- Áedán mac Gabráin
Áedán mac Gabráin (pronounced|ˈaiðaːn mak ˈgavraːnʲ in Old Irish) was
king of Dál Riatafrom circa574 until his death circa 608. The kingdom of Dál Riatawas situated in modern Argyll and Bute, Scotland, and parts of County Antrim, Ireland. Genealogies record that Áedán was a son of Gabrán mac Domangairt.
He was a contemporary of Saint
Columba, and much that is recorded of his life and career comes from hagiographysuch as Adomnán of Iona's "Life of Saint Columba". Áedán appears as a character in many Old Irish and Middle Irish languageworks of proseand verse, some now lost.
Irish annalsrecord Áedán's campaigns against his neighbours, in Ireland, and in northern Britain, including expeditions to the Orkney Islands, the Isle of Man, and the east coast of Scotland. As recorded by Bede, Áedán was decisively defeated by Æthelfrith of Berniciaat the Battle of Degsastan. Áedán may have been deposed, or have abdicated, following this defeat. He died c. 608.
The sources for Áedán's life include Bede's "
Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum"; Irish annals, principally the " Annals of Ulster" and the " Annals of Tigernach"; and Adomnán's "Life of Saint Columba". Áedán appears as a character in the early Irish works "Gein Branduib maic Echach ocus Aedáin maic Gabráin" and "Compert Mongáin". The " Senchus fer n-Alban", a censusand genealogyof Dál Riata, records his ancestry and his immediate descendants.
The Rawlinson B. 502 manuscript, dated to c. 1130, contains the tale "Gein Branduib maic Echach ocus Aedáin maic Gabráin" (The Birth of Brandub son of Eochu and of Aedán son of Gabrán). In this story, Áedán is the twin brother of
Brandub mac Echach, a King of Leinsterwho belonged to the Uí Cheinnselaigkindred. Áedán is exchanged at birth for one of the twin daughters of Gabrán, born the same night, so that each family might have a son. The Prophecy of Berchánalso associates Áedán with Leinster. A modern study concludes that " [t] here seems to be no basis of fact behind these traditions". [Bannerman, pp. 89–90.]
A lost Irish tale, "Echtra Áedáin mac Gabráin" (The Adventures of Áedán son of Gabrán) appears in a list of works, but its contents are unknown. [MacQuarrie, p. 109. The "Echtra Áedáin mac Gabráin" is listed in cite web |url=http://volny.cz/enelen/sc.htm |title=Scéla: Catalogue of medieval Irish narratives & literary enumerations |accessdate=2006-12-26 |format= |work= ] Áedán is a character in the epic "
Scéla Cano meic Gartnáin", but the events which inspired the tale appear to have taken place in the middle of the seventh century. [M.O. Anderson, pp. 154–155. MacQuarrie, pp. 167–170, discusses the tale, describing it as a "pseudo-historical romance".]
Áedán was the chief king in Dál Riata, ruling over lesser tribal kings. The "Senchus fer n-Alban" records the sub-divisions of Dál Riata in the seventh and eighth centuries, but no record from Áedán's time survives. According to the "Senchus", Dál Riata was divided into three sub-kingdoms in the seventh century, each ruled by a kin group named for their
eponymous founder. These were the Cenél nGabráin, named for Áedán's father, who ruled over Kintyre, Cowaland Bute; the Cenél Loairnof northern Argyll; and the Cenél nÓengusaof Islay. Within these there were smaller divisions or tribes which are named by the "Senchus". [Bannerman, pp 47–49 and 108–118; Charles-Edwards, pp. 296–297.] Details of the Irish part of the kingdom are less clear.
Looking outward, Dál Riata's neighbours in north Britain were the
Pictsand the Britons. Late in Áedán's life, the kingdom of Berniciawould become the greatest power in north Britain. [An overview of the politics of northern Britain can be found in, for example, Yorke, pp. 33–97.]
In Ireland, Dál Riata formed part of
Ulster, ruled by Báetán mac Cairillof the Dál Fiatach. The other major grouping in Ulster were the disunited tribes of the Cruithne (or Picts), later known as the Dál nAraidi. The most important Cruithne king in Áedán's time was Fiachnae mac Báetáin. Beyond the kingdom of Ulster, and generally hostile to it, were the various kingdoms and tribes of the Uí Néilland their subjects and allies. Of the Uí Néill kings, Áed mac Ainmuirechof the Cenél Conaill, Columba's first cousin once removed, was the most important during Áedán's reign. [See, for example, Byrne, pp. 106ff.; Charles-Edwards, pp. 54–67, 293–299, & pp. 481ff.]
Adomnán, the "Senchus fer n-Alban" and the Irish annals record Áedán as a son of
Gabrán mac Domangairt(died c. 555–560). A Welsh poem states that Áedán's mother was a daughter of King Dumnagual Hen of Alt Clut. [Adomnán, I, 49; Bannerman, pp. 80 and 88–89; Anderson, "ESSH", pp. cxxix–clvii.] Áedán's brother Eoganán is known from Adomnán and his death is recorded c. 597. [Adomnán, III, 5; Anderson, "ESSH", p. 118; Bannerman, p. 90.] The "Senchus" names three other sons of Gabrán, namely Cuildach, Domnall, and Domangart. [Anderson, "ESSH", p. cl; Bannerman, p. 48.] Although nothing is known of Cuildach and Domangart or their descendants, Adomnán mentions a certain Ioan, son of Conall, son of Domnall, "who belonged to the royal lineage of the Cenél nGabráin", [Adomnán, II, 22.] but this is generally read as meaning that Ioan was a kinsman of the Cenél nGabráin, and his grandfather named Domnall is not thought to be the same person as Áedán's brother Domnall. [Adomnán, II, 22, translator's note 258; Bannerman, p. 107.]
Áedán was about forty years old when he became king, following the death of his uncle
Conall mac Comgaillin 574. [Bannerman, p. 81.] His succession as king may have been contested; Adomnán states that Columba had favoured the candidacy of Áedán's brother Eoganán. [Adomnán, III, 5.] Adomnán claims that Áedán was ordained as king by Columba, the first example of an ordination known in Britain and Ireland. [Adomnán, III, 5 and translator's note 358; Broun; Byrne, p. 159; Yorke, p. 241.]
In 574, following the account of Conall's death, the "Annals of Ulster" and the "Annals of Tigernach" record a battle in
Kintyre, called the Battle of Teloch, or Delgu. The precise location of the battle is unidentified. The annals agree that "Dúnchad, son of Conall, son of Comgall, and many others of the allies of the sons of Gabrán, fell." [Bannerman, pp. 81–82; Anderson, "ESSH", pp. 78–79; M.O. Anderson, p. 149, suggests that Báetán mac Cairill may have been the enemy against whom the battle was fought.] In 575, the "Annals of Ulster" report "the great convention of Druim Cett", at Mullagh or Daisy Hill near Limavady, with Áed mac Ainmuirech and Columba in attendance. [Anderson, "ESSH", p. 79. The date of Druim Cett has been disputed. Sharpe, in the editor's notes to Adomnán's "Life", note 204, proposes a much later date, c. 590. Sharpe is followed by Meckler ("The Annals of Ulster and the date of the meeting at Druim Cett", Peritia, vol. 11, 1997) but this is challenged by Jaski ("Druim Cett revisited", Peritia, vol. 12, 1998). Charles-Edwards, "Early Christian Ireland", p. 491, takes the meeting to have been "some years later" than 575.] Adomnán reports that Áedán was present at the meeting. [Adomnán, I, 48.] The purpose of the meeting is not entirely certain, but one agreement made there concerned the status of Áedán's kingdom. Áedán and Áed agreed that while the fleet of Dál Riata would serve the Uí Néill, no tribute would be paid to them, and warriors would only be provided from the Dál Riata lands in Ireland. [Anderson, "ESSH", p. 83, note 2; M.O. Anderson, pp. 148–149; Bannerman, pp. 1–2; Byrne, p. 110.]
The reason for this agreement is thought to have been the threat posed to Áedán, and also to Áed, by Báetán mac Cairill. Báetán is said to have forced the king of Dál Riata to pay homage to him at Rosnaree on
Islandmagee. Áedán is thought to be the king in question, and Ulster sources say that Báetán collected tribute from Scotland. [Anderson, "ESSH", pp.87–88; Bannerman, pp. 2–4; Byrne, pp. 109–111; Ó Cróinín, pp. 50–51.] Following Báetán's death in 581, the Ulstermen abandoned the Isle of Man, which they had captured in Báetán's time, perhaps driven out by Áedán who is recorded as fighting there c. 583. [Anderson, "ESSH", p. 89; Bannerman, pp. 83–84; Ó Cróinín, pp. 50–51.] Earlier, c. 580, Áedán is said to have raided Orkney, which had been subject to Bridei son of Maelchon, King of the Picts, at an earlier date. [Adomnán, II, 42, and translator's note 324; Anderson, "ESSH", p. 86; Bannerman, pp. 79 & 83.]
Áedán's campaigns on the Isle of Man have sometimes been confused with the battle against the Miathi mentioned by Adomnán. The Miathi appear to have been the
Maeatae, a tribe in the area of the upper river Forth. This campaign was successful, but Áedán's sons Artúr and Eochaid Find were killed in battle according to Adomnán. [Adomnán, I, 8–9 and translator's note 81; Bannerman, pp. 82–83. Bannerman, pp. 90–91, notes that Artúr is the son of Conaing, son of Áedán in the "Senchus fer n-Alban".] This battle may have taken place circa 590 and be recorded as the Battle of Leithreid or Leithrig. [Anderson, "ESSH", p. 94; Bannerman, pp. 84–85 and 91.]
Prophecy of Berchán" says of Áedán: "Thirteen years (one after another) [he will fight against] the Pictish host (fair the diadem)." The only recorded battle between Áedán and the Picts appears to have been fought in Circinn, in 599 or after, where Áedán was defeated. The annals mention the deaths of his sons here. [Bannerman, pp. 84–86.] It has been suggested that this battle was confused with the "Battle of Asreth" in Circinn, fought c. 584, in which Bridei son of Maelchon was killed. This battle is described as being "fought between the Picts themselves". [The Battle of Asreth is apparently misdated, appearing under 752 in the "Annals of Tigernach"; see M.O. Anderson, pp. 30–31 & 36–37.]
A number of Welsh traditions point to warfare between Áedán and King Rhydderch Hael of
Alt Clut, the north British kingdom later known as Strathclyde. Adomnán reports that Rhydderch sent a monk named Luigbe to Ionato speak with Columba "for he wanted to learn whether he would be slaughtered by his enemies or not". A Welsh triad names Áedán's plundering of Alt Clut as one of the "three unrestrained plunderings of Britain", and the poem "Peiryan Vaban" tells of a battle between Áedán and Rhydderch. [Adomnán, I, 15 and translator's note 89; Bannerman, pp. 88–89.] The lost Irish epic "Orgain Sratha Cluada" is usually thought to refer to the attack on Alt Clut in 870 by Vikings, but MacQuarrie suggests that it may refer to an attack by Áedán on Rhydderch. [MacQuarrie, p. 109.]
Degsastan and after
Degsastan appears not to have been the first battle between Áedán and the Bernicians. The death of his son Domangart in the land of the Saxons is mentioned by Adomnán, and it is presumed that Bran died in the same otherwise unrecorded battle. [Adomnán, I, 9; Bannerman, pp. 85 and 91–92.]
Of the roots of this conflict, Bede mentions only that Áedán was alarmed by Æthelfrith's advance. Wherever the Battle of Degsastan was fought, Bede saw it as lying within
Northumbria. The battle was a decisive victory for Æthelfrith, and Bede says, carefully, that " [f] rom that day until the present, no king of the Irish in Britain has dared to do battle with the English." Although victorious, Æthelfrith suffered losses; Bede tells us his brother Theodbald was killed with all his following. Theodbald appears to be called Eanfrith in Irish sources, which name his killer as Máel Umai mac Báetáinof the Cenél nEógain, son of High-King Báetán mac Ninnedo. The Irish poem "Compert Mongáin" says that the king of Ulster, Fiachnae mac Báetáin of the Dál nAraidi, aided Áedán against the Saxons, perhaps at Degsastan. The " Anglo-Saxon Chronicle" mentions that Hering, son of King Hussa of Bernicia, was present, apparently fighting with Áedán. [Bede, I, 34; Bannerman, pp.86–88; Byrne, p. 111; Kirby, pp. 70–72. MacQuarrie, pp. 103–104, notes some textual inconsistencies in the Irish sources, and suggests that the "Battle of the Saxons" recorded in the Irish annals may not be Bede's "Battle of Degsastan".]
After the defeat of Degsastan, the annals report nothing of Áedán until his death around six years later. His death is dated to 17 April 608 in the "Martyrology of Tallaght", composed c. 800. The "Annals of Tigernach" give his age as 74. [Bannerman, pp.80–81.] The "Prophecy of Berchán" places his death in Kintyre and says " [h] e will not be king at the time of his death", while the 12th century "Acta Sancti Lasriani" claims that he was expelled from the kingship.
John of Fordun, writing in the 14th century, believed that Áedán had been buried at Kilkerran in Kintyre. [Bannerman, pp. 80–81 and 86–87.]
Áedán was succeeded by his son
Eochaid Buide. Adomnán gives an account of Columba's prophecy that Eochaid's older brothers would predecease their father. [Adomnán, I, 9.] Áedán's other sons are named by the "Senchus fer n-Alban" as Eochaid Find, Tuathal, Bran, Baithéne, Conaing, and Gartnait. [The name Conaing implies a familiarity with Anglo-Saxons and their language as it is derived from Old English "cyning", king; Byrne, pp.111–112. The appearance of two sons named Eochaid is not an error, as noted by Charles-Edwards, p. 6.] Adomnán also names Artúr, called a son of Conaing in the "Senchus", and Domangart, who is not included in the "Senchus". Domangart too may have been a grandson rather than a son of Áedán, most likely another son of Conaing. The main line of Cenél nGabráin kings were the descendants of Eochaid Buide through his son Domnall Brecc, but the descendants of Conaing successfully contested for the throne throughout the 7th century and into the 8th. [Adomnán, I, 9; Anderson, "ESSH", pp.95–96; Bannerman, pp. 47–49, 90–96 and 103.]
It has been suggested that Gartnait son of Áedán could be the same person as Gartnait son of Domelch, king of the Picts, whose death is reported around 601, but this rests on the idea of Pictish
matriliny, which has been criticised. Even less certainly, it has been argued that Gartnait's successor in the Pictish king-lists, Nechtan, was his grandson, and thus Áedán's great-grandson. [Anderson, "ESSH", pp. 121–123 and 145; Bannerman, pp. 93–94, Smyth, p.70. On Pictish matriliny in general, see Woolf. That the Pictish king Nechtan and Nechtan son of Cano are the same person is questionable: see M.O. Anderson, pp. 116 & 154; MacQuarrie, pp. 167–170.]
Of Áedán's daughters, less is known. Maithgemm, also recorded as Gemma, married a prince named Cairell of the Dál Fiatach. The names of Áedán's wives are not recorded, but one was said to be British, and another may have been a Pictish woman named Domelch, if indeed the Gartnait son of Domelch and Gartnait son of Áedán are one and the same. [Bannerman, pp. 88–89. A daughter named Conchenn is mentioned in some very late tales.]
* [http://celt.ucc.ie/index.html CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts] at
University College Corkincludes: the "Gein Branduib maic Echach ocus Aedáin maic Gabráin", the "Scéla Cano meic Gartnáin", and Irish annals, some with translations
* [http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/mongan.html Compert Mongán] translated by Mary Jones.
* [http://www.mun.ca/mst/heroicage/issues/1/haaad.htm Artúr mac Aedan of Dalriada] by Michelle Ziegler, [http://members.aol.com/heroicage1/homepage.html The Heroic Age] Issue 1, Spring/Summer 1999
* [http://volny.cz/enelen/index.htm Scéla] - a catalogue of medieval Irish narratives
NAME = mac Gabráin, Áedán
ALTERNATIVE NAMES =
SHORT DESCRIPTION = king of Dál Riata
DATE OF BIRTH =
PLACE OF BIRTH =
DATE OF DEATH = circa 608
PLACE OF DEATH =
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