- Khanate of Khiva
Infobox Former Country
native_name = Xiva Xonligi
conventional_long_name = Khanate of Khiva
common_name = Khiva
continent = Asia
region = Central Asia
country = Uzbekistan
government_type = Monarchy
flag_type = Flag of the Khanate of Khiva prior to 1917
p1 = Timurid dynasty
flag_p1 = Timurid.svg
s1 = Khorezm People's Soviet Republic
flag_s1 = Flag_of_Khiva_1920-1923.svg
The Khanate of Khiva ( _uz. Xiva Xonligi) was the name of a Central Asian state that existed in the historical region of
Khwarezmfrom 1515 to 1920 except Persian occupation by Nadir Shahbetween 1740-1746. It was ruled over by the Kungrads, a branch of the Astrakhans, themselves a Genghisid dynasty, and its capital was at Khiva. In 1873, Khiva became a Russian protectorateand, in 1920, the Khanate was abolished and replaced by the Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic. In 1924, the area was formally incorporated into the Soviet Unionand today is largely a part of Karakalpakstanand Xorazm Provincein Uzbekistan.
Khwarezm, History of Uzbekistan"The region that would become the Khanate of Khiva was a part of the Jagatai Khanatewith its capital at Old Urgench, one of the largest and most important trading centers in Central Asia. However, Timurregarded the state as a rival to Samarkand, and over the course of 5 campaigns, he destroyed Old Urgench completely in 1388. In 1515 the Uzbek group, the Yadigarid Shaybanids, installed themselves as khans of the region. Once Old Urgench was finally abandoned due to a shift in the course of the Amu-Darya in 1576, the center of the region shifted southward, and, in 1619, the khan, Arab Muhammad I, chose Khivaas the capital of the khanate.
The discovery of
goldon the banks of the Amu Daryaduring the reign of Russia's Peter the Great, together with the desire of the Russian Empireto open a trade route to India, prompted an armed trade expedition to the region in 1717-18, led by Prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky, and consisting of 750-4,000 men.
Upon receiving the men, the Khivan khan, Shir Ghazi, set up camp under the pretense of goodwill, then ambushed and slaughtered the envoys, leaving ten alive to send back. Peter the Great, indebted after wars with the
Ottoman Empireand Sweden, did nothing.
Tsar Paul I also attempted to conquer the khanate, but his expedition was woefully undermanned and undersupplied, and was recalled en route due to his assassination. Tsar Alexander I had no such ambitions, and it was under Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III that serious efforts to annex Khiva started.
A curious episode during
The Great Gameinvolved a Russian expedition, in name to free the slaves captured and sold by Turkmen raiders from the Russian frontiers on the Caspian Sea, but also as an attempt to extend its borders while the British Empireentangled itself in the First Anglo-Afghan Warin 1839. The expedition, led by General V.A. Perovsky, the commander of the Orenburggarrison, consisted of 5,200 infantry, and 10,000 camels. Due to poor planning and a bit of bad luck, they set off in November 1839, into one of the worst winters in memory, and was forced to turn back on 1 February1840, arriving back into Orenburgin May, suffering over 1,000 casualties without firing a single shot.
At the same time, the British, anxious to remove the pretext for the Russian attempt to annex Khiva, launched its own effort to free the slaves - a lone officer stationed in
Herat, now in Afghanistan. Captain James Abbott, disguised as an Afghan, set off on Christmas Eve, 1839, for Khiva. He arrived in late January 1840 and, although the khan was suspicious of his identity, he succeeded in talking the khan into allowing him to carry a letter for the tsar regarding the slave issue. He left on 7 March1840, for Fort Alexandrovsk (Aqtau), and was subsequently betrayed by his guide, robbed, then released when the bandits realized the origin and destination of his letter. Yet his superiors in Herat, not knowing of his fate, sent another officer, Lieutenant Richmond Shakespear, after him. Shakespear was evidently more successful than Abbott in that he somehow convinced the khan to not only free all Russian subjects under his control, but also make the ownership of Russian slaves a crime punishable by death. The freed slaves and Shakespear arrived in Fort Alexandrovsk on 15 August1840, and Russia lost its primary motive for the conquest of Khiva, for now.
Khiva was gradually reduced in size from Russian expansion in
Turkestanand, in 1873, after Russiaconquered the neighbouring cities of Tashkentand Samarkand, General Von Kaufman launched an attack on Khiva consisting of 13,000 infantry and cavalry. The city of Khiva fell on 28 May1873 and, on 12 August1873, a peace treaty was signed that established Khiva as a quasi-independent Russian protectorate.
After the 1918
Bolshevikseizure of power in the October Revolution, anti-monarchists and Turkmen tribesmen joined forces with the Bolsheviks at the end of 1919 to depose the khan. On 2 February1920, Khiva's last Kungrad khan, Sayid Abdullah, abdicated and a short-lived Khorezm People’s Soviet Republic (later the Khorezm SSR) was created out of the territory of the old Khanate of Khiva, before in 1924 it was finally incorporated into the Soviet Union, with the former Khanate divided between the new Turkmen SSRand Uzbek SSR. Following the collapse of the Soviet Unionin 1991, these became Turkmenistanand Uzbekistanrespectively. Today, the area that was the Khanate has a mixed population of Uzbeks, Karakalpaks, Turkmens, and Kazakhs.
Khans of Khiva (1515-1920)
Arabshanid Dynasty (Yadigarid Shabanid Dynasty, 1515-1804)
*Ilbars I (1515-1525)
*Sultan Haji (1525-?)
*Dust Muhammad (1546-58)
*Haji Muhammad I (1558-1602)
*Arab Muhammad I (1602-1623)
*Abu al-Ghazi I Bahadur (1643-1663)
*Muhammad Awrang (1687-1688)
*Ishaq Agha Shah Niyaz (1688-1702)
*Arab Muhammad II (1702-?)
*Haji Muhammad II
*Shir Ghazi (1715-1728)
*Ilbars II (1728-1740)
*Abu al-Ghazi II Muhammad (1742-1745)
*Abu al-Ghazi III (1770)
*Abu al-Ghazi ibn Gha'ib (1791–1804)
Qungrat Dynasty (1804-1920)
*Iltazar Inaq ibn Iwaz Inaq Biy (1804–1806)
*Abu al-Ghazi ibn Gha'ib (1806)
*Muhammad Rahim Bahadur (1806–1825)
*Allah Quli Bahadur (1825–1842)
*Muhammad Rahim Quli (1842–1846)
*Abu al-Ghazi Muhammad Amin Bahadur (1846–1855)
*Qutlugh Muhammad Murad Bahadur (1855–1856)
*Sayyid Muhammad (1856–Sep 1864)
*Muhammad Rahim Bahadur (10 Sep 1864–Sep 1910)
*Isfandiyar Jurji Bahadur (Sep 1910–1 Oct 1918)
*Sayid Abdullah (1 Oct 1918–1 Feb 1920)
* [http://www.advantour.com/uzbekistan/khiva/history/010.htm "Russian Invasion (the end of 19 century)"]
* [http://www.advantour.com/uzbekistan/khiva/history/011.htm "The dramatic end of Khiva"]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Khiva — Infobox Settlement official name = Khiva native name = imagesize = 300px image caption = Walls of Itchan Kala image map caption = pushpin pushpin label position =bottom pushpin mapsize = 300 pushpin map caption =Location in Uzbekistan subdivision … Wikipedia
Khiva — /kee veuh/; Russ. /khyi vah /, n. a former Asian khanate along the Amu Darya River, S of the Aral Sea: now divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. * * * ▪ Uzbekistan also spelled Chiwa, Chiva, or Jiva, city, south central Uzbekistan.… … Universalium
Khiva — [kē′və] former khanate in central Asia … English World dictionary
Khiva Khanate — Also known historically as Khorezm or Khwarezm, an Islamic state in Central Eurasia, the Khiva Khanate was centered at the city of Khiva, in modern day Uzbekistan. The khanate established its capital at Khiva as early as 1619 and was under… … Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914
Khiva — geographical name 1. (or Khorezm) oasis Uzbekistan on the lower Amu Dar ya 2. (or Khwarazm) former khanate central Asia including Khiva oasis 3. town in the oasis, capital of the khanate population 41,300 … New Collegiate Dictionary
Khiva — /kee veuh/; Russ. /khyi vah /, n. a former Asian khanate along the Amu Darya River, S of the Aral Sea: now divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. * * * khiva var. kiva … Useful english dictionary
KHIVA — 1) (500), a Turkestan province or khanate in Central Asia, S. of the Sea of Aral; is under Russian protection since 1873; a sandy desert with many oases, and in some parts well irrigated from the Oxus; it produces wheat, rice, cotton, and… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Khiva — Khi•va [[t]ˈki və[/t]] n. geg why a former Asian khanate on the Amu Darya River, S of the Aral Sea: now divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan … From formal English to slang
Khiva — /ˈkivə/ (say keevuh) noun a former Asian khanate along the Amu Darya River, south of the Aral Sea; now divided between Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan … Australian English dictionary
Uzbek khanate — ▪ historical state, Central Asia any of the three states that ruled Transoxania, in present day Uzbekistan, before it came under Russian rule in the 19th century. The khanates of Bukhara and Khiva (Khwārezm) were established by two branches … Universalium