Cruzeiro Esporte Clube


Cruzeiro Esporte Clube
Cruzeiro
crest
Full name Cruzeiro Esporte Clube
Nickname(s) A Raposa (The Fox)[1]
Os Celestes (The Celestials)[2][3]
Founded 1921 (as Societá Sportiva Palestra Italia)[4]
Stadium Mineirão
Belo Horizonte
(Capacity: 75,783[5])
President Gilvan Tavares
Manager Vágner Mancini
League Campeonato Brasileiro Série A
2010 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, 2nd
Home colors
Away colors
Third colors
Current season

Cruzeiro Esporte Clube (Portuguese pronunciation: [kɾuˈzejɾu esˈpoɾtʃi ˈklubi]) is a Brazilian football team, from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, and are one of the only five clubs to have never been relegated, along with Santos, São Paulo, Flamengo and Internacional. Founded on January 2, 1921, they are only one of three clubs to have participated in every edition of the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A. Cruzeiro has been Brazilian champions twice, domestic cup champions four times (a record shared with Grêmio), and Mineiro champions 35 times. It is the only Brazilian team to have won the domestic triple crown of Brazilian football or treble, for winning the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the Copa do Brasil, and the Campeonato Mineiro in the same year, accomplishing this feat in 2003. Internationally they are the second most successful team in Brazil with seven international championships, including two Libertadores.[1]

Cruzeiro is a member of Clube dos 13, a group of the leading Brazilian clubs and is among FIFA's Classic Club. They play their home games at the Mineirão stadium.[1] Although the club's main focus is football, Cruzeiro also supports a long distance running[6] and a men's volleyball department [7]

Cruzeiro is one of only eight teams to have won CONMEBOL's treble (the others being Olimpia, São Paulo, Independiente, Vélez Sársfield, Boca Juniors, Internacional and LDU Quito).

Contents

History

Cruzeiro's history is traced back to the Italian community living in Belo Horizonte, a city where already some Italian immigrants lived[8] and their desire to set up a football club. Similar to the Italians of São Paulo (who founded Palestra Itália, now known as Palmeiras) the people of Belo Horizonte wanted the Italian colonies in Minas Gerais to have its own club as well.[9]

The idea of the club being created took a big step when Yale, a sports team from the city went through an administrative crises. When some players left Yale over a dispute (Yale, which itself had connections to the Italian community), some went on to found the all Italian, Sociedade Esportiva Palestra Itália of Belo Horizonte.[10][11] On January 2, 1921, about 72 Italians had appeared for the foundation of the Sociedade Esportiva Palestra Itália, (Italian: Societá Sportiva Palestra Itália). The adopted colors were the same as of the Italian flag: green, red, and white. The first uniform of the club was a green jersey, white shorts and red stockings. On the club's shield, in the form of a rhombus, were the initials SSPI.[12][13] Until 1925 the club would only allow Italians men to participate.[9]

Palestra debuted in the Prado Mineiro Stadium with a 2–0 win in a friendly on April 3, 1921, against a combination from Nova Lima. The Nova Lima team united players from two teams from the city: Villa Nova, and Palmeiras, another team form Nova Lima.[14] However the first official match of Palestra was in a 3–0 win over future archrivals Clube Atlético Mineiro.[15]

On January 1942, Brazil entered World War II[16] and a decree of the federal government forbade the use of terms from enemy nations in entities, institutions, establishments, etc. With this, the Italian name was removed and the club could no longer call themselves Palestra Italia. The name was changed to Sociedade Esportiva Palestra Mineiro. The new name did not last long and was changed to Ypiranga by club president Ennes Cyro Poni. But because Ennes Cyro Poni did not consult any of the clubs directors before changing the club's name and because the club lost on their debut, the name only lasted one game. In a meeting between the club's directors, the name Cruzeiro Esporte Clube was approved. Cruzeiro is the constellation of the Southern Cross, and can only be seen from the southern hemisphere, therefore not related to Italy. The club's colors changed to a blue shirt and blue stockings, and white shorts.[12] Only, however, in November 1942, did Cruzeiro Esporte Clube play its first official game under its new name. The game happened on November 11, 1942, against América with Cruzeiro winning 1–0.[17]

With the inauguration of the Mineirão in 1965, Cruzeiro entered one of the most successful periods in its history, in which the club won five Campeonato Mineiro titles in a row, and went on to win its first national title, the 1968 Taça Brasil (the highest honor in Brazilian football at that time) beating Santos of Pelé in the final. Cruzeiro won the first leg 6–2 at the Mineirão, and the second leg 3–2 in São Paulo.[12][17] In the 1974 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A Cruzeiro were runner-up for the first time, after losing to Vasco in the finals. Later in 1975, Cruzeiro were runner-up in the Campeonato Brasileiro once again, this time losing to Internacional. In 1976, Cruzeiro won its first Copa Libertadores de América, over River Plate of Argentina. Cruzeiro went on to be runners-up of the same competition in 1977, being defeated in the finals by Boca Juniors, also of Argentina. After winning the 1976 Copa Libertadores, they participated in the 1976 Intercontinental Cup, now renamed the FIFA Club World Championship, for the first time and tied Bayern Munich 0–0 at the Mineirão, but lost 2–0 to Bayern in the Olympiastadion.[12][17]

After tasting success in the 1960s and 1970s, Cruzeiro entered a dark period in the 1980s. With the exception of a couple of Campeonato Mineiro wins, the club won no other championships in the 1980s, and had its worst performances in the Campeonato Brasileiro, 33rd in 1984 and 29th in 1985.[18] The 1980s was the only decade Cruzeiro did not participate once in the Copa Libertadores since the tournament's creation in 1960.[19]

In the 1990s a new era began, and a 15 year sequence of at least one title per year was initiated. This included six of the club's seven international championships and a Campeonato Brasileiro (2003). In December of 2010 the CBF (the governing body of Brazilian football) also recognized Cruzeiro as Brazilian champion of 1966, for having beaten Santos of Pelé: 6-2 in Belo Horizonte and 2-3 in São Paulo.[12][17][20] The club's biggest exploit in the 21st century happened when it won the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A. With 100 points earned during the season, and just over 100 goals scored in 46 matches, it was one of the most successful campaigns ever by a club in a Brazilian championship. In 2003, besides winning the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, Cruzeiro also won the Copa do Brasil and the Campeonato Mineiro, to become the first Brazilian team to win the triple crown.[12][17][20][21]

Since 2003 Cruzeiro have only won one major tournament (four times): the Campeonato Mineiro (2004, 2006, 2008, 2009). However the club finished in the top five of the Campeonato Brasileiro in 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2010, guaranteeing a spot in the Copa Libertadores for four consecutive years (2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011). In 2010, after a great campaign in the Campeonato Brasileiro Serie A, Cruzeiro took the second place and qualified for the Copa Libertadores da America for 2011. Cruzeiro's biggest success in recent years was reaching the finals of the 2009 Copa Libertadores, however, they lost to Estudiantes de La Plata 2–1.[22]

Symbols

Colours

Period Kit manufacturer Master Sponsors Premium Sponsors Standard Sponsors
1984 Topper Medradão none none
1985 Frigorifico Perrella
1986 Adidas BDMG
1987–88 none
1989 Coca-Cola
1990–95 Finta
1996 Energil C
1997 Rhumell
1998 Gelmax, Telebingão Campeão
1998–99 Topper
2000–01 FIAT Ceras Grand Prix
2001–03 Lousano
2004–05 Siemens none
2006 Puma Xerox
2007 Aethra
2007 Construtora Tenda
2008 FIAT
2009 Reebok Banco Bonsucesso none
2010 Banco BMG Ricardo Eletro Questão de Estilo Jeans/Hypermarcas
2011 Netshoes none

When Cruzeiro was still known as Palestra Italia, the home shirt colour was green. The first home kit was an improvised dark green shirt, with white shorts and green stockings. Cruzeiro used this kit in their first professional game on April 3, 1921, in the Prado Mineiro Stadium, with a 2–0 win over the Villa Nova/Palmeiras combined team, of Nova Lima.[23] In 1928 the shirt became a lighter tone of green, with a white neck design and red cuffs. The shorts continued to be white, but the green stockings now had red and white details, similar to that of the Italian flag. This particular uniform was used up until 1940. The light green color of the shirt would later give the team the nickname "periquito", Portuguese for parakeet.[23] In 1940 there was a big change to the shirt. The shirt began to feature horizontal stripes, with the club crest in the center. This was the shirt used to win the 1940 Campeonato da Cidade – now known as the Campeonto Mineiro – after the club had been unable to win the tournament for ten years. The club also began to be called "tricolor" instead of "periquito".[23]

In 1942 Cruzeiro played one game under the name Ypiranga, and for this game a blue shirt with a central horizontal stripe was used.[23] In 1943 Cruzeiro played its first game under its current name. The shirt used then was an all blue shirt with a large white v-neck (scapular) design. The shorts and stockings were white. In 1950, due to bad stadium lighting, Cruzeiro began to use an all white shirt during night games. The shirt, which featured blue details and blue shorts and white stockings, was used for nine years.[23] In 1956, Cruzeiro used, for a short while, a new shirt that was made up of white and blue horizontal stripes. The uniform was not used in many games.[23] There was a change in the to the shirt in 1959; the shirt became all blue, a design that would influence later shirts. In the 1959 shirt, instead of using its normal crest Cruzeiro simply used the five stars, in the crest, loose on the shirt. The shirt made its debut in the Estádio dos Tecelões, in a friendly match against Renascença, on September 19.[23]

In 1984 Cruzeiro had the first ever company logo on its shirt; it was the shirt manufacturer's logo, which was Topper.[23] In the same year Cruzeiro had its first shirt sponsor, Medradao. Medradao was only used on the away shirts[23]

Crest

The Southern Cross or Crux, is common on a number of other flags and insignia

The first Palestra Itália crest was a rhombus whose top half was red and bottom half was green (both colors of the Italian flag). In the center of the crest was a white circle with the letters P and I inside it.[24] The following year, 1922, the club's crest maintained its rhombus shape, but was now completely white, with the letter P, S and I, inscribed within it in green.[24] In 1923, the crest lost its rhombus shape and instead just had the green letters S, P and I.[24] From 1928-1939 the crest was identical to the first crest in 1921. Just one year later the crest became a little different: the top half was green and the bottom half was red, similar to the crests from 1921 and 1929–1939, but instead of green letters in its center, it now had the letters S, P and I in yellow.[24]

The crest introduced in 1940 would be the last for Palestra, because the club would soon become Cruzeiro.[24] Cruzeiro's first crest was introduced in 1950 and was very simple: a blue circle, with a white border, inside of which were five white stars, positioned to look like the Southern Cross. This first crest was used for over nine years, until 1959.[24] In 1959 the crest changed, now with a white border around the crest with the words "-CRUZEIRO ESPORTE CLUBE-BELO HORIZONTE" in blue. This version of the crest was used until 1996, making it the longest-used crest by Cruzeiro.[24] In the same year, Cruzeiro removed BELO HORIZONTE from the crest; this format was used until 2005.[24] In 2006 to honor its a successful 2003 season, a crown was added on top of the crest, to symbolize the triple crown.[24]

Cruzeiro has not always used its official crest on its shirt. In 1959, instead of using its crest, the club opted to simply put the five stars from the Southern Cross on its shirt.[24] This was done until 2000, when the actual crest was once again used.[24] In 2002 and in part of 2003 the loose stars were used. Part way through 2003 a new shirt that contained the actual crest was introduced, but instead of just using the regular crest the shirt featured two Copa Libertadores trophies on top of the crest. In 2004 a similar design was used, but now featured a crown, symbolic of the Triple Crown on top of the two trophies.[24] Since 2007 the club has used the "loose stars" design on home shirts.[24] It should be noted that none of these designs actually became the official club crest.

Anthem

The club's anthem, Hino ao Campeão, was written by Jadir Ambrósio in 1966, in homage to the team of his heart. He never meant for it to become the official anthem, but once fans started hearing it they liked it enough to adapt it as the new anthem. Cruzeiro have also had another anthem that was originally written by Arrigo Buzzacchi and Tolentino Miraglia when the club was still Italian, (-1925), and when it was still called the Palestra Itália. The anthem was published in newspapers in Brazil on May 5, 1922 it was called Hino ao Palestra.

Mascot

200px|thumb|Cruzeiro's mascot is a fox. Fernando Pieruccetti, more popularly known as Mangabeira, created the club's mascot. The mascot is a raposa (fox). Mangabeira was inspired by the clubs' ex-president, Mario Grossa. "He was a director who let no one trick him. He was sly, agile, intelligent and skillful like a fox."[25][26] In the 2000s, Cruzeiro has made the Raposão (the big fox) its biggest mascot, appearing at all home games and cheering with the crowd while wearing the club's colours.

Presidents

Name Tenure
Brazil Aurélio Noce 1921-22
Brazil Alberto Noce 1923-24
Brazil Américo Gasparini 1925-26, 1928
Brazil Antonio Falci 1927, 1929–30
Brazil Braz Pelegrino 1927-28
Brazil Lidio Lunardi 1931-32
Brazil José Viana de Souza 1933
Brazil Miguel Perrela 1933-36
Brazil Romeo de Paoli 1936
Brazil Osvaldo Pinto Coelho 1936-40
Brazil Ennes Cyro Poni 1941-42
Brazil João Fantoni
Brazil Wilson Saliba
Brazil Mario Torneli
1942
Brazil Mário Grosso 1942-47
Brazil Fernando Tamietti 1947, 1950
Brazil Antônio Cunha Lobo 1947-49
Brazil Antônio Alves Simões 1949
Brazil Manoel F. Campos 1950
Brazil Divino Ramos 1951
Brazil José Greco 1952-53, 1955
Brazil Wellington Armanelli 1954
Brazil José Francisco Lemos Filho 1954
Brazil Eduardo S. Bambirra 1955-56
Brazil Manoel A. de Carvalho 1957-58
Brazil Antonio Braz Lopes Pontes 1959-60
Brazil Felicio Brandi 1961-82
Brazil Carmine Furletti 1983-84
Brazil Benito Masci 1985-90
Brazil Salvador Masci 1990
Brazil César Masci 1991-94
Brazil Zezé Perrella 1995-02
Brazil Alvimar de Oliveira Costa 2003-08
Brazil Zezé Perrella 2009-11

Current squad

Note: In Brazil it is not customary to use fixed numbering on kits for players. This means players may change numbering often when playing Campeonato Mineiro and Campeonato Brasileiro games, and the starting eleven usually use the numbers 1-11. Jersey numbers to be used in 2011 Copa Libertadores games, which require fixed numbering.

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
1 Brazil GK Fábio (captain)
2 Brazil DF Vítor (on loan from Palmeiras)
3 Brazil DF Léo
4 Uruguay DF Mauricio Victorino
5 Brazil MF Fabrício
6 Brazil DF Diego Renan
7 Brazil MF Leandro Guerreiro
8 Brazil MF Charles (on loan from Lokomotiv Moscow)
9 Brazil FW Wellington Paulista
10 Argentina MF Walter Montillo
11 Brazil FW Keirrison (on loan from Barcelona)
12 Brazil GK Rafael
13 Brazil DF Naldo (on loan from União São João)
14 Brazil MF Everton
15 Brazil MF Marquinhos Paraná
16 Brazil FW Wallyson
No. Position Player
17 Brazil MF Roger
18 Brazil FW Anselmo Ramon
19 Argentina FW Ernesto Farías
23 Paraguay FW José Ortigoza (on loan from Sol de América)
24 Brazil GK Gabriel
Brazil GK Douglas Pires
Brazil DF Gil Bahia
Brazil DF Cribari
Brazil DF Gabriel Araújo
Brazil MF Eber
Brazil MF Sandro Manoel
Brazil MF Bruninho
Brazil MF Élber
Brazil FW Sebá
Brazil FW Bobô

Players with Dual Nationality

Professional players able to play in the youth team

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
24 Brazil GK Gabriel
Brazil GK Douglas Pires
Brazil DF Gil Bahia
Brazil DF Gabriel Araújo
No. Position Player
Brazil MF Eber
Brazil MF Élber
Brazil FW Sebá

Youth and reserve players with first team experience

Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Brazil DF Vinícius
Bolivia FW Gilbert Álvarez
No. Position Player
Brazil FW Pedro Paulo
Brazil FW Léo

Out on loan: Note: Flags indicate national team as has been defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Position Player
Brazil GK Douglas Borges (loan to Tupi)
Brazil GK Flávio (loan to Luverdense)
Brazil DF Afonso (loan to Uberlândia)
Brazil DF Apodi (loan to Tokyo Verdy)
Brazil DF Marcos (loan to Bahia)
Brazil DF Geovane (loan to Vila Nova - GO)
Brazil DF Neguete (loan to Tupi)
Brazil DF Wellington (loan to Ponte Preta)
Brazil DF Simões (loan to Nacional Serrana)
Brazil MF Uchôa (loan to Villa Nova - MG)
Brazil MF Pedro Ken (loan to Avaí)
No. Position Player
Brazil MF Camilo (loan to Nanchang)
Colombia MF Javier Reina (loan to Chunnam Dragons)
Brazil MF Bernardo (loan to Vasco)
Brazil MF Jones (loan to Bahia)
Brazil FW Fabinho (loan to Al Arabi)
Brazil FW Kieza (loan to Náutico)
Brazil FW Thiaguinho (loan to Goiás)
Brazil FW Eliandro (loan to ABC)
Brazil FW Reinaldo Alagoano (loan to ASA)
Brazil FW Anderson Lessa (loan to Avaí)

First-team staff

Position Name Nationality
Coach Vágner Mancini  Brazilian

Notable players

Former coaches

Records and statistics

The player with the most appearances for Cruzeiro is Zé Carlos with 619 appearances between 1965 and 1977.[27][28] The goalkeeper with the most appearances for Cruzeiro is Raul Plassman, who played a total of 557 games for Cruzeiro.[29] Current goalkeeper Fabio is third on the list, with 366 games, as well as being the current player with the most appearances.[29] The non-Brazilian with the most appearances for the club is the Argentine Roberto Perfumo who made 138 appearances for the club between 1971 and 1974.[27]

Brazilian hall of famer Tostão has scored the most goals for Cruzeiro, 249 between 1963 and 1972.[30] Ninão holds the record for goals scored in a single match: 10 in Cruzeiro's 14 x 0 win over Alves Nogueira during Campeonato da Cidade on June 17, 1928.[30] Nelinho holds the record for most goals scored from penalties: 38; and the record for goals scored from fouls: 42.[30] Víctor Hugo Aristizábal's 28 goals make him the non-Brazilian with the most goals for Cruzeiro.[30]

Honors

International

Domestic

Winners (2): 1966, 2003
Runners-up (5): 1969, 1974, 1975, 1998, 2010
Third place (5): 1973, 1989, 1995, 2000, 2008
Fourth place (3): 1968, 1987, 2009
Winners (4): 1993, 1996, 2000, 2003
Runners-up (1): 1998
Semi-finalist (1): 2005

Regional

Winners (37): 1926, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1940, 1943, 1944, 1945, 1956, 1959,1960, 1961, 1965, 1966, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1972, 1973, 1974, 1975, 1977, 1984, 1987, 1990, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 2002,[note 1] 2003, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2009, 2011
Winners (2): 2001, 2002
Winners (1): 1999

Grounds and facilities

Cruzeiro's first stadium was the Estádio do Prado Mineiro, which belonged to the Federação Mineira de Futebol (FMF).[31] The clubs first game at the stadium was 2–0 win over a Villa Nova/Palmeiras combine team from Nova Lima on 3 April 1921.[31][32] Cruzeiro would use the stadium until 1923 when the club built its own stadium, Estádio do Barro Preto.[32][33] On July 23, 1923 Cruzeiro debuted at the stadium in a 2–2 tie with Flamengo.[32][33] In 1945 the stadium went through renovations and would become at that time the largest stadium in the state with a capacity of 15,000 and later on would become known as Estádio Juscelino Kubitscheck (or Estádio JK).[32][33] Cruzeiro would use the stadium until 1965, when the Mineirão was opened. In 1983 the stadium was torn down and one of the club's social clubs (Sede Campestre) was built there.[32][34]

Since 1965 Cruzeiro play their home games at Estádio Governador Magalhães Pinto, often referred to as just Mineirão in Belo Horizonte, MG.[1] Cruzeiro shares the stadium with rivals Clube Atlético Mineiro.[35] The stadium does not belong to Cruzeiro, rather it belongs to the state of Minas Gerais (through a land grant from the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais) and is administrated by the "Stadiums Administration of the state of Minas Gerais" (Administração de Estádios do Estado de Minas Gerais (ADEMG)). The stadium, which was built in 1963, had an original capacity of about 130,000,[1][35] but over the years that capacity has been reduced, and currently it seats 64,800. Named after former Minas Gerais governor José de Magalhães Pinto, it took over 4,000 workers to build the stadium.[35] The period after the stadium's inauguration is often called Era Mineirão ("Mineirão Era"), which saw Cruzeiro gain national and international prominence.[36][37] Cruzeiro also holds the attendance record at the stadium, when 132,834 spectators watched Cruzeiro beat Villa Nova in the 1997 Campeonato Mineiro final.[38]

Cruzeiro have had plans to build a new stadium, especially under president Alvimar de Oliveira Costa's tenure.[39][40][41][42] However the state of Minas asked Cruzeiro to stay at the stadium,[43] and after president Zezé Perrella came to the presidency in 2009, plans for a new stadium virtually disappeared.[44]

The Mineirão was selected as a host stadium for the 2014 FIFA World Cup,[45] with renovations beginning on June 25, 2010 and is projected to be completed by December 2012.[46] After the stadiums closing, Cruzeiro began playing home games at the Arena do Jacaré and Ipatingão stadiums, both outside the city of Belo Horizonte.[47] Independência stadium is also being renovated and Cruzeiro will start playing homes games there in 2011 until the Mineirão is ready in 2012.[48]

The club has private ownership of other facilities though, including two training facilities (Toca da Raposa I, which serves the youth division and Toca da Raposa II for the senior squad),[1][49][50] an administrative headquarters[51] and two social club facilities.[52][53] Cruzeiro has often been praised for having one of the leading infrastructure systems in Brazil.[1]

Administration and finances

Cruzeiro's bylaw refers to the club being a non-profit organization, where the real owner are sócios (literally, "partners") or members (who pay an annual fee).[54] This means that unlike some European clubs and North American sport franchises, the club cannot be sold (Article 1, § 4).[55] Cruzeiro also acts as a social club, which sócios get access to. Currently there are six thousand paying sócios (twenty thousand including family members).[56] Sócios are not to be confused with sócios do futebol ("football members") who pay an annual fee for privileges such as season tickets, but are not allowed to vote for club officials.[57] Those who have been sócios for over a year, form the "general assembly" (Assembleia Geral) and may vote for club officials (Article 5).[55] After two years of membership, sócios can nominate themselves for the "consul" (Conselho) (Article 16).[55] Only members who have been part of the consul for at least ten years may run for the presidency and vice-presidency (Article 26, § 1).[55] Politician Zezé Perrella is the current club president.[58]

Cruzeiro was the fifth richest Brazilian club in 2009 in terms of revenue with about R$121.3 million.[59] This is a 29% increase from a 2008 revenue of R$94.1 million[60] and a 56% increase from a 2007 revenue of R$77.6 million.[61] Much of Cruzeiro's revenue comes through the selling of players, between 2004 and 2008 the club sold R$181 million (€68.6 million) worth of player, ranking third in Brazil (although player sales for other teams were considered between 2003 and 2008).[62] Cruzeiro also relies on sponsorship and currently has three shirt sponsors: Banco BMG (front and upper back), Ricardo Eletro (sleeves) and Questão de Estilo Jeans (lower back) and although the club does not release any official figures on sponsorhip, the deals are speculated to be worth a total of about R$15 million annually.[63][64] Kit supplier Reebok reported pays R$8 million annually.[65] From ticket sales the club will make around R$27 million in 2010.[66] In 2009 ticket sales generated R$18 million[67]

Cruzeiro is one of the most financially stable Brazilian football clubs. As of 2009 Cruzeiro debts total R$97.7 million (€43.8).[68] This puts the club 13th among the most in-debt club in Brazil. Among Brazil's most prominent clubs only São Paulo has less debt. The club's current debt is also a decrease from a 2008 debt of R$131.6 million (€50.8).[69] In 2009 the club was ranked as the seventh most valuable club in Brazil, being worth R$ 139 million (€55 million).[70] In 2008, the annual salary for the clubs players totaled €6.2 million, significantly less than its European counterparts.[71]

Supporters

Cruzeiro is the best supported club in the state of Minas Gerais, with about 30% of the state's population being a supporter of the club.[72] Most surveys have put the club's fan base between 3%-4% of the overall Brazilian population[73] (other surveys have put the fan base between 2.9%-5.3%[74]). Considering a population of 190 million people,[75] that would mean approximately 5.7-7.6 million (and 5.5-10 million) supporters.

Cruzeiro's fan base in the state of Minas Gerais has changed throughout the years. In the 1930s the club trailed rival Atlético, who had 46.2%, while Cruzeiro had 35.9% of the popular support.[72] That gap would increase in the 1960s, and even in the 1980s Atlético had a larger fan base. However, surveys in the 1990s showed Cruzeiro's fan base as the new number one in the state, a gap which has increased in the 21st century. In Belo Horizonte and its metropolitan region, support for the two clubs have been historically close, however recent polls show Cruzeiro has a slight advantage.[72] Considering national surveys (1983–2010) Cruzeiro support has had a growth coefficient of 0.000066.[73]

Originally Palestra's support came from the Italian immigrant community. The working class identity remained when the club became known as Cruzeiro, and the supporters spread beyond the Italian community. The club's main rival is Atlético Mineiro, but other rivals include América, Vasco de Gama, São Paulo, Palmeiras (the other major team in Brazil with Italian origins), Corinthians, and Grêmio.[76] A 2010 survey showed Cruzeiro's fan base had an average monthly family income of R$1,342.45.[77] For comparison this is slightly lower than Atlético Mineiro (R$1,353.28). The highest was Internacional (R$ 1.657.69), and the lowest was Flamengo (R$ 1.149,09).

On July 14, 2008 law number 9,590/2008 sanctioned "Cruzeiro and Cruzeirense Day" in Belo Horizonte which will be celebrated every 2 January.[78]

Notes

  1. ^ The 2002 Minas Gerais State Championship had no teams that were playing Copa Sul-Minas: América Mineiro, Atlético Mineiro, Cruzeiro, and Mamoré. These teams plus Caldense -- who won the State Championship—played the Minas Gerais Super State Championship when the State Championship and the Copa Sul-Minas were finished. The tournament was dubbed the Minas Gerais Super State Championship and Cruzeiro became the champions.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "Cruzeiro's climb to power". FIFA. http://www.fifa.com/classicfootball/clubs/club=44130/index.html. Retrieved 2010-07-01. 
  2. ^ "Cruzeiro encara sua "Bestia Negra", em jogo decisivo pela Libertadores" (in Portuguese). Globominas.com. http://globominas.globo.com/GloboMinas/0,,MUL1552646-16295,00.html. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  3. ^ "Cruzeiro-São Paulo... 'La Bestia Negra' espera repetir hazaña sobre 'Tricolor Paulista'" (in portuguese). Mediotiempo.com. http://www.mediotiempo.com/futbol/santander-libertadores/previos/2010/05/11/cruzeiro-so-paulo-la-bestia-negra-espera-repetir-hazana-sobre-tricolor-paulista_28714. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  4. ^ "FUNDAÇÃO" (in Portuguese). Cruzeiro Esporte Clube. http://www.cruzeiro.com.br/index2.php?section=historia_fundacao&idm=2. Retrieved 2010-07-04. 
  5. ^ http://www.cbf.com.br/cnef/cnef.pdf
  6. ^ Long distance "Championships" (in Portuguese). Cruzeiro Esporte Clube. http://www.cruzeiro.com.br/hotsites/atletismo/conquistas.html Long distance. Retrieved 2006-06-06. 
  7. ^ "Sada Cruzeiro" (in Portuguese). Cruzeiro Esporte Clube. http://www.sadacruzeiro.com.br/default2.asp. Retrieved 2010-08-01. 
  8. ^ "História da emigração em Minas Gerais." (in Portuguese). Federação dos Círculos Trentinos do Brasil. http://www.trentini.com.br/?pagina=conteudo&unidade=11&idioma=port&id=519. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
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