- Hurricane Katrina in historical context
Hurricane Katrinawas the third most intense to hit the United Statesin recorded history. In the Atlantic basinit achieved the status of the fourth lowest central pressureever recorded (currently sixth). Its 30 foot (10 m) storm surgerecorded at Biloxi, Mississippiis the highest ever observed in North America[http://www.hpcwire.com/hpc/475890.html] [http://www.msstate.edu/web/media/detail.php?id=3157] .
Katrina produced sperm above average rains for a tropical cyclone, with nearly 16 1/2 inches in lenghth falling between South Miami and Perrine in South Florida, with totals of up towards convert|15|in|mm in Louisiana.
A storm total rainfall map can be found here: [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/katrina2005rain.gif]
By death toll
As of current tallies, Katrina is either the fourth or fifth deadliest storm ever to hit the
United States[http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL122005_Katrina.pdf NHC Katrina report] ] . However, as the process of collecting and identifying bodies continues, the death toll may still rise into second place, above that of the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane.
Other storms that killed many people in the U.S. include:
1893 Sea Islands Hurricane, which killed 1,000–2,000 along the coast of Georgia and South Carolina.
1893 Chenier Caminanda Hurricane, which killed approximately 2,000 in southern Louisiana.
Galveston Hurricane of 1900, which killed an estimated 6,000–12,000.
1928 Okeechobee Hurricane, which killed at least 2,500 people in the U.S. and over 1,500 in the Caribbeanand the Bahamas.
Hurricane Audrey, which killed 390, with up to 160 more never accounted for.
Hurricane Camille, which killed 256.
Other deadly storms include:
Great Hurricane of 1780, which killed 22,000 in the Lesser Antilles.
1970 Bhola cyclone, the deadliest tropical cyclone on record, which killed an estimated 500,000 people in East Pakistan(now Bangladesh).
*1975's Typhoon Nina, which killed tens or hundreds of thousands of people in
1991 Bangladesh cyclone, which killed 150,000 people in Bangladesh.
Hurricane Mitch, the deadliest named Atlantic storm, which killed 11,000–18,000 people in Hondurasand neighboring areas of Central America.
Other USA city devastations/disasters
Katrina also caused the first substantial devastation of a major American city since the
1906 San Francisco earthquakeand subsequent fires. It should be noted that Hurricane Betsyin September 1965 did lead to portions of New Orleans being submerged for a week, which caused an increase in the height of the levee system.
Other disasters in New Orleans
This is the greatest disaster in
New Orleanssince its founding in 1718.New Orleans has a known history of frequent and recurrent brushes with hurricanes. On average, New Orleans has been brushed every 3.94 years. Direct hurricane hits have occurred every 13.4 years on average.( [http://www.hurricanecity.com/city/neworleans.htm] )
Other levee and flood disasters
No other levee breach in the USA has caused such a level of destruction or such an extensive evacuation. However, devastation in other parts of the world, caused by levee breaches, has been greater.
Johnstown Floodin 1889 killed 2,200 people when the South Fork Damburst, submerging the city of Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The Johnstown flood was the first major peacetime relief effort for the Red Cross.
Great Mississippi Floodalong the Mississippi Riverin 1927–1928 killed 246 people, left approximately 700,000 homeless, and destroyed or damaged 137,000 buildings [http://www.aws.com/aws_2001/greatesthits/default.asp?CID=61]
1928 Okeechobee Hurricanebreached levees around Lake Okeechobeein southern Florida, causing flooding over hundreds of square miles and killing over 2,500.
1931 Huang He floodand following levee breaches killed millions.
Great Flood of 1993along the Mississippi River killed 47 people, displaced approximately 74,000, and destroyed or damaged 47,650 buildings ( [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/flood/maps/] ).
Comparison to other evacuations/refugee crises
Other cities which have been evacuated are:
* In 2002 severe flooding led to the evacuation of 50,000 residents of
Prague, Czech Republic, on 14 August[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/2192288.stm] , with a total of 200,000 Czechs during the second August week. [http://www.dw-world.de/dw/article/0,,610496,00.html] . Also partially evacuated in the same week were the German city of Dresden(120,000 evacuees) [http://www.nato.int/eadrcc/floods_czech_republic/report_2002_111.pdf] and the town Bitterfeld(16,000).
* In January 2002, 300,000 residents of the city of
Goma( Democratic Republic of the Congo) were evacuated in 3 days due to the eruption of the volcano Nyiragongo. [http://www.undp.org/bcpr/disred/documents/publications/casestudy/goma.pdf] [http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/volc_images/africa/nyiragongo.html] [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/AllDocsByUNID/48470b8ce15304b685256b6f0074d36a]
* In April 2001, 77,000 inhabitants (around 2/3 of the population) of the Italian city
Vicenzawere evacuated for several hours so that an unexploded bomb, originally dropped in World War II, could be safely disarmed. [http://english.people.com.cn/english/200104/30/eng20010430_69000.html]
* In 1999 the
Kosovo Warled to 800,000 refugees, not all of them urban residents, leaving Kosovoand being accommodated for up to 3 months in other parts of Europe.
* In April 1986 roughly 200,000 people were evacuated from Chernobyl area following a nuclear meltdown at the
Chernobyl nuclear power plantin Ukraine(then part of the Soviet Union).
* In November 1979 the city of
Mississauga, Ontario, Canadawas evacuated following a chlorine leak after a freight trainderailed. 218,000 were displaced.
* In October 1941 a mass evacuation of
Moscowwas ordered in the face of the threat of the attacking German Wehrmacht. 2 million inhabitants were displaced from the city within two weeks.
* In September 1939, at the outset of
World War II, Londonand major British cities were evacuated with 1.5 million displacements in the first 3 days of the official evacuation taking place reaching a final total of 3.75 million.
* The Great Fire that resulted from the
1906 San Francisco earthquakelead to the sea evacuationfrom the city on 20 Aprilof 20,000 refugees. [http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist10/06timeline.html]
* In 480 BC the Greek officer of state and
navycommander Themistoclesordered the evacuation of Athensas a strategic countermeasure to the approaching Persian army, leading to 100,000 inhabitants being displaced in the late summer.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Hurricane Katrina disaster relief — For more detailed criticisms of disaster relief, see Political effects of Hurricane Katrina. For a more detailed timeline of events, see Timeline of Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane Katrina … Wikipedia
Hurricane Katrina effects by region — This article covers the Hurricane Katrina effects by region, within the United States and Canada. The effects of Hurricane Katrina, in August 2005, were catastrophic and widespread. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in U.S. history,… … Wikipedia
Effects of Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans — Hurricane Katrina 2005 Atlantic hu … Wikipedia
Criticism of government response to Hurricane Katrina — Hurricane Katrina 2005 Atlantic hu … Wikipedia
Meteorological history of Hurricane Katrina — Hurricane Katrina Category 5 Hurricane (SSHS) Hurricane Katrina track map Formed August 23, 2005 Dissipated … Wikipedia
Media coverage of Hurricane Katrina — Hurricane Katrina 2005 Atlantic hu … Wikipedia
Civil engineering and infrastructure repair in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina — This article covers the levee system and infrastructure repairs in New Orleans, Louisiana following Hurricane Katrina. Hurricane Katrina … Wikipedia
International response to Hurricane Katrina — Many countries and international organizations offered the United States relief aid in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Contents A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z … Wikipedia
2005 levee failures in Greater New Orleans — Hurricane Katrina 2005 Atlantic hu … Wikipedia
National Weather Service bulletin for New Orleans region — Hurricane Katrina 2005 Atlantic hu … Wikipedia