Monsters, Inc.


Monsters, Inc.
Monsters, Inc.

Theatrical poster
Directed by Pete Docter
Produced by Darla K. Anderson
Screenplay by Andrew Stanton
Daniel Gerson
Story by Pete Docter
Jill Culton
Jeff Pidgeon
Ralph Eggleston
Starring John Goodman
Billy Crystal
Steve Buscemi
James Coburn
Mary Gibbs
Jennifer Tilly
Music by Randy Newman
Editing by Jim Stewart
Studio Pixar
Distributed by Walt Disney Pictures
Release date(s) November 2, 2001 (2001-11-02)
Running time 92 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $115 million[1]
Box office $526,366,597[1]

Monsters, Inc. is a 2001 American computer-animated film and the fourth feature-length film produced by Pixar Animation Studios. It was directed by Pete Docter, co-directed by Lee Unkrich and David Silverman, and written by Jill Culton, Peter Docter, Ralph Eggleston, Dan Gerson, Jeff Pidgeon, Rhett Reese, Jonathan Roberts, and Andrew Stanton.[2] The starring voices are John Goodman and Billy Crystal as Sulley and Mike, two monsters who work at a power plant that powers the monster world with children's screams, Mary Gibbs as Boo, a little girl who enters the monster world, Steve Buscemi as Randall, a rival monster, Jennifer Tilly as Celia, Mike's girlfriend, and James Coburn as Mr. Waternoose, the plant's owner.

The film was released to theatres by Walt Disney Pictures in the United States on November 2, 2001, in Australia on December 26, 2001, and in the United Kingdom on February 8, 2002. It was a commercial and critical success, grossing over $525,366,597 worldwide.[1] Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes also reported extremely positive reviews with a 95% approval rating.[3] The film is scheduled for a 3D re-release on January 18, 2013. Also, a prequel, Monsters University, is scheduled for a June 21, 2013 release.

Contents

Plot

Monstropolis is a city populated entirely by monsters. The monster world can be connected to children's bedrooms in the human world through closet doors. When a door is properly activated, it becomes a portal between the monster world and the human world. The city's power supply is provided by Monsters, Inc., a power plant that employs monsters to scare children and extract energy from their screams. The company has a large warehouse full of doors, work areas called "scare floors" where the doors are activated, and a special training room in which employees practice their scare skills. The company's best scarer is James Sullivan (Goodman), whose assistant is his best friend and room mate Michael "Mike" Wazowski (Crystal). Sulley's main rival is Randall Boggs (Buscemi), but enjoys a patronizing relationship with the company's CEO, Henry J. Waternoose III (Coburn), who likes Sulley because of his scaring ability. Waternoose is also worried about an energy crisis because children are harder to scare than they used to be.

One day, Sulley finds an activated door on his scare floor after the workday has ended. He finds no one in the room behind the door, but a little two-year-old girl (Gibbs) follows him back into the monster world. Far from being scared, she calls him "Kitty" and delights in playing with him. Since monsters think humans are lethally toxic, Sulley tries repeatedly to return the girl to her room, but she keeps following him back, and Randall eventually deactivates and stores the door, leaving the girl stuck in the monster world. The girl's presence then becomes public knowledge when Sulley sneaks her into a restaurant to find Mike, so they hide her in their home while the Child Detection Agency (CDA) searches for her. Sulley decides to call the girl "Boo", and he slowly bonds with her after realizing that she is not poisonous. He also discovers that her laughter produces even more energy than her screams.

The next morning, Sulley and Mike disguise Boo in a monster costume and sneak her into work. Randall agrees to help them return her to her bedroom, but when Mike enters the room, Randall captures him in a box, thinking that he is Boo. Randall intends to kidnap Boo and subject her to a device that extracts her screams.

What follows is a series of battles, chases, and accidents in which Sulley and Mike attempt to protect Boo from Randall and his scream machine but Waternoose banishes both Sulley and Mike to the Himalayas, where they meet the Abominable Snowman (John Ratzenberger). Sulley and Mike return to the monster world through a village at the foot of the mountain, where Randall chases them through the company's roller-coaster-like door-moving system. When the energy in Boo's laughter activates the doors in storage, the chase passes in and out of the human world. Finally, Sulley and Boo defeat Randall. Sulley throws Randall through the door of a trailer-park trailer, where a woman beats Randall with a shovel thinking that he was an alligator, and Mike destroys the door to make sure Randall never comes back.

Just as Sulley and Mike attempt to return Boo to her home, Waternoose and the CDA call her door to the scare floor, ready to arrest them, but Mike leads the agents away by fleeing with Boo's monster costume, and Sulley flees with Boo and the door. When Waternoose follows Sulley and Boo, Sulley attempts to set up and activate the door, and when Waternoose follows them through the door, he confesses to Sulley that he is willing to kidnap a thousand children before he lets the company die. However, Sulley had not properly activated Boo's door, causing the three to actually wind up in the adjacent Monsters, Inc. training room, which is equipped with a video monitoring system. Mike has recorded Waternoose's confession, and after he replays the confession, CDA agents arrest Waternoose and take him away.

With the scream-machine plot foiled, the CDA agents call in their leader, who is revealed to be Roz (Bob Peterson), the company's bookkeeper who was working undercover at Monsters Inc. Mike says goodbye to Boo and Sulley returns her to her bedroom, then Roz has the door shredded, preventing monsters from entering the human world and visiting Boo again. Sulley keeps one of the wood splinters as a memento.

Some time later, Sulley becomes the CEO of Monsters, Inc., and the company has ended the energy crisis with his policy of making children laugh instead of scaring them. Meanwhile, Mike has managed to collect and reassemble the pieces of Boo's shredded door. When Sulley puts his piece in its place, the door becomes activated again, and when he peeks into Boo's room, she greets him.

Voice cast

  • John Goodman as James P. "Sulley" Sullivan, a large furry blue monster with horns and purple spots. Even though he excels at scaring children, he is kind-hearted and thoughtful by nature.
  • Billy Crystal as Michael "Mike" Wazowski, a green monster with a ball-shaped body, a single large eyeball, and skinny arms and legs. He runs Sulley's station on the scare floor, and they are close friends and room mates. Mike has an outgoing personality and is dating Celia Mae. He makes cameo appearances in Finding Nemo, Cars, WALL-E and Toy Story 3.
  • Mary Gibbs as "Boo", a 2-year-old human girl. She is unafraid of any monster except Randall, who regularly scared her at night. She overcomes her fear of Randall by the end of the movie. The book based on the film gives Boo's "real" name as Mary Gibbs, the name of her voice actress. In the film, Boo shows Sulley a drawing of Randall with the name "Mary" signed in the corner.
  • Steve Buscemi as Randall Boggs, a multi-legged lizard-shaped monster with a chameleon-like ability to change skin color and blend in completely with his surroundings. He is Sulley's rival in scream collection.
  • Jennifer Tilly as Celia Mae, a Gorgon-like monster with snakes for hair. She is Mike's girlfriend and the receptionist for Monsters, Inc..
  • James Coburn as Henry J. Waternoose III, a crab-like monster with five eyes. At the start of the film, he is CEO of Monsters, Inc., the job having been in his family for generations.
  • Bob Peterson as Roz, a slug-like monster with a raspy voice (similar to Selma Diamond's). She is the administrative clerk for Scare floor F. At the end of the film she turns out to be the Child Detection Agency's (CDA) "Number One", working undercover for years to reveal the child kidnap plot.
  • Frank Oz as Fungus, Randall's three-eyed assistant and reluctant participant in the plot.
  • John Ratzenberger as the Abominable Snowman, a yeti banished to the Himalayas.
  • Samuel Lord Black as the furry George Sanderson, assisted by "Charlie". He is the butt of a running gag in which he repeatedly contacts human artifacts by accident, triggering "23–19" incidents and humorously overblown reactions by the CDA resulting in the removal of his hair.
  • Dan Gerson as Smitty and Needleman, two goofy monsters with cracking voices who work as janitors and operate the door shredder when required.
  • Jeff Pidgeon as Thaddeus Bile, though his friends call him "Phlegm", a trainee scarer for Monsters, Inc.
  • Bonnie Hunt as Ms. Flint, a snake-like monster who trains new monsters to scare children.

Production

The idea for Monsters, Inc. started with a lunch in 1994 attended by John Lasseter, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton and Joe Ranft. One of the ideas that came out of the brainstorming session was a film about monsters. "When we were making "Toy Story" Pete Docter claimed "everybody came up to me and said that they totally believed that their toys came to life when they left the room. When Disney asked us to make more films, I wanted to tap into a child-like notion that was similar to Toy Story. I knew monsters were coming out of my closet when I was a kid. So I decided monsters would be appropriate".[4] Docter's original idea revolved around a 30-year-old man dealing with monsters (which he drew in a book as a boy) coming back to bother him as an adult. Each monster represented a fear he had, and conquering those fears caused the monsters eventually to disappear.[5]

Docter started working on the script in 1996, and with Harley Jessup, Jill Culton and Jeff Pidgeon completed a draft treatment in February 1997. However Sulley worked in the scream refinery before being changed to Monsters Inc.'s top scare producer. Also Boo was aged six, but was changed to 3 years of age, because "The younger she was, she became the more dependant on Sulley," Docter claimed.[4] The initial story did not have the character of Mike Wazowski. Mike wasn't added to the story until in April 1998, when Development Artist Ricky Nierva drew a concept sketch of Mike and everyone liked it. Jeff Pidgeon and Jason Katz story-boarded a test in which Mike was helping Sulley choose a tie for work and Mike Wazowski soon became a vital character in the movie.[4] Originally Mike had no arms, and had to use his legs as appendages, however due to technical difficulties arms were soon added.[4] Billy Crystal had been approached to play Buzz Lightyear in the original Toy Story, but turned down the offer. However once he saw Toy Story he regretted not taking the part, and when he was approached to play Mike he jumped at the offer.[4] The film went into production in 2000.[6]

One of the major breakthroughs of Monsters Inc was the simulated movement of Sulley's fur and Boo's shirt. The animators would animate the characters "Bald and Naked" and once the animation was finished a computer program aided by the Simulation Department would apply the hair and cloth onto the characters.[7] If Sulley moved the hair would react to the movement just like it would in nature. The same goes for Boo's t-shirt that would produce wrinkles in the fabric. This would save the animators from animating the three million hairs on Sullivan individually.[7]

The release of Monsters, Inc. nearly was delayed by a lawsuit brought by Lori Madrid against Pixar, Disney and Chronicle Books. The suit alleged that the defendants had stolen her story There's a Boy in My Closet, which she had mailed in October 1999 to a number of publishers, including Chronicle Books. The plaintiffs had requested a temporary injunction against the release of the film. Judge Clarence Brimmer, Jr. had a hearing on the injunction on November 1, 2001, the day before the film was to be released. He judged against the injunction, and the entire suit was thrown out on June 26, 2002.[6]

Another lawsuit by Stanley Mouse, alleged that the characters of Mike and Sulley were based on drawings he had tried to sell to Hollywood in 1998.[8]

Release

The film was originally released on November 2, 2001. After the success of the 3D re-release of The Lion King, Disney and Pixar announced a 3D re-release of Monsters Inc. for January 18, 2013.[9]

Reception

Box office

Monsters, Inc. ranked No.1 at the box office its opening weekend, grossing $62,577,067 in North America alone. The film had a small drop-off of 27.2% over its 2nd weekend, earning another $45,551,028. In its 3rd weekend the film experienced a larger decline of 50.1%, placing itself in the second position just after Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. In its 4th weekend, however, there was an increase of 5.9%. Making $24,055,001 that weekend, it is the 7th biggest (in US$) 4th weekend ever for a film.[10][11] As of September 26, 2002, the film has a total of $255,873,250 in the United States and Canada and $269,493,347 in other territories for a worldwide gross of $525,366,597.[1] The film is Pixar's sixth highest grossing movie worldwide and fifth in North America.[12]

In the UK, Ireland and Malta, it earned £37,264,502 ($53,335,579) in total, marking the 6th highest-grossing animated feature of all time in the country and the 32nd largest movie of all time.[13] In Japan, although earning $4,471,902 during its opening and ranking 2nd behind The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring for the weekend, on subsequent weekends it moved to first place due to exceptionally small decreases or even increases and dominated for six weeks at the box office. It finally reached $74,437,612, standing as the third highest-grossing film of 2002 and the third largest US animated feature of all time in the country behind Toy Story 3 and Finding Nemo.[14]

Critical reception

The film received near universal critical acclaim. Review aggregate Rotten Tomatoes reports that 95% of critics gave the film a positive review based on 164 reviews, with an average score of 7.9/10. The critical consensus was: Even though Monsters, Inc lacks the sophistication of the Toy Story series, it is a still delight for children of all ages.[15] Among Rotten Tomatoes' Cream of the Crop, which consists of popular and notable critics from the top newspapers, websites, television, and radio programs,[16] the film holds an overall approval rating of 88% based on 33 reviews.[17] Another review aggregator, Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating out of 100 top reviews from mainstream critics, calculated a score of 78 based on 34 reviews.[18]

Charles Taylor from Salon.com stated: "It's agreeable and often funny, and adults who take their kids to see it might be surprised to find themselves having a pretty good time."[19] A. O. Scott from The New York Times gave a positive review saying: "There hasn't been a film in years to use creative energy as efficiently as Monsters, Inc."[20] Mike Clark from USA Today also gave a positive review saying: "Though the comedy is sometimes more frenetic than inspired and viewer emotions are rarely touched to any notable degree, the movie is as visually inventive as its Pixar predecessors."[21] Reelviews film critic James Berardinelli, who gave the film 3 1/2 stars out of 4 wrote: "Monsters, Inc. is one of those rare family films that parents can enjoy (rather than endure) along with their kids."[22] Roger Ebert, film critic from Chicago Sun-Times, while praising the movie with 3 out of 4 stars, wrote: "Monsters, Inc. is cheerful, high-energy fun, and like the other Pixar movies, has a running supply of gags and references aimed at grownups."[23] Lisa Schwarzbaum, a film critic for Entertainment Weekly gave a B for the movie and wrote: "Everything from Pixar Animation Studios, the snazzy, cutting-edge computer animation outfit, looks really, really terrific, and unspools with a liberated, heppest-moms-and-dads-on-the-block iconoclasm."[24]

Accolades

Monsters, Inc. won the Academy Award for Best Original Song (Randy Newman, after 15 previous nominations, for If I Didn't Have You). It was one of the first animated films to be nominated for an Academy Award for Best Animated Film (lost to Shrek). It was also nominated for Best Original Score (lost to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring) and Best Sound Editing (lost to Pearl Harbor).

At the Kid's Choice Awards in 2002, it was nominated for "Favorite Voice in an Animated Movie" for Billy Crystal (who lost to Eddie Murphy in Shrek).

American Film Institute Lists
  • AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs:
    • If I Didn't Have You – Nominated[25]
  • AFI's 10 Top 10 – Nominated Animated Film[26]

Music

Monsters, Inc.
Soundtrack album by Randy Newman
Released October 23, 2001
Recorded 2000-2001
Genre Score
Length 60:30
Label Walt Disney
Pixar Soundtracks chronology
Toy Story 2
(1999)
Monsters, Inc.
(2001)
Finding Nemo
(2003)

The album was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Score and a Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media. The score lost both these awards to The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring, but after 16 nominations, the song "If I Didn't Have You" finally won Newman his first Academy Award for Best Original Song. It also won a Grammy for Best Song Written for a Motion Picture, Television or Other Visual Media.

All songs written and composed by Randy Newman

No. Title Length
1. "If I Didn't Have You" (performed by Billy Crystal and John Goodman) 3:41
2. "Monsters, Inc."   2:09
3. "School"   1:38
4. "Walk to Work"   3:29
5. "Sulley and Mike"   1:57
6. "Randall Appears"   0:49
7. "Enter the Heroes"   1:03
8. "The Scare Floor"   2:41
9. "Oh, Celia!"   1:09
10. "Boo's Adventures in Monstropolis"   6:23
11. "Boo's Tired"   1:03
12. "Putting Boo Back"   2:22
13. "Boo Escapes"   0:52
14. "Celia's Mad"   1:41
15. "Boo Is a Cube"   2:19
16. "Mike's in Trouble"   2:19
17. "The Scream Extractor"   2:12
18. "Sulley Scares Boo"   1:10
19. "Exile"   2:17
20. "Randall's Attack"   2:22
21. "The Ride of the Doors"   5:08
22. "Waternoose is Waiting"   3:14
23. "Boo's Going Home"   3:34
24. "Kitty"   1:20
25. "If I Didn't Have You" (performed by Newman) 3:38

Prequel

A sequel was officially confirmed in 2010.[27][28] The original release date of the film was November 16, 2012, but it was later changed to November 2, 2012 to avoid direct competition with The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn Part 2.[29] On April 5, 2011, it was announced that the film's release date had been pushed back to June 21, 2013 due to the success of Pixar films that are released in the summer, according to Disney distribution executive Chuck Viane. It will be the studios' fourteenth feature film. [30]

In early 2011, there were claims that Monsters, Inc. 2 was going to be a prequel which focuses on Sulley and Mike's studies at the University of Fear, where they start off as rivals but soon become best friends.[29][31] On March 29, 2011, it was confirmed that the film will indeed be a prequel and the new title Monsters University was revealed. The feature will be directed by Dan Scanlon and produced by Kori Rae.[32][33] It was also announced that John Goodman, Billy Crystal and Steve Buscemi will be reprising their roles. New voice cast includes Dave Foley, Julia Sweeney, Joel Murray and Peter Sohn.[34]

Other media

Additional short film

An animated short, Mike's New Car, was made by Pixar in 2002 in which the two main characters have assorted misadventures with a car Mike has just bought. This film was not screened in theaters, but is included with all home video releases of Monsters, Inc., and on Pixar's dedicated Shorts DVD.

Manga

A manga version of Monsters, Inc. was made by Hiromi Yamafuji and distributed in Kodansha's Comic Bon Bon magazine in Japan; the manga was published in English by Tokyopop until it went out of print.[citation needed]

Video games

A series of video games, including a multi-platform video game, was created, based on the film, such as a film adaptation, Monsters Inc., developed by A2M on PS1, PC, Game Boy Color, and GBA consoles in 2001, and later by THQ for Nintendo Gamecube in 2002.

Walt Disney's World On Ice

Feld Entertainment toured a Monsters, Inc. edition of their Walt Disney's World on Ice skating tour from 2003 to 2007.

Theme park attractions

Monsters, Inc. has inspired three attractions at Disney theme parks around the world.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "Monsters, Inc. (2001) – Box Office Mojo". http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=monstersinc.htm. 
  2. ^ "Monster's Inc. Writing Credits". IMDb. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0198781/fullcredits#writers. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  3. ^ "Rotten Tomatoes — Monsters, Inc.". Rotten Tomatoes. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/monsters_inc/. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Monsters Inc, 2002 DVD, commentary
  5. ^ Davis, Erik (November 13, 2009). "The Original Pitch for 'Monsters, Inc.'". Cinematical. http://www.cinematical.com/2009/11/13/monsters-inc-original-pitch/. Retrieved November 17, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b Price, David A. (2008). The Pixar Touch, pp. 187–196. New York, Alfred A. Knopf
  7. ^ a b 2002, Monsters Inc, DVD-Behind the Scenes
  8. ^ Shiels, Maggie (November 14, 2002). "Monsters Inc faces 'copying' lawsuit". BBC News. Archived from the original on September 1, 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5jSX0sgsG. Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  9. ^ Smith, Grady (October 4, 2011). "'Beauty and the Beast,' 'The Little Mermaid,' 'Finding Nemo,' 'Monsters, Inc.' get 3-D re-releases". Entertainment Weekly. http://insidemovies.ew.com/2011/10/04/disney-3d-beauty-beast-mermaid/. Retrieved October 27, 2011. 
  10. ^ "Monsters, Inc. – Weekend Grosses". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/movies/?page=weekend&id=monstersinc.htm. Retrieved September 4, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Top Weekends: 2nd – 12th — Weekend Grosses". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/alltime/weekends/moreweekends.htm?page=4&p=.htm. Retrieved September 4, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Pixar Movies at the Box Office". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/franchises/chart/?id=pixar.htm. Retrieved September 4, 2010. 
  13. ^ "United Kingdom and Ireland and Malta Box Office Index". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/intl/uk/. Retrieved February 17, 2011. 
  14. ^ "Japan Yearly Box Office". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/intl/japan/yearly/?yr=2002&p=.htm. Retrieved February 17, 2011. 
  15. ^ "Monsters, Inc. Movie Reviews, Pictures". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://au.rottentomatoes.com/m/monsters_inc/. Retrieved June 20, 2010. 
  16. ^ "Rotten Tomatoes FAQ: What is Cream of the Crop". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/pages/faq#creamofthecrop. Retrieved June 18, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Monsters, Inc. (Cream of the Crop)". Rotten Tomatoes. Flixster. http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/monsters_inc/?critic=creamcrop. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  18. ^ "Monsters, Inc. reviews at Metacritic.com". Metacritic. CBS Interactive. http://www.metacritic.com/movie/monsters-inc. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  19. ^ Taylor, Charles (November 2, 2001). "Monsters, Inc: The new animated feature from Pixar has too much Disney pap and not enough Gothic.". Salon.com. http://www.salon.com/entertainment/movies/review/2001/11/02/monsters_inc. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  20. ^ A. O. Scott (November 2, 2001). "Monsters of Childhood With Feelings and Agendas". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/02/movies/02MONS.html. Retrieved September 1, 2010. [dead link]
  21. ^ Clark, Mike (November 5, 2001). "'Monsters, Inc.' yields dividends". USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/life/movies/2001-11-02-monsters-inc-review.htm. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  22. ^ Berardinelli, James. "Monsters, Inc. – A movie review by James Berardinelli". Reelviews.net. http://www.reelviews.net/php_review_template.php?identifier=1547. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  23. ^ Ebert, Roger (November 2, 2001). "Monsters, Inc.". Chicago Sun-Times. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20011102/REVIEWS/111020303/1023. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  24. ^ Lisa Schwarzbaum (November 9, 2001). "Monsters, Inc.". Entertainment Weekly. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,182272,00.html. Retrieved September 1, 2010. 
  25. ^ AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs Nominees
  26. ^ AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot
  27. ^ Gray, Brandon (April 22, 2010). "'Monsters Inc. 2' Churns Out Release Date". Box Office Mojo. http://boxofficemojo.com/news/?id=2730. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  28. ^ Raup, Jordan (April 22, 2010). "Two Pixar Films Announced for 2012: 'Monsters, Inc. 2' and 'Brave'". The Film Stage. http://thefilmstage.com/2010/04/22/two-pixar-films-announced-for-2012-monsters-inc-2-and-brave/. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  29. ^ a b Fischer, Russ (August 4, 2010). "Disney Updates: Beauty and the Beast 3D Pushed; New Date for Monsters, Inc., 2; King of the Elves Being Reworked". /Film. http://www.webcitation.org/5rkyWc0tW. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  30. ^ "Monsters University Pushed to 2012". movieweb.com. April 4, 2011. http://www.movieweb.com/news/monsters-university-pushed-to-2013. Retrieved April 4, 2011. 
  31. ^ LeBlanc, Will (January 3, 2011). "Will Monsters, Inc. 2 be a prequel?". Cinema Blend. http://www.cinemablend.com/new/Will-Monsters-Inc-2-Be-A-Prequel-22431.html. Retrieved January 9, 2011. 
  32. ^ "John Lasseter Talks CARS 2, BRAVE and the Future of Pixar". Collider. http://collider.com/john-lasseter-cars-2-brave-interview/93499/. Retrieved May 29, 2011. 
  33. ^ "Pixar Short Director Dan Scanlon Set to Helm 'Monsters University'". First Showing. http://www.firstshowing.net/2011/pixar-short-director-dan-scanlon-set-to-helm-monsters-univeristy/. Retrieved April 1, 2011. 
  34. ^ Lesnick, Silas; Murphy, Matt (August 20, 2011). "D23 Expo: Director Dan Scanlon Talks Monsters University". ComingSoon. http://www.comingsoon.net/news/movienews.php?id=81296. Retrieved August 21, 2011. 

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