been subject to careful scrutiny.
Some aspects of the data are statistically unusual for the Standard Model of Cosmology. For example, the greatest angular-scale measurements, the quadrupole moment, is somewhat smaller than the Model would predict, but this discrepancy is not highly significant. A large cold spot and other features of the data are more statistically significant, and research continues into these.
- 1 Objectives
- 2 Development
- 3 Spacecraft
- 4 Launch, trajectory, and orbit
- 5 Foreground radiation subtraction
- 6 Measurements and discoveries
- 7 Main result
- 8 Follow-on missions and future measurements
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
The WMAP objective is to measure the temperature differences in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. The anisotropies then are used to measure the universe's geometry, content, and evolution; and to test the Big Bang model, and the cosmic inflation theory. For that, the mission is creating a full-sky map of the CMB, with a 13 arcminute resolution via multi-frequency observation. The map requires the fewest systematic errors, no correlated pixel noise, and accurate calibration, to ensure angular-scale accuracy greater than its resolution. The map contains 3,145,728 pixels, and uses the HEALPix scheme to pixelize the sphere. The telescope also measures the CMB's E-mode polarization, and foreground polarization; its life is 27 months; 3 to reach the L2 position, 2 years of observation.
The WMAP was preceded by two missions to observe the CMB; (i) the Soviet RELIKT-1 that reported the upper-limit measurements of CMB anisotropies, and (ii) the U.S. COBE satellite that reported large-scale CMB fluctuations, and the ground-based and balloon experiments measuring the small-scale fluctuations in patches of sky: the Boomerang, the Cosmic Background Imager, and the Very Small Array. The WMAP is 45 times more sensitive, with 33 times the angular resolution of its COBE satellite predecessor.
The telescope's primary reflecting mirrors are a pair of Gregorian 1.4m x 1.6m dishes (facing opposite directions), that focus the signal onto a pair of 0.9m x 1.0m secondary reflecting mirrors. They are shaped for optimal performance: a carbon fibre shell upon a Korex core, thinly-coated with aluminium and silicon oxide. The secondary reflectors transmit the signals to the corrugated feedhorns that sit on a focal plane array box beneath the primary reflectors.
The receivers are polarization-sensitive differential radiometers measuring the difference between two telescope beams. The signal is amplified with HEMT low-noise amplifiers. There are 20 feeds, 10 in each direction, from which a radiometer collects a signal; the measure is the difference in the sky signal from opposite directions. The directional separation azimuth is 180 degrees; the total angle is 141 degrees. To avoid collecting Milky Way galaxy foreground signals, the WMAP uses five discrete radio frequency bands, from 23 GHz to 94 GHz.
Properties of WMAP at different frequencies Property K-band Ka-band Q-band V-band W-band Central wavelength (mm) 13 9.1 7.3 4.9 3.2 Central frequency (GHz) 23 33 41 61 94 Bandwidth (GHz) 5.5 7.0 8.3 14.0 20.5 Beam size (arcminutes) 52.8 39.6 30.6 21 13.2 Number of radiometers 2 2 4 4 8 System temperature (K) 29 39 59 92 145 Sensitivity (mK s1 / 2) 0.8 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.6
The WMAP's base is a 5.0m-diameter solar panel array that keeps the instruments in shadow during CMB observations, (by keeping the craft constantly angled at 22 degrees, relative to the sun). Upon the array sit a bottom deck (supporting the warm components) and a top deck. The telescope's cold components: the focal-plane array and the mirrors, are separated from the warm components with a cylindrical, 33 cm-long thermal isolation shell atop the deck.
Passive thermal radiators cool the WMAP to ca. 90 degrees K; they are connected to the low-noise amplifiers. The telescope consumes 419 W of power. The available telescope heaters are emergency-survival heaters, and there is a transmitter heater, used to warm them when off. The WMAP spacecraft's temperature is monitored with platinum resistance thermometers.
The WMAP's calibration is effected with the CMB dipole and measurements of Jupiter; the beam patterns are measured against Jupiter. The telescope's data are relayed daily via a 2 GHz transponder providing a 667kbit/s downlink to a 70m Deep Space Network telescope. The spacecraft has two transponders, one a redundant back-up; they are minimally active — ca. 40 minutes daily — to minimize radio frequency interference. The telescope's position is maintained, in its three axes, with three reaction wheels, gyroscopes, two star trackers and sun sensors, and is steered with eight hydrazine thrusters.
Launch, trajectory, and orbit
The WMAP spacecraft arrived at the Kennedy Space Center on 20 April 2001. After being tested for two months, it was launched via Delta II 7425 rocket on 30 June 2001. It began operating on its internal power five minutes before its launching, and so continued operating until the solar panel array deployed. The WMAP was activated and monitored while it cooled. On 2 July, it began working, first with in-flight testing (from launching until 17 August), then began constant, formal work. Afterwards, it effected three Earth-Moon phase loops, measuring its sidelobes, then flew by the Moon on 30 July, enroute to the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrangian point, arriving there on 1 October 2001, becoming, thereby, the first CMB observation mission permanently posted there.
The spacecraft's location at Lagrange 2, (1.5 million kilometers from Earth) minimizes the amount of contaminating solar, terrestrial, and lunar emissions registered, and thermally stabilizes it. To view the entire sky, without looking to the sun, the WMAP traces a path around L2 in a Lissajous orbit ca. 1.0 degree to 10 degrees, with a 6-month period. The telescope rotates once every 2 minutes, 9 seconds" (0.464 rpm) and precesses at the rate of 1 revolution per hour. WMAP measures the entire sky every six months, and completed its first, full-sky observation in April 2002.
Foreground radiation subtraction
The WMAP observes in five frequencies, permitting the measurement and subtraction of foreground contamination (from the Milky Way and extra-galactic sources) of the CMB. The main emission mechanisms are synchrotron radiation and free-free emission (dominating the lower frequencies), and astrophysical dust emissions (dominating the higher frequencies). The spectral properties of these emissions contribute different amounts to the five frequencies, thus permitting their identification and subtraction.
Foreground contamination is removed in several ways. First, subtract extant emission maps from the WMAP's measurements; second, use the components' known, spectral values to identify them; third, simultaneously fit the position and spectra data of the foreground emission, using extra data sets. Foreground contamination also is reduced by using only the full-sky map portions with the least foreground contamination, whilst masking the remaining map portions.
The five-year models of foreground emission, at different frequencies. Red = Synchrotron; Green = free-free; Blue = thermal dust. 23 GHz 33 GHz 41 GHz 61 GHz 94 GHz
Measurements and discoveries
One-year data release
On 11 February 2003, based upon one year's worth of WMAP data, NASA published the latest calculated age, composition, and image of the universe to date, that "contains such stunning detail, that it may be one of the most important scientific results of recent years"; the data surpass previous CMB measurements.
Based upon the Lambda-CDM model, the WMAP team produced cosmological parameters from the WMAP's first-year results. Three sets are given below; the first and second sets are WMAP data; the difference is the addition of spectral indices, predictions of some inflationary models. The third data set combines the WMAP constraints with those from other CMB experiments (ACBAR and CBI), and constraints from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and Lyman alpha forest measurements. Note that there are degenerations among the parameters, the most significant is between ns and τ; the errors given are at 68% confidence.
Best-fit cosmological parameters from WMAP one-year results Parameter Symbol Best fit (WMAP only) Best fit (WMAP, extra parameter) Best fit (all data) Hubble's constant ( km⁄Mpc·s ) H0 72±5 70±5 71+4
Baryonic content Ωbh2 0.024±0.001 0.023±0.002 0.0224±0.0009 Matter content Ωmh2 0.14±0.02 0.14±0.02 0.135+0.008
Optical depth to reionization τ 0.166+0.076
0.20±0.07 0.17±0.06 Amplitude A 0.9±0.1 0.92±0.12 0.83+0.09
Scalar spectral index ns 0.99±0.04 0.93+0.07
0.93±0.03 Running of spectral index dns / dk — −0.047±0.04 −0.031+0.016
Fluctuation amplitude at 8h−1 Mpc σ8 0.9±0.1 — 0.84±0.04 Age of the universe (Ga) t0 13.4±0.3 — 13.7±0.2 Total density of the universe Ωtot — — 1.02±0.02
Using the best-fit data and theoretical models, the WMAP team determined the times of important universal events, including the redshift of reionization, 17±4; the redshift of decoupling, 1,089±1 (and the universe's age at decoupling, 379+8
−7 ka); and the redshift of matter/radiation equality, 3,233+194
−210. They determined the thickness of the surface of last scattering to be 195±2 in redshift, or 118+3
−2 ka. They determined the current density of baryons, 2.5±0.1×10−7 cm−1, and the ratio of baryons to photons, 6.1+0.3
−0.2×10−10. The WMAP's detection of an early reionization excluded warm dark matter.
The team also examined Milky Way emissions at the WMAP frequencies, producing a 208-point source catalogue. Also, they observed the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect at 2.5 σ the strongest source is the Coma cluster.
Three-year data release
The three-year WMAP data were released on 17 March 2006. The data included temperature and polarization measurements of the CMB, which provided further confirmation of the standard flat Lambda-CDM model and new evidence in support of inflation.
The 3-year WMAP data alone shows that the universe must have dark matter. Results were computed both only using WMAP data, and also with a mix of parameter constraints from other instruments, including other CMB experiments (ACBAR, CBI and BOOMERANG), SDSS, the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, the Supernova Legacy Survey and constraints on the Hubble constant from the Hubble Space Telescope.
Best-fit cosmological parameters from WMAP three-year results Parameter Symbol Best fit (WMAP only) Hubble's constant ( km⁄Mpc·s ) H0 73.2+3.1
Baryonic content Ωbh2 0.0229±0.00073 Matter content Ωmh2 0.1277+0.0080
Optical depth to reionization [a] τ 0.089±0.030 Scalar spectral index ns 0.958±0.016 Fluctuation amplitude at 8h−1 Mpc σ8 0.761+0.049
Age of the universe (Ga) t0 13.73+0.16
Tensor-to-scalar ratio [b] r < 0.65
Five-year data release
The five-year WMAP data were released on 28 February 2008. The data included new evidence for the cosmic neutrino background, evidence that it took over half a billion years for the first stars to reionize the universe, and new constraints on cosmic inflation.
The improvement in the results came from both having an extra 2 years of measurements (the data set runs between midnight on 10 August 2001 to midnight of 9 August 2006), as well as using improved data processing techniques and a better characterization of the instrument, most notably of the beam shapes. They also make use of the 33 GHz observations for estimating cosmological parameters; previously only the 41 GHz and 61 GHz channels had been used. Finally, improved masks were used to remove foregrounds.
Improvements to the spectra were in the 3rd acoustic peak, and the polarization spectra.
The measurements put constraints on the content of the universe at the time that the CMB was emitted; at the time 10% of the universe was made up of neutrinos, 12% of atoms, 15% of photons and 63% dark matter. The contribution of dark energy at the time was negligible. It also constrained the content of the present-day universe; 4.6% atoms, 23% dark matter and 72% dark energy.
Best-fit cosmological parameters from WMAP five-year results Parameter Symbol Best fit (WMAP only) Best fit (WMAP + SNe + BAO) Hubble's constant ( km⁄Mpc·s ) H0 71.9+2.6
70.5±1.3 Baryonic content Ωbh2 0.02273±0.00062 0.02267+0.00058
Cold dark matter content Ωch2 0.1099±0.0062 0.1131±0.0034 Dark energy content ΩΛ 0.742±0.030 0.726±0.015 Optical depth to reionization τ 0.087±0.017 0.084±0.016 Scalar spectral index ns 0.963+0.014
0.960±0.013 Running of spectral index dns / dlnk −0.037±0.028 −0.028±0.020 Fluctuation amplitude at 8h−1 Mpc σ8 0.796±0.036 0.812±0.026 Age of the universe (Ga) t0 13.69±0.13 13.72±0.12 Total density of the universe Ωtot 1.099+0.100
Tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 0.43 < 0.22
The data puts a limits on the value of the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r < 0.22 (95% certainty), which determines the level at which gravitational waves affect the polarization of the CMB, and also puts limits on the amount of primordial non-gaussianity. Improved constraints were put on the redshift of reionization, which is 10.9±1.4, the redshift of decoupling, 1,090.88±0.72 (as well as age of universe at decoupling, 376.971+3.162
−3.167 ka) and the redshift of matter/radiation equality, 3,253+89
The five-year maps at different frequencies from WMAP with foregrounds (the red band) 23 GHz 33 GHz 41 GHz 61 GHz 94 GHz
Seven-year data release
The Seven-year WMAP data were released on 26 January 2010. According to this data the Universe is 13.75 ±0.11 bln. years old. As part of this release, claims for inconsistencies with the standard model were investigated. Most were shown not to be statistically significant, and likely due to a posteriori selection (where one sees a weird deviation, but fails to consider properly how hard one has been looking; a deviation with 1:1000 likelihood will typically be found if one tries one thousand times). For the deviations that do remain, there are no alternative cosmological ideas (for instance, there seem to be correlations with the ecliptic pole). It seems most likely these are due to other effects, with the report mentioning uncertainties in the precise beam shape and other possible small remaining instrumental and analysis issues.
The other confirmation of major significance is of the total amount of matter/energy in the Universe in the form of Dark Energy - 72.8% (within 1.6%) as non 'particle' background, and Dark Matter - 22.7% (within 1.4%) of non baryonic (sub atomic) 'particle' energy. This leaves matter, or baryonic particles (atoms) at only 4.56% (within 0.16%).
Best-fit cosmological parameters from WMAP seven-year results Parameter Symbol Best fit (WMAP only) Best fit (WMAP + BAO + H0) Age of the universe (Ga) t0 13.75±0.13 13.75±0.11 Hubble's constant ( km⁄Mpc·s ) H0 71.0±2.5 70.4+1.3
Baryon density Ωb 0.0449±0.0028 0.0456±0.0016 Physical baryon density Ωbh2 0.02258+0.00057
0.02260±0.00053 Dark matter density Ωc 0.222±0.026 0.227±0.014 Physical dark matter density Ωch2 0.1109±0.0056 0.1123±0.0035 Dark energy density ΩΛ 0.734±0.029 0.728+0.015
Fluctuation amplitude at 8h−1 Mpc σ8 0.801±0.030 0.809±0.024 Scalar spectral index ns 0.963±0.014 0.963±0.012 Reionization optical depth τ 0.088±0.015 0.087±0.014 Parameters for extended models (parameters place limits on deviations from the Lambda-CDM model) Parameter Symbol Best fit (WMAP only) Best fit (WMAP + BAO + H0) Total density of the universe Ωtot 1.080+0.093
Tensor-to-scalar ratio, k0 = 0.002 Mpc−1 r < 0.36 (95% CL) < 0.24 (95% CL) Running of spectral index, k0 = 0.002 Mpc−1 dns / dlnk −0.034±0.026 −0.022±0.020 The Seven-year maps at different frequencies from WMAP with foregrounds (the red band) 23 GHz 33 GHz 41 GHz 61 GHz 94 GHz
The main result of the mission is contained in the various oval maps of the CMB spectrum over the years. These oval images present the temperature distribution gained by the WMAP team from the observations by the telescope of the mission. Measured is the temperature obtained from a Planck's law interpretation of the microwave background. The oval map covers the whole sky. The results describe the state of the universe only some hundred-thousand years after the "big bang", which happened roughly 13.7 billion years before our time. The microwave background is very homogeneous in temperature (the relative variations from the mean, which presently is still 2.7 kelvins, are only of the order of 5x10-5. The temperature variations corresponding to the local directions are presented through different colours (the "red" directions are hotter, the "blue" directions cooler than the average).
Follow-on missions and future measurements
The original timeline for WMAP gave it two years of observations; these were completed by September 2003. Mission extensions were granted in both 2002 and 2004, giving the spacecraft a total of 8 observing years (the originally proposed duration), which was to end in September 2009. NASA has announced that the WMAP mission has been extended again, to September 2010, and in October 2010 the spacecraft was moved to a special graveyard orbit. outside of L2, in which it orbits the sun 14 times every 15 years.
WMAP's results will be built upon by several other instruments that were subsequently launched or are currently under construction. These will either be focusing on higher sensitivity total intensity measurements or measuring the polarization more accurately in the search of B-mode polarization indicative of primordial gravitational waves.
The Planck spacecraft, launched on the 14th of May 2009, measures the CMB more accurately than WMAP at all angular scales, both in total intensity and polarization. Various ground- and balloon-based instruments are being constructed to look for B-mode polarization, including EBEX, Spider, BICEP2, Keck, QUIET, SPTpol and others.
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Cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) EffectsFull-sky temperature map taken by NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Space-based
Explorer programExplorer 1 · 2 · 3 · 4 · 5 · 6 (S-2) · 7 (S-1a) · 8 · 9 (S-56A) · 10 · 11 (S-15) · 14 (EPE-B) · 17 (AE-A) · 30 (Solrad 8) · 32 (AE-B) · 33 (IMP-D) · 35 (IMP-E) · 37 (Solrad 9) · 42 (Uhuru) · 44 (Solrad 10) · 48 (SAS B) · 49 (RAE-B) · 52 (Hawkeye 1) · 53 (SAS C) · 57 (IUE) · 58 (HCMM) · 59 (ICE) · 62 (DE-1) · 63 (DE-2) · 64 (SME) · 66 (COBE) · 67 (EUVE) · 68 (SAMPEX) · 69 (RXTE) · 70 (FAST) · 71 (ACE) · 72 (SNOE) · 73 (TRACE) · 74 (SWAS) · 75 (WIRE) · 77 (FUSE) · 78 (IMAGE) · 79 (HETE-2) · 80 (WMAP) · 81 (RHESSI) · 82 (CHIPSat) · 83 (GALEX) · 84 (Swift) · 85 thru 89 (THEMIS) · 90 (AIM) · 91 (IBEX) · 92 (WISE)Italics indicate probes that failed to deploy or otherwise malfunctioned Space observatories Current Planned Proposals Completed
Akari (Astro-F) (2006-2011) · ALEXIS (1993-2005) · ASCA (Astro-D) (1993-2000) · Astro-1 (BBXRT · HUT) (1990) · Astro-2 (HUT) (1995) · Astron (1983-1989) · Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (1974-1976) · ATM (1973-1974) · BeppoSAX (1996-2003) · CHIPSat (2003-2008) · Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (1991-2000) · Cos-B (1975-1982) · COBE (1989-1993) · EPOCh (2008) · EXOSAT (1983-1986) · EUVE (1992-2001) · FUSE (1999-2007) · Ginga (1987-1991) · Granat (1989-1998) · Hakucho (1979-1985) · HALCA (1997-2005) · HEAO-1 (1977-1979) · HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) (1978-1982) · HEAO-3 (1979-1981) · HETE-2 (2000-2007?) · Hipparcos (1989-1993) · International Ultraviolet Explorer (1978-1996) · IRAS (1983) · ISO (1996-1998) · LEGRI (1997-2002) · MSX (1996-1997) · OAO-2 (1968-1973) · OAO-3 (Copernicus) (1972-1981) · Orion 1/2 (1971/1973) · RELIKT-1 (1983-1984) · ROSAT (1990-1999) · SAS-B (1972-1973) · SAS-C (1975-1979) · Tenma (1983-1985) · Uhuru (1970-1973) · WMAP (2001-2010) · Yohkoh (1991-2001)
Lost Completed On hiatus
Old plans See also National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Policy and historyNACA (1915) · National Aeronautics and Space Act (1958) · Paine (1986) · Rogers (1986) · Ride (1987) · Space Exploration Initiative (1989) · Augustine (1990) · U.S. National Space Policy (1996) · CFUSAI (2002) · CAIB (2003) · Vision for Space Exploration (2004) · Aldridge (2004) · Augustine (2009)
General: Space Race · Administrators · Chief Scientist · Astronaut Corps · Budget · Technology spin-offs · NASA TV
Robotic programsPastCurrent Human spaceflight
(human and robotic)PastCurrently
Space Comm and Nav (SCaN) NASA categories
← 2000 · Orbital launches in 2001 · 2002 →Shenzhou 2 | Turksat 2A | Progress M1-5 | USA-156 | Sicral 1 · Skynet 4F | STS-98 (Destiny) | Odin | Progress M-44 | USA-157 | STS-102 (Leonardo MPLM) | Eurobird 1 · BSat-2A | XM-2 | Ekran-M #18L | Mars Odyssey | GSAT-1 | STS-100 (Raffaello MPLM) | Soyuz TM-32 | XM-1 | PAS-10 | USA-158 | Progress M1-6 | Kosmos 2377 | Kosmos 2378 | Intelsat 901 | Astra 2C | ICO F2 | MAP | STS-104 (Quest) | Artemis · BSat-2B | Molniya-3K #11 | GOES 12 | Koronas-F | USA-159 | Genesis | STS-105 (Leonardo MPLM · Simplesat) | Progress M-45 | Kosmos 2379 | VEP-2 · LRE | Intelsat 902 | USA-160 | Progress M-SO1 (Pirs) | OrbView-4 · QuickTOMS · SBD · Odyssey | Atlantic Bird 2 | Starshine 3 · PICOSat · PCSat · SAPPHIRE | USA-161 | Globus #14L | USA-162 | QuickBird-2 | Soyuz TM-33 | TES · PROBA · BIRD-1 | Molniya-3 #64 | Progress M1-7 (Kolibri 2000) | DirecTV-4S | Kosmos 2380 · Kosmos 2381 · Kosmos 2382 | STS-108 (Raffaello MPLM · Starshine 2 | Jason-1 · TIMED | Meteor-3M #1 · Kompass · Badr-B · Maroc-Tubsat · Reflektor | Kosmos 2383 | Kosmos 2384 · Kosmos 2385 · Kosmos 2386 · Gonets-D1 #10 · Gonets-D1 #11 · Gonets-D1 #12Payloads are separated by bullets ( · ), launches by pipes ( | ). Manned flights are indicated in bold text. Uncatalogued launch failures are listed in italics. Payloads deployed from other spacecraft are denoted in brackets.
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