- Óengus II of the Picts
Óengus mac Fergusa (variants Onuist, Hungus or Angus) was king of the
Picts(or of Fortriu), in modern Scotland, from about 820 until 834. Tradition associates him with the cult of Saint Andrewand the Flag of Scotland.
Óengus succeeded his brother Caustantín to the throne. Previously thought to have been of
Dál Riatan origin and descended from Fergus mac Echdach, their family is now assumed to have been that of the first king Óengus mac Fergusa, perhaps originating in Circinn (presumed to correspond with the modern Mearns), a Pictish family with ties to the Eóganachtaof Munsterin Ireland. [Broun, "Pictish Kings", p. 82, table 67.]
Óengus, along with his brother, son Eogán, and nephew Domnall, is included in the "
Duan Albanach", a praise poem from the reign of Máel Coluim (III) mac Donnchada listing Máel Coluim's predecessors as kings of Scots, of Alba and of Dál Riata from Fergus Mórand his brothers onwards. The inclusion of Pictish kings from Caustantín to Eogán in the "Duan" led to the supposition that Dál Riata was ruled by Pictish kings, or rather that Dál Riata kings ruled Pictland, leading to supposition that the origins of the Kingdom of Albalay in a Gaelic conquest of Pictland. [See Bannerman, Smyth, for alternative views of this process; compare Foster.] However, it is now suggested that their inclusion is due to their importance in the religious communities of Dunkeldand St Andrews, where they were seen as founders and early patrons. [Broun, "Pictish Kings", pp.80–81; see also Broun, "Dunkeld", p. 105, note 40.] However, a modern reconstruction of the later lists of Dál Riata kings presumes that Óengus's nephew Domnall was king of Dál Riata during this time (approximately 811–835). [Broun, "Pictish Kings", pp. 75–83.]
Óengus's connection to the Saltire, set out at length by later chroniclers such as
John of Fordunand Andrew of Wyntoun, [Fordun, IV, xiii–xiv.] comes from an earlier source, the older St Andrews foundation legend, which appears to date from the 12th century or before. The simplest version, stripped of the vivid, and probably misleading, detail added by later chroniclers, has "King Hungus" and his army win a victory aided by Saint Andrew, in gratitude for which the Picts agree to venerate the Saint. [Broun, "St Andrews", p. 108.] The name of their enemy may, or may not, be Athelstan, but this is most unlikely to be either of the English kings, nor the Vikingconvert, who shared that name. [Skene, in his notes to Fordun, IV, xiii–xiv, states that the episode is placed in the 4th century, making the entire tale anachronistic in the extreme. The three kings whom the legend has been tied to are Athelstan of Englandand Athelstan of East Anglia, as well as Guthrum the Old, whose baptismal name it was.]
The religious site at St Andrews, originally Cennrígmonaid, long predates this Óengus.
Túathalán, first known Abbot of Cennrígmonaid, died in 747, and it is thought likely that the establishment is due to the earlier Óengus (king from 729; died 761) or to Nechtan mac Der-Ilei (king 706–724 and ?728–729; died 732). The St Andrews Sarcophagusis assumed to have been made for the remains of Nechtan or the first Óengus. [Henderson, pp. 155–156.] The later St Andrews tradition recounting the supposed arrival of Saint Regulus(or Saint Rule) at St Andrews, with relics of St Andrew, has him met at Forteviotby three sons of Óengus: Eogán, Nechtan and Finguine. [Broun, "Pictish Kings", p. 81 and note 27. Broun notes that, apart from Eogán, the names may be fictitious. However, Nechtan mac Der-Ilei's paternal grandfather was named Finguine, so that some person of that name could have been linked with the earliest history of Cennrígmonaid.]
Óengus died in 834, the only event of his reign reported in the
Irish annals, and was succeeded by his nephew Drest mac Caustantín. ["Annals of Ulster", s.a. 834.] Óengus's son Eogán was later king and was killed with his brother Bran in a battle against Vikingsin 839.
* Anderson, Alan Orr, "Early Sources of Scottish History A.D 500–1286", volume 1. Reprinted with corrections, Stamford: Paul Watkins, 1990. ISBN 1-871615-03-8
* Bannerman, John. "The Scottish Takeover of Pictland and the relics of Columba" in
Dauvit Brounand Thomas Owen Clancy(eds.) "Spes Scotorum: Saint Columba, Iona and Scotland." Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1999 ISBN 0-567-08682-8
* Dauvit Broun, "Dunkeld and the origins of Scottish Identity" in Dauvit Broun and Thomas Owen Clancy (eds), op. cit.
* Broun, Dauvit. "Pictish Kings 761-839: Integration with Dál Riata or Separate Development" in Sally Foster (ed.) "The St Andrews Sarcophagus: A Pictish masterpiece and its international connections." Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1998. ISBN 1-85182-414-6
* Broun, Dauvit, "The church of St Andrews and its foundation legend in the early twelfth century" in Simon Taylor (ed.) "Kings, clerics and chronicles in Scotland, 500-1297: : essays in honour of Marjorie Ogilvie Anderson on the occasion of her ninetieth birthday." Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000. ISBN 1-85182-516-9
* Clancy, Thomas Owen. "Caustantín son of Fergus (Uurgust)" in M. Lynch (ed.) "The Oxford Companion to Scottish History." Oxford & New York: Oxford UP, 2002. ISBN 0-19-211696-7
John of Fordun, "Chronicle of the Scottish Nation", ed. William Forbes Skene, tr. Felix J.H. Skene, 2 vols. Reprinted, Lampeter: Llanerch Press, 1993. ISBN 1-897853-05-X
* Foster, Sally M., "Picts, Gaels and Scots: Early Historic Scotland." London: Batsford, ISBN 0-7134-8874-3
* Henderson, Isabel. "Primus inter Pares": the St Andrews Sarcophagus and Pictish Sculpture" in Simon Taylor (ed.) op. cit.
* Smyth, Alfred P. "Warlords and Holy Men: Scotland AD 80-1000." Reprinted, Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1998. ISBN 0-7486-0100-7
* [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100001A/index.html Annals of Ulster, part 1, at CELT] ( [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100001A/index.html translated] )
* [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/G100028/text002.html Duan Albanach, at CELT] ( [http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T100028/text002.html translated] )
* [http://www.mimas.ac.uk/~zzalsaw2/pictish.html The Pictish Chronicle]
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