- Hypostasis (philosophy)
In Christian usage, the Greek word "hypostasis" (polytonic|ὑπόστᾰσις) has a complicated and sometimes confusing history, but its literal meaning is "that which stands beneath". [See Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon [http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0057:entry=%23109195] ).]
It was used by, for instance,
Aristotleand the Neoplatonists, to speak of the objective reality (as opposed to outer form or illusion) of a thing, its inner reality. In the Christian Scriptures this seems roughly its meaning at bverse|Hebrews|1:3. Allied to this was its use for "basis" or "foundation" and hence also "confidence," e.g., in Hebrews 3:14 and 11:1 and 2 Corinthians 9:4 and 11:17.
Early Christianwritings it is used to denote "being" or "substantive reality" and is not always distinguished in meaning from " ousia" (essence); it was used in this way by Tatianand Origen, and also in the anathemas appended to the Nicene Creedof 325. See also: Hypostatic union, where the term is used to describe two realities (or natures) in one person. The term has also been used and is still used in modern Greek (not just Koine Greekor common ancient Greek) to mean "existence" along with the Greek word hyparxeos.
It was mainly under the influence of the
Cappadocian Fathersthat the terminology was clarified and standardized, so that the formula "Three Hypostases in one Ousia" came to be everywhere accepted as an epitome of the orthodox doctrine of the Holy Trinity. This consensus, however, was not achieved without some confusion at first in the minds of Western theologians, who had translated "hypo-stasis" as "sub-stantia" (substance, and see also Consubstantial) and understood the Eastern Christians, when speaking of three "Hypostases" in the Godhead, to mean three "Substances," i.e. they suspected them of Tritheism. But, from the middle of the fourth century onwards the word came to be contrasted with "ousia" and used to mean "individual reality," especially in the Trinitarianand Christologicalcontexts. With regard to the doctrine of the Trinity, "hypostasis" is usually understood with a meaning akin to the Greek word "prosopon", which is translated into Latinas personaand then into English as person. The Christian view of the Trinityis often described as a view of one God existing in three distinct "hypostases/personae/persons". It should be noted that the Latin "persona" is not the same as the English "person" but is the same as the English "persona."
As proposed evidence that the idea of multiple "hypostases" is borrowed from pagan sources, nontrinitarians often cite a book "On the Holy Church", whose author is referred to as Pseudo-Anthimus, because its traditional attribution is thought to be false. Scholars now attribute the book to
Marcellus of Ancyra, a strongly anti-Arian and anti-Origenist bishop who was accused of being an apologist for a modalistic conception of God. The book contains the following declaration:
Trinitarians defend their view of multiple hypostases in the single God by the biblical passages of the
Gospel of Matthew28:19, Gospel of John20:19-23 passages called the Great Commissionwhich explicitly state it. Along with the passages of theophany. Also among other things, appealing to Jewish pneumatology(the "Spirit of God" and "Spirit of the Lord"), and angelology(the "Angel of the Lord"); a study of Jewish conceptions of the prophetic "word of the Lord" which comes to the prophets, see also Logos, and by the authority of which they declared "thus says the Lord"; the New Testament's doctrine of the identity of Christwhich developed after the resurrection, and the pattern of prayer, devotion, and theological apologetics exhibited in Early Christianity. Trinitarians acknowledge the debt to pagan philosophy for the terminology and rhetoricof Trinitarianism;  and they acknowledge that controversies in the Church have arisen on account of a transference and transformation of meaning through any term predicated of God, like "hypostasis", which is used by analogy to its prior and other meaning in philosophical paganism; but they deny that what the terminology is intended to express originates in paganism.
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